Skip to main content

Full text of "Centennial history of Summit County, Ohio and representative citizens"

See other formats








WILLIAM  fi.  DOYLE,  LL.  D. 

"History  is  Philosophy  Teaching  by  Examples" 



liEDRGE  Richmond.  Pres.  C.  R.  Arnold.  Sec'y  and  Treas. 






I  UK  aim  of  the  publishers  of  this  volume  and  of  the  author  o£  the 
history  has  been  to  secure  for  the  historical  portion  thereof 
full  and  accurate  data  respecting  the  history  of  the  county  from 
the  earliest  times,  and  to  condense  it  into  a  clear  and  interesting 
narrative.  All  topics  and  occurrences  have  been  included  that 
were  essential  to  this  object.  Although  the  original  purpose  was  to 
limit  the  narrative  to  the  close  of  1906.  it  was  found  expedient  to  touch  on  many 
matters  relating  to  the  year  1907. 

It  is  impossible  for  the  editor  to  enumerate  all  those  to  whom  he  feels  that 
thanks  are  due  for  assistance  rendered  and  kindly  interest  taken  in  this  work.  He 
would,  however,  mention  Hon.  J.  A.  Kohler,  Dr.  Samuel  Findley,  and  Aaron  Teeple, 
Esq.,  among  others,  as  those  to  whom  he  feels  under  special  obligations. 

In  the  preparation  of  the  history  reference  has  been  made  to,  and  in  some  cases 
extracts  taken  from,  standard  historical  and  other  works  on  different  subjects  herein 
treated  of.  Much  information  has  also  been  obtained  from  manuscript  records  not 
heretofore  published. 

The  reviews  of  resolute  and  strenuous  lives  which  make  up  the  biographical 
department  of  this  volume,  and  whose  authorship  is  for  the  most  part  independent 
of  that  of  the  history,  are  admirably  calculated  to  foster  local  ties,  to  inculcate 
patriotism,  and  to  emphasize  the  rewards  of  industry  dominated  by  intelligent  pur- 
pose. They  constitute  a  most  appropriate  medium  of  perpetuating  personal  annals, 
and  will  be  of  incalculable  value  to  the  descendants  of  those  commemorated.  These 
sketches,  replete  with  stirring  incidents  and  intense  experiences,  are  flavored  with  a 
strong  human  interest  that  will  naturally  prove  to  a  large  portion  of  the  readers  of 
this  book  its  most  attractive  feature. 

In  the  aggregate  of  personal  memoirs  thus  coUated  will  be  found  a  vivid  epitome 
of  the  growth  of  Summit  County,  which  will  fitly  supplement  the  historical  statement, 
for  the  development  is  identified  with  that  of  the  men  and  women  to  whom  it  is  attrib- 
utable. The  publishers  have  endeavored  to  pass  over  no  feature  of  the  work  slight- 
ingly, but  to  fittingly  supplement  the  editor's  labors  by  exercising  care  over  the 
minutest  details  of  publication,  and  thus  give  to  the  volume  the  three-fold  value  of  a 
readable  narrative,  a  useful  work  of  reference,  and  a  tasteful  ornament  to  the  library. 
We  believe  the  result  has  justified  the  care  thus  exercised. 

Special  prominence  has  been  given  to  the  portraits  of  representative  citizens 
which  appear  throughout  the  volume,  and  we  believe  that  they  will  prove  not  its  least 
interesting  feature.  We  have  sought  in  this  department  to  illustrate  the  different 
spheres  of  industrial  and  professional  achievement  as  conspicuously  as  possible.  To 
all  those  who  have  kindly  interested  themselves  in  the  successful  preparation  of  this 
work,  and  who  have  voluntarily  contributed  most  useful  information  and  data,  or 
rendered  other  assistance,  we  hereby  tender  our  grateful  acknowledgments. 


Chicago,  III.,  January,  1908. 


All  the  biographical  sketches  published  in  this  volume  were 
submitted  to  their  respective  subjects  or  to  the  subscribers,  from 
whom  the  facts  were  primarily  obtained,  for  their  approval  or  cor- 
rection before  going  to  press;  and  a  reasonable  time  was  allowed  in 
each  case  for  the  return  of  the  typewritten  copies.  Mo'^t  of  them 
were  returned  to  us  within  the  time  allotted,  or  before  the  work  was 
printed,  after  being  corrected  or  revised;  and  these  may  therefore  be 
regarded  as  reasonably  accurate. 

A  few,  however,  were  not  returned  to  us  ;  and  as  we  have  no 
means  of  knowing  whether  they  contain  errors  or  not,  we  cannot 
vouch  for  their  accuracy.  In  justice  to  our  readers,  and  to  render 
this  work  more  valuable  for  reference  purposes,  we  have  indicated 
these  uncorrected  sketches  by  a  small  asterisk  (*),  placed  imme- 
diately after  the  name  of  the  subject.  They  will  all  be  found  on 
the  last  pages  of  the  book. 




Topography  axd  Geology oj 

Description  of  the  Physical  Features  of  the  County — Its  Economic  Geology — The  Soil;  Its  Drainage  and 
Fertility — Coal — Gas — Oil. 


Settlement  and  Organization  of  Summit  County 29 

Pioneer  Conditions— Indian  Trading— Wild  Game— Home-Made  Garments— Pioneer  Hospitality— Social 
Amusements — First  Published  Description  of  Summit  County — Making  of  Summit  County — Western 
Reserve— Organization  of  the  County— County  Scat  Selected — County  Seat  Contests— Adams'  Reception- 
Territorial  Changes. 


County  and  Other  Owici als 47 

A  Roster  of  Officials  from  the  Organization  of  the  County  Down  to  1907. 


Akron — The  County  Se.\t 56 

Introductory — Economic  Causes  and  Growth  of  Akron — Its  Settlement  and  History — Public  Improvements — 
Akron  an  Incorporated  Town — City  Government — Mercantile  Akron — Fire  and  Police  Departments — Riot 
of  1900 — .\ftermath  of  the  Riot. 


Townships  and  Towns 101 

Settlement  and  Organization  of  the  Townships — Settlement  and  Founding  of  the  Towns — Sketches  of 
Barberton,    Cuyahoga   Fall,?,    Hudson,    Tallmadge,   Peninsula,   Etc. 

Public  Institutions    1-3 

Agriculture '30 


Transportation  Facilities    HO 

Steam  and  Electric  Railroads— The  Ohio  Canal— The   Ohio  and    I'eniisv  l\  ani.i   Canal. 

12  .  CONTENTS 


Manufactures  147 

The  County's  Chief  Manufacturing  Establishments  of    the    Past    and    of    the    Present — Clay    Products — 
Cereal  Mills — Agricultural  Implements — The  Rubber  Industry — Printing  and  Publishing.  Etc. 


Banks  and  Banking 168 

History  of  the  Banks  of  Summit  County — Banks  Inadequate — Akron's     Financial     Reputation — Akron     a 
Large   Borrower — Panic   of   1904 — Clearing  House  Statement — Future  Prosperity  Certain. 

The  Public  Schools 173 

History  of  Buchtel  College 202 


Religious  Development   219 

First  Churches  and   Pioneer  Clergy — General   History  of   Religious   Organizations — Churches   and   Clergy 
of  To-day. 

The  Press  224 


Greatness  Achieved  by  Sum mit  County  Sons 231 

John  Brown — Edward  Rowland  Sill. 


Military  History  239 

Revolutionary  War — War  of  1S12 — Mexican  War — War  of  the  Rebellion — Militia  Organizations — Spanish- 
American  War. 

Fraternal  Organizations  247 

The  Medical  Profession  253 


The  Bench  and  Bar 261 

Early  History  —The  Present  Bar  and  Its  High  Standing. 


Statistics : 319 

Biographical  303 




Abele,  John 970 

Adams,  F.  H 1112 

Adams,  Francis  X.,  M.D 916 

Adamson,  A 393 

Adamson,  C.  F 964 

Adler,  Jacob 394 

Akers,   Alfred 495 

Akers,  Charles  E 3SU 

Alexander,  Hon.  J.   Park....    361 

Allen,  I.  F 598 

Allen,  Albert 764 

Allen,   Andrew    H 805 

Allen,   Arthur   M 408 

Allen,   George   G 318 

Allen,  Jesse 391 

Allen,  Miner  Jesse 391 

Allen,    Levi 391 

Allen,    Levi 678 

Allen,   Robert   II 408 

Allen.   W.   G 633 

Ailing.   Williston 450 

Ammerman.    Lharles 297 

Andress,    H.    E 285 

Andrews,  J.   H 518 

Armstrong,  R.  E 336 

Arnold,  John  D 543 

Atterholt,   Frank   M 267 

Auble,   A.,    Jr 980 

Aultman    Brothers 851 

Aultman,    George   W 851 

Aultman,  William  J 851 

Averill,    Frank    E 605 

Avcrill.    William    F 758 

Babb,    George    W 622 

Babcock,    Austin 681 

Bachtel,    A.    C 505 

Baird,    Charles 270 

Baldwin,    Harvey 347 

Baldwin.  Joseph  A 386 

Bales,    Frank   S 953 

Barber,    George 765 

Barber,  Ohio   C 765 

Barder,  B.  R .' 410 

Barker,   Jared : 637 

Barker,    Lanson 618 

Barker,    William 618 

Barker,  William   P 534 


Barnett.   William 335 

Bartges,   Dr.    Samuel    W 255 

Bartlett,    John    S 1110 

Bates,   George  D 358 

Bauer,   Daniel 1063 

Bauer,  Frederick  J.,  ALD....   579 

Bauer,    Howard    A 550 

Bauer,  Jonas 675 

Bauer,  Joseph  D 1062 

Bauer,   William   D 1061 

Baughman,  John 701 

Baughman,  Reuben   B 701 

Baum   Family 1067 

Baum.   James    M 1068 

Baum,  O.  W 501 

Baum,    Thomas 1067 

Beardsley,   Talman 594 

Beck,  J.   Martin 407 

Beese,    John 961 

Bennage,  A.   W 833 

Bennage,   Jacob 995 

Bennage,    Jacob    W 994 

Benner,   Charles    C 275 

Benner,  Joseph   S 406 

Berger,  Capt.  D.  F 938 

Berger,  John  H 933 

Bernard,   Charles   B 266 

Betzler,  J.  F 577 

Bierce,  Lucius   V 831 

Bierce,   Gen.   Lucius   V 263 

Bienz.    Peter 400 

Bill,  Albert  H.,  M.D 1036 

Billow.  Capt.  George 339 

Billow,  George  V 1114 

Bisbee,   George  A 643 

Bishop,    Charles   E 888 

Bishop,    George    T 861 

Bishop,    Zephaniah 88t> 

Blackburn,  Harry  F 76S 

Blackburn,    John 976 

Blackburn,    Thomas 863 

Blackburn,    William 076 

Blackwell,    Henry 1006 

Blessman.  August 1047 

Bliler,    Daniel 990 

Bliler,    Joel 990 

Bliler,    William    H. 990 

Bliss.   Ambrose   W 717 


Bliss,    George 263 

Bliss,  Lorin 717 

Bloomfield.   Col.   John   C 405 

Boesche,    W.   A 341 

Bolanz,  H.  Frederick 932 

Boltz,    Charles 864 

Boltz,    Peter    W 864 

Borst,  C.  H 371 

Botzum,    Capt.    Adam 836 

Botzum,  George  A 734 

Bouton,     Charles 768 

Bowen,   Dr.    William 255 

Bower.  William  H 474 

Boyd.  James  P.,  M.D 986 

Bradley,    Charles 3S6 

Bradley,    George    H 945 

Bradley,    James 944 

Brady,  John  W 673 

Brandau,  H.  G 335 

Braucher,   Daniel   R 753 

Breen,  James  P 756 

Breitenstine.    John 949 

Brewster,    Albert    J 995 

Brewster   Familv 419 

Brewster,    Haye's    W 348 

Brewster,   Hiram 348 

Brewster,  James    G 349,  430 

Brewster,   Stephen 349,  419 

Briggs,    C.    Lee 584 

Brittain,    John 654 

Brittain,    John    G 663 

Brittain,  John   T 654 

Brooks,  Andrew  T 501 

Broun,    James    W 757 

Broun,   Rev.  John   B 521 

Brouse,   Cornelius   A 406 

Brown,    Josiah 737 

Bruner,   C.   1 506 

Brunswick,    William    F 500 

Bryan,    Constant 366 

Buchtel,  John 996 

Buchtel,    Hon.    William 398 

Buetch.    Ernest   C 954 

Burkhardt,    G.    F 402 

Burroughs,    Allen 64* 

Burroughs,    Levi 644 

Butler,    Frank 834 

Butler,    F.    W 1006 




Calu.w,    Danic-l    H 105+ 

Cahow,    -Milo «S4 

Cahow,    Robert 0S4 

Caldwell,   Abncr  L S47 

Call,   Charles  A 054 

Camp,    Horace    B -^lO 

Camp,   H.   H 518 

Camp,  L.  W b*^ 

Campbell,  John  B 8^4 

Campbell,    J.    R 909 

Campfield,  William   L 449 

Canfield,  Horace  G ''78 

Capron,    Alfred 521 

Carkhuff,    Stacy    G 483 

Carmany,    Isaac 5SG 

Carmanv,  Webster  F 586 

Carpenter,    Abraham o3o 

Carpenter,  A.   Lincoln 633 

Carpenter,   James   S 263 

Carper,    George 615 

Carper,   Samuel   S 61-> 

Carr,  Charles  B.,  M.D IIOS 

Carter,  Charles  A 96(' 

Carter,    Edwin    H 550 

Carter,    Joseph    B S95 

Carter.    William 966 

Case,  James  H 1059 

Cassidy,  Frank  D 3iti 

Castle,    H.    F 298 

Castle,   L.   D ^01 

Chaffee,    Comfort    J 551 

Chalker,  James,   Jr 1091 

Chalker,    Newton 300,  1090 

Chamberlain,  William   1 937 

Chamberlin,     Horace 798 

Chamberlin,    Z.    F '!'98 

Chapman,    C.    l' 1035 

Chapman,    John 667 

Chapman,  John  L 666 

Chase,   Dr.    Byron    S 255 

Christy,  James 430 

Christy,    Will 523 

Church,  Rev.  A.   B 569 

Clapper,   Jacob 616 

Clapper,    John    VV 616 

Clark,  Benjamin  F 796 

Cleaver,   J.   V.,    M.D 653 

Clerkin,   William 965 

Click,   Samuel   A 943 

Coates,   Edward SOS 

Cobbs,   Charles    S 293 

Coburn.   Dr.   Stephen  H 254 

Cochrane,   Harry   A "i't 

Coffman,    Matthias 935 

Cofifman,  Samuel 935 

Cole,  Dr.  Arthur  M .523 

Cole,    Dr.    Joseph 254 

Columbia  Chemical  Company  590 

Commins,   Alexander   H 28S 

Commins,  Alexander   H 516 

Comstock,    Allen 1035 

Comstock,   John   L 1035 

Conaghan,   C.   Charles 556 

Conaghan,  Charles  C 556 

Conger,  Col.  Arthur  L 495 

Conn,  Hon.    Eli 701 

Converse,  Chauncey •.  .   472 


Converse,     I'rank    J 472 

Conway,    James 1001 

Conway,     Michael 1001 

Cooke,    F.    M 1085 

Cooke.  Joseph 430 

Cooper,    Joseph 583 

Cooper,    Samuel 527 

Cooper,    WiUiam 469 

Cormany,    Frank 914 

Courtney,  Joseph 461 

Cpwen,  Jsaac  Sheldon 453 

Cowen.    John 453 

Cowling,   George   H 586 

Cox,    Edward    D 1103 

Cranz,    Eugene    F 1016 

Crisp,   George 741 

Crisp,    John 712 

Crisp,   John   and   Son 1068 

Crosby,    Dr.    Eliakim 253 

Cross,  James   B 643 

Crouse,  Hon.  George  W 353 

Crumb,    Clarence   D 617 

Cunningham,  Sylvester  T 445 

Dallmga.    Jacob 746 

Dallinga,   Richard  J 746 

Dangel.    Joseph 609 

Davidson,  Harry  S.,  M.D 443 

Davidson,   J.   M 577 

Davis,  Hon.  Charles  A 558 

Davis.   George   S 378 

Day,    E.    S 813 

Deacon,    Horace    L 865 

Decker,    Seney    A 273 

Deeds,    Philip    F 1060 

Deeds,  Reed 1060 

Deibel,    Ernest    C 441 

Dellenberger.  John  H 379 

Dice.    Jeremiah 782 

Dice.  John    F 1113 

Dice,   William   A 783 

Dick,    Gen.    Charles 1077 

Dickinson,    Alexander 1003 

Dickinson.  George   W 1003 

Diehl.  Clarence  E 1084 

Dietrich.   A.   J . . . .' 638 

Dictz,   G.    Carl 445 

Dixon,    Charles    A..    M.D....    797 

Dobson.  Russell  T 726 

Dodge,  Burdettt  L 984 

Dodge.    William    M 268 

Donaldson,   G.   C 803 

Doncaster,    Burt 865 

Dox,   Clinton  A 415 

Dox,  James   Alonzo 414 

Doyle.  Hon.  Dayton  A 318 

Doyle,  Peter  W 1074 

Doyle.   Hon.    William  B 276 

Dreisbach.    Charles 544 

]:)rcisbach.    George 544 

Duncan,  Adam 880 

Duncan,  R.  H 880 

Durstine,  Albert  G 7S5 

Ebright.  Hon.  Leonidas  S...    369 
Edgerton,  Hon.  Sidney 365 


Ellsworth,   Fred  T 40U 

Emerman,   H.  J 834 

Emery,  William  J.,  M.D 333 

Emmett,   J.    Ira 715 

Enright,   J.   T 491 

Essig,    John    A 876 

Essig.  John  W 876 

Etling,    William    E 566 

Ewart.   Charles   C 693 

Ewart.    John 093 

Ewart.    John 524 

Ewart,    Perry    G 524 

Farnbauch.   J.     S 748 

Farris,   William   J 928 

Fenn,   Florenzo  F 1033 

Fenn,  Nelson   W 653 

Fenn,   Treat 632 

Fenton,  Almus 621 

Fenton,    Curtis 621 

Fergusson,  David  R 733 

Fergusson,  Dr.  J.  C 621 

Fette,    Albert 956 

Feudner,   J.   J 516 

Fillius,  Hon.   Ernest   L 1105 

Fillius,   Philip 1105 

Firestone,    Harvey   S 333 

Firestone.  T.   L 816 

Fisher,     Cornelius 429 

Fisher,  James  Albert 439 

Fisher,   John    T 831 

Fitch,    Willard    N 1113 

Flower,   James    T SSI 

Folger,  Walter  A 953 

Foltz,  Abner    E 1071 

Force,  L.   K 543 

Foster,  Coulson  M 868 

Foster    Family 1031 

Foster,  Edwin  F 999 

Foster,  L.   R 1031 

Foster,  Lyman 1031 

Foster,     Pardon 999 

Foster.  Tod   C 999 

Fouse.   Frederick 896 

Fouse.    John    M 895 

Foust,  George  W 1084 

Fowler,  Clyde  K 433 

Fowler,   Seymour   S 432 

Frain,   C.   P 406 

Frank,  John  C. 278 

Frank.  John   W 773 

Frank.   Julius 1103 

Franklin,  C.  F 553 

Franklin,   Walter   A 333 

Frase,  John 334 

Erase,  John   A 600 

Frase,    Noah 600 

Frase,   Orrin 6S6 

Frase,   Peter   M 334 

Frederick,    Henry 335 

Frederick,   Jacob 336 

Frederick,    Jacob 10S9 

Frederick,    Samuel 1089 

Frederick,  U.   G 357 

Fritch,  Elue  0 441 

Fryman,    Joel 903 

Fryman,  Wiliam  Jacob......   903 




Fuclis.    F.    William 477 

Fulmer,  Adam  J 72.) 

Fiilmer,    Jacob Sf)4 

Fulmer,   Kent   A 864 

Gammeter,    Emil 993 

Gardner,   G.    E S74 

Garman,    Benjamin 843 

Garman,   Jerry  J 878 

Garman,    Jacob 87S 

Garman,   Urias 842 

Gates,    Henry 548 

Gates,    Robert    C 548 

Gault,   Elmer  A 691 

Gauthier,    John    W 754 

Gaylord,   Charles    X 801 

Gaylord,    Jonathan 801 

Gaylord,    Leonard    E 934 

Gehree,  J.  A . .  ^ 676 

Gibbs,    Henry   A 875 

Gibbs,    H.    H 875 

Gifford,  B.  J 545 

Goldsmith,    Solomon    M 514 

Gonder,    Gregory   J 702 

Good,  J.  Edward 946 

Goodhue,  Hon.  Nathaniel  VV.  265 

Goodman,   F.   B 7S5 

Goodrich,   Dr.   Benjamin   p..  1009 

Goodrich,   Charles    C 1010 

Gougler,     Ami    C S77 

Gougler,    Calvin 515 

Gougler,  Daniel 515 

Gougler,    Soweras 1111 

Grafton,   George   P 327 

Grant,  Hon.  C.  R 314 

Greenbaum,    A.    b 673 

Green,    E.    P 267 

Greenberger,    X.    M 287 

Grether,    George 1041 

Grill,    John 787 

Grill,    John 787 

Grose,    Emsley   0 754 

Grubb,  Earl  James 793 

Hague,  William   R 706 

Hale,    Andrew 463 

Hale,  Hon.  Charles  0 993 

Hale,  John   P 463 

Hale,  Jonathan 847 

Hale,   Thomas 655 

Hall,  Philander  D 747 

Hall,   Philander    D..   Jr 904 

Hall,    Lorenzo 747 

Halter,    Lawrence 763 

Hamlin.    Ray    F 284 

Hammond,   Rolland   0 268 

Hanawalt,  D.  R 358 

Hankey,    David 506 

Hankey,  John   F 735 

Hankey,    Samuel 506 

Hankey,    Samuel 735 

Hanson,    Charles    E 824 

Hanson,   Richard 824 

Harbaugh,  B.  F 798 

Hardy,  Charles  D 8S6 

Hardy,    Xathaniel 1108 

Hardy.   Xorton   R SS6 


Hardy,    Perry   D 1108 

Hagelbarger,     Henry    M 304 

Haring,   Charles   A 527 

Haring,    Daniel 527 

Haring,     Louis 876 

Haring,   Samuel 876 

Harold,  Harry  W 814 

Harpham,   Fred   M 499 

Harpham,    William 499 

Harrington,  Albert  C 973 

Harrington,   Frederick   L....   974 
Harrington,   Capt.   Gurden  P.  887 

Harrington,   Job 973 

Hart,    Benjamin 657 

Hart,   George   W 593 

Hart,    Ira    L 703 

Hart,   Col.  John   C 593 

Harter,   Daniel 415 

Harter,    Jeremiah 647 

Harter,   Jesse 620 

Harter,    John 647 

Harter,    Oliver ". .   647 

Harter,   Otto   N 851 

Hatch,    Charles 53D 

Haupt,    Howard    W 605 

Haupt,    William    F 778 

Haver,   William   H 415 

Hawk    Daniel 646 

Hawk,    Philip 647 

Hawk,    Michael 574 

Hawkins,  A.    Wesley 431 

Hawkins,    Eber 1101 

Hawkins,    Eugene    A 903 

Hawkins,   George  W 963 

Hawkins,  J.  Horace 493 

Hawkins,   Nelson   C 431 

Hays,  K.  H 333 

Heer,    George 1107 

Heintz,    George 891 

Heintz,  George  P 540 

Heintz,    Philip   J 867 

Held,  Charles   E.,   M.D 757 

Heifer,  George   H 1106 

Heifer,    William 1107 

Heller,  Charles   P 1065 

Helmstedter,    George 393 

Heminger,    M.    C 975 

Hemington,    J.    F 1002 

Hemphill,  James  R 326 

Henry,    Albert    R 704 

Henry,    Charles 513 

Henry,  Hiram  C 656 

Herberich,   Charles 432 

Herbruck,   John    C 960 

Herbruck.    Philip 960 

Herman,   Jacob 618 

Hess,    Rosseau 05S 

Hiddleson,   C.   S.,   -M.D 632 

High,  U.   G 631 

Hill,   Brace  P 706 

Hill,    David    E 1062 

Hill,    George    R 1068 

Hill,    Joseph 931 

Hill,    Joseph    C 464 

Hiltabidle,     Capt.   W.    iL...10,-.6 

Himelright,   Alton 962 

Himelright.  Jacob 902 


Hine,  H.   A 429 

Hitchcock,    Dr.    Elizur 355 

Hoertz,  John  M 651 

Hoffman,  Allen  F 1077 

Hoffman,    Benjamin    F 632 

Hoffman,    George    P 1006 

Hoffman,     Philip 632 

Holibaugh,    Daniel 848 

Hollinger,   David  D . . '. 990 

Hollinger,    Jacob 991 

Hollinger,  Walter  C 674 

Holub,    Max 399 

Holzhauer,   Lewis 979 

Hopkins,    Roswell 677 

Horn,  James  W 965 

Horn.   Stephen    h 963 

Horn,    Stephen    j 963 

Horner,    La    Fayette    H 959 

Hough,  Wayland  S.,   M.D...   994 

Houriet.    Floriant 1037 

Houriet,   Ulysses' 1037 

Housel,    Ernest    C' 270 

Howard,  Dr.  Elias  W 254 

Howe,    Henry   W 369 

Howe,   Henrv  Willett 1030 

Howe,    Richard 1031 

Hower,    Harvey    Y 414 

Hower,  John  H 413 

Hower.  Milton  Otis 692 

Howland,  Clarence 725 

Hoye,  Michael   W 491 

Huber,  P.  C 1102 

Huddilston,   Adam 458 

Humphrey,    Calvin    P 267 

Humphrey,   C.   M.,  M.D 991 

Humphrey,  Van  R 262 

Hunsicker,    Fred 763 

Hunsicker,    Horace 765 

Hunsicker,  John  Jacob 763 

Hunt,    W.    H 651 

Hyde,   J.    Grant 388 

Ingersull,    Henry    W 26S 

Innian,  Charles  T 4S4 

Inwood,    W.    A 423 

Iredell,  R.   S. 753 

Irish,  William   P 939 

Jacobs,  Hon.  Thomas  K....  377 
Jacobs,  William  Cloyd,  M.D.  377. 

Jacobs,  Dr.   William  C 35S 

Jahant,  A.  P 881 

Jaite,   Charles   H 463 

Jaquith,    Charles    W 1048 

Jaquith,  William   Henry 1048 

Jewett,    Dr.    Mendal 254 

Jockers,  William   A 995 

Johnson,    Charles   S 530 

Johnston,   Cornelius    A 625 

Johnston,  John    Moore 969 

Johnston,    Wiliam 625 

Jones,   Gomar 976 

Tones.   John    D 975 

Joy,  Harold   E 754 

Kasch.   G.    F 343 

Kauffman,   John 1083 




Kauffman,  L.  M 1083 

Kauffnian,    William 108j 

Keenan,   W.   C 73S 

Keller    Brick    Company 807 

Keller,    William    F 807 

Keller,  W.  L.,  M.D 763 

Kemery,    John 860 

Kempel,    C.    A 885 

Kempel,   Hon.  Charles  W...1103 

Kempel,    John    A 756 

Kendall,    Joseph 844 

Kendig,   D.   W 842 

Kent,    Roswell 1033 

Kent,    Russell     H 1032 

Kepler,  Adam 985 

Kepler,    Houston 509 

Kepler,  Jacob 509 

Kepler,  Jacob   A 784 

Kepler,    S.    A B06 

Kepler,    Solomon 7S4 

Kile,   Salem 1029 

King.   John   W 560 

Klein,  Johii 745 

Kline,  Clint  W 897  • 

Knapp.    Nicholas 837 

Koch,   Jacob 383 

Kohler,  Albert  A..  Al.D 999 

Kohler,    George    C 269 

Kohler,   Hon.  Jacob   A 304 

Koonse.    Henry 687 

Koonse,  William 686 

Koplin,    Christian 340 

Koplin,    L.    C 684 

Koplin.  Solomon .'  340 

Kreighbaugh,  Hiram  F 673 

Kreighbaum,   Andrew   J 290 

Kreighbaum.  Johnston   B....    396 

Krisher.    Jacob    J 045 

Kuhlke.   M.   D 479 

Kuhlke.    Frederick 804 

Kuhn,   Luther   A 712 

Ladd,   Hon.   Charles   G 313 

Laffer.   James   M 453 

Lahmers.    F..    M.D 594 

Lahr,    Charles    H 344 

Lahr,    John 674 

Lahr,    William    H 674 

Lance,    George 1026 

Lance,  George  E 1035 

Lance,   Harvey 1036 

Lane,   Chauncey   B 1071 

Lapp.    Jacob 833 

Laubach.  Edward  P 1104 

Laubach.  William  F 913 

Lauby,    Jacob S84 

Lawton,    E.    A 773 

Leeser,  Levi   M 841 

Leeser,    Peter ,s-Sl 

Leiby,    Isaac 905 

Lepper,  John  A 5.11 

Lepper,  Peter 531 

Leser,  Edward  W 735 

Levy,     C.     D 471 

Limbach,   Martin.   Jr 1(IS5 

Limbert,  Hiram  W 5u3 

Limric.  John 517 

Livermore,  F.  B.,  M.D 854 

Lodge,  George  H 792 

Lodge,  Ralph   H 940 

Lodge,  William  R 950 

Lodwick,    A.    R 855 

Loeb,    Louis 598 

Lombard,    Nathaniel 384 

Long,  David  C 766 

Long,    Homer    G.,    M.D 483 

Long,   Mahlon   S 786 

Long,  W.  H 983 

Looker,  J.  B 328 

Loomis,  Byron  H 815 

Loomis,  Frank  Fowler 1096 

Loomis  Hardware  Co 814 

Loomis,   Harry   E 928 

Loomis,   Irving  L 815 

Loomis,   L.   W 814 

Ludwick,  Simon  P 783 

Lusk,  Alfred   G 444 

Lutz,    Charles    G 1041 

Lyder,  Dr.  John   W 358 

Lyman,  A.  E 964 

Lyon.    O.    G 479 

Lvons.    James 816 

McAllister    Brothers 554 

McCaman,    Elihu 900 

McCaman,    Elmer   1 900 

McCausland    Brothers 848 

McCausland,  James  C 848 

McCausland.  John  J 848 

McChesney,  Edward  A 1044 

McChesncy,   Frederick    VV...1090 

McChesney,    John 545 

McChesney,    William 545 

McChesney,  William    H 545 

McClellan,    Robert    A 546 

McClellan,  William  A 881 

McClure.  Samuel  W 264 

McColgan,  David  A 567 

McConnell,  George  A 463 

McConnell,    Isaac    S 614 

McCourt.   P.  T 944 

McCov,   George    W 541 

McCoy.    Robert 541 

McDowell.  John  W 970 

McEbright,    Dr.   Thomas 355 

McFarland,  William  P 341 

McFarlin,    William 388 

McGarrv.  Daniel   837 

McGowan.   S.    C 1041 

Mcintosh.   W.   W 453 

McKinney,  Hon.  Henry 364 

McKisson.  Alfred  E. . ." 1004 

McKisson.   Arthur    1004 

McNamara.   Hon.   James 510 

McNamara.  Hon.  John 431 

McNiece.    Leonard 458 

McShaffrey,   Edward 636 

McShaff rev.   Thomas   E 636 

Maag.   George    1054 

Mackev,    James 981 

Macke'v.  John  P 1073 

Mahaffv.  J.  A 3." 

Mahar.   Rev.   T.   F 433 


Major,  Col.  Thomas  E 607 

Major,  Rev.  Thomas 607 

Mallison,    Albert    G 334 

Mallison,  Albert  H 436 

Malony,  Frank  T 430 

Mansfield,  William  A.,  M.  D..  855 

Manton,   H.  B 875 

Manton,  Irvin  R 899 

Marks,  A.   H 773 

Marshall.  Willis  G 898 

Marsh,    Harvev   A 687 

Marsh,  Frank  'G 277 

Marsh,    Samuel    C 688 

Martin,    William    E 1042 

Marvin,   David   L 268 

Marvin,  Hon.  Ulysses 269 

Mason,   F.   H 815 

May,   Louis  R 835 

May,    R.    A ". . . .  791 

Mell,    Joseph    R 1043 

Memmer,   John    1104 

Mentzer.  Alexander 724 

Mentzer,  John  F 724 

Merrill.    Edwin    H 989 

Merrill.    H.    E 989 

Merriman,   Charles.   M.   D 843 

Merriman,   Scott  H 844 

Merriman.    Wells    844 

Mertz.    John    T 416 

Metzler.   David   A 421 

Metzler.  William  M 767 

Middleton.    Jesse    813 

Middleton.  Ward  B 813 

Middleton.   William   H 856 

Miles.   Lucius   C 826 

Miller,    August    C 972 

Miller,    Charles    C ■. 493 

Miller.    Charles    N 547 

Miller.    Cvrus     733 

Miller.    Edward    B 379 

Miller.   Frank   F 973 

Miller,  Frank  H 708 

Miller.    George    348 

Miller.  John  F 347 

Miller.  Jonas  F 4S4 

Miller.   Lewis 331 

Miller.   Lewis   A 507 

Miller,  Lute  H 492 

Miller.    Perrv    R 733 

Miller.   Stephen   C 297 

Miller.    Col.    Stewart 363 

Miller.   Uriah   A 484 

Miller.    Warren 478 

Miller.  William   478 

Miller.    William   F 867 

Mills.   Harry  B 824 

Milliken.    C.    W 1096 

Mills,    Ithel 824 

Moon.    H.    G 682 

Moore,    Arthur    A 600 

Moore.   C.   W 585 

Moore.    Tohn    A 401 

Moore,  McConnell    1013 

Moore.    Miller    G 1062 

Moore.    Orison    M 728 

Moore.   Ralph    1014 

Moore.  Richard   L 451 



Moore,    Samuel    L 7:u 

Moore,    William    451 

Morgan,   Charles  R 473 

Morgan,    Crannell    953 

Morris,  Mordecai  J 1079 

Morriss,   Aaron 731 

Morse,    Nathan    318 

Morton,    C.    H 566 

Morton,  William  A 543 

Mottinger,  Arthur  S 270 

Motz,    John 483 

Munn    Brothers 696 

Miinn,   Abram   C 696 

Munn.  Amos  R 696 

Munn,    Hiram 696 

Myers,  Alpheus    585 

Myers,  Harvey  A 585 

Myers,    Henry 872 

Myers,  I.  S S73 

Myers,    Joel 606 

Myers,    Samuel 606 

Nash,    Hophni 921 

Nash.   Capt.   Sumner 921 

Neale,   A,   S 707 

Neale.    John 708 

Nerhood,  Amos 560 

Nerhood,    Isaac 559 

Nesbit,    Alexander 502 

Neuman.  M.   M 505 

Noah.    A.    H 788 

Noland.    James    D 1020 

Noland.    James    P 1020 

Nolle.    Frank    508 

Olin.   Alonzo   B 575 

Olin.   John   G 575 

Olin.     Samuel 575 

O'Marr.  Daniel    675 

O'Neil,    M 410 

O'Neil,   William   J 392 

Oplinger,  Augustus  O 1009 

Orr,    James    W S82 

Otis,  Edward  P 389 

Otis,    Ellsworth    E 289 

Oviatt,   Benjamin 863 

Oviatt,  Edward   268 

Oviatt,    L.    H 863 

Oviatt,  Loran   L 507 

Palmer,  C.  H 898 

Palmer,    Ebenezer    982 

Palmer,  J.  Dwight 1111 

Palmer,    Josiah    795 

Palmer.  Lewis  S 795 

Palmer.  Richard  F 781 

Palmer,   William  N 578 

Parker,  David  L 1011 

Parker,  T.   M.,   Sr 1072 

Parks,   Charles  T 771 

Paul.  A.  J 614 

Paul.   Edward  W 604 

Paul.  George 681 

Paul,  Robert   S 603 

Paul,  T.  Dwight 812 

Paulus.   James    B 822 


Payne,    John    W 900 

Peck.  Edward  R SIS 

Peebles.   Robert   R 441 

Perkins,    Charles   E ,1110 

Perkins,    Col.    George    T !l0]9 

Perkins,   Col.    Simon 325 

Perkins,  Gen.  Simon 327 

Peterson,  Dr.  James  H 258 

Petersen  A 505 

Pettitt,   Charles    845 

Petlitt.    Nathaniel 845 

Pettitt,   Willis   E 454 

Pfeiffer,   Frank 573 

Pfeiffer,    Frederick 573 

Pflueger,   Ernest    A 486 

Pflueger,  George  .\ 735 

Pflueger,  J.   E 354 

Plumer,   George   W 841 

Polsky,    A..; 465 

Post.   Frederick   R 983 

Post,    William   M 983 

Poulson,  James   M 271 

Powell,   William   J 1066 

Priest,  Rev.  Ira  A 454 

Prickett,  Samuel   H 703 

Prior.   Emory   A 304 

Prior.   Frank   S 462 

Prior.    Henry    W 295 

Prior.    Simeon 305 

Prior.    William 295 

Putterill    Brothers 405 

Putterill,   Edward   405 

Putterill,   Thomas 405 

Quinc.  C.  R 794 

Rabe,  James  W.,  M.  D 755 

Rankin.  George  T..  Jr.^M.  D...45n 

Rankin.  Irving  C,  M.  D 899 

Rannev.  Jake  L 694 

Ranney.  Luther  K 827 

Rannev.    Moses    694 

Rattle.'  William 446 

Rattle.  William  J 446 

Rawson.  Levi    972 

Raymond.    C.    B 793 

Read.    Matthew    C 373 

Reagle.  Daniel    986 

Reagle,  Jacob  A 986 

Ream.   Capt.  Frederick  K 952 

Reed.  Frank  C,  M.  D 408 

Reed.    Hiram 400 

Renner.  George  J 438 

Replogle.   Mark  A 480 

Rhodes.   Thomas 1065 

Richey.  Andrew  F 713 

Richey,   Andrew  K 538 

Richey,   Jacob  F.  J 528 

Richey.   Thomas 528 

Ries.    Frederick 721 

Ritchie.   George   G 817 

Ritchie.  Thomas  P 817 

Roach.   Albert  E 773 

Robinson.   B.   W 1012 

Robinson.  Elmer 857 

Robinson.  Henry   992 

Robinson.   Leonard 787 

r.      ■  r.\i;E 

Robmson.    Robert S57 

Rockwell.    F.   J 270 

Rockwell.   F.    W 376 

Rodd,  Robert  J 641 

Rodd,    William    J 641 

Rodenbaugh,    .Abraham 385 

Rodenbaugh,  Bert,  M.  D 1113 

Rodenbaugh,  Norman  F.,  M.  D.  384 

Roeger,  Charles 736 

Roeger.    George    W 726 

Roepke,   Edward S94 

Roethig,   Ferdinand  J 437 

Roethig,    Harrison   T 437 

Roethig,  William  W 604 

Rogers,  Edward  E 868 

Rogers,  George  W 390 

Rogers,   Norman 868 

Rogers,  Samuel  G 317 

Rohrbacher,  A.  C 470 

Rook,  William  H 1002 

Root,   Frank   Lewis 853 

Root.   George   H 852 

Rose,    George 915 

Rose,    John 915 

Rothrock,  xAmos  A 821 

Rowley,  Arthur  J 287 

Rowley,    Enoch 416 

Rowlev,    William 416 

Ruckel,  Albert  H 663 

Ruckel,   Clinton 1095 

Ruckel,  George  W 692 

Saalfield,  Arthur  James 428 

Sackett,    Clark 595 

Sackett,  Clark  A 595 

Sackett,  George 375 

Sackett,  W.  A.,  M.  D 906 

Sackett.   William   C 906 

Sackmann,  Walter  L 916 

Sadler,  O.  L 294 

Sadler,    RoIIin    W 267 

Salisbury,  Chancy 1047 

Sanford.   Hon.   Henry  C 311 

Sanford.  Ransome  M 1025 

Saunders,  Col.  Wilbur  F 263 

Sawver,   William  T 317 

Scheck,  Christopher 624 

Schnabel,    Charles    W 431 

Schnabel,  George  Philip 393 

Schnabel.  Philip  R 430 

Schott.    Louis 724 

Schneider.    P.    H 459 

Schumacher.    Ferdinand 422 

Scott,   Dr.   Daniel   A 255 

Scott.  L.   H 645 

Scudder.  Arthur  W 776 

Scudder.   Walter 776 

Searl,  William  A.,  M.  D 610 

Seedhouse.   Edwin 671 

Seiberling,  Charles  W 487 

Seiberling.    Francis 293 

Seiberling,  Frank  A 443 

Seiberling,    Hon.    Gustavus 1053 

Seiberling,  John  F 326 

Seiberling,    Milton    A 711 

Seiberling.    Wilson    F 643 


Sell.  D.  llciiry !isl 

Senn,  Charles 7'.)5 

Senter,  James  B 4G.') 

Senter,  Joliii 4()o 

Serfass,   Peter 038 

Seward,  Amos 034 

Seward.  John  VV 634 

Seward,   Louis   D 290 

Sevbold,  Louis 350 

Shaffer,  Frederick  N 90G 

Shaw,  Arthur  R •. . .  .1100 

Shaw,  Bert  L 685 

Shaw,   E,   C 904 

Shaw,   Frank  J 570 

Shaw,  George  A 555 

Shaw,  Harvey  F 705 

Shaw,  Merwin 570 

Shaw,    W.    H 705 

Sheldon,    C.    E 745 

Sherbondy,    Frederick   G .52S 

Sherbondy,  Harry  Nelson 933 

Shirey,  J.   L.,  M.  D S04 

Shoemaker,   W.   Lewis S26 

Shook,  George  A 946 

Shook,  Solomon  E 424 

Short,    Wade  G 283 

Shumaker,  M.  B 728 

Shumaker,   William    72S 

Shriber,   George   W 698 

Sicherman.  Armin.  M.  D 1019 

Sieber,   Hon.   George   W 298 

Sippv,  Asher  F.,  M.  D 471 

Skinner,  Bradford  W 549 

Slabaugh,  Watson  E 288 

Slater.  J.  D 8,83 

Smead,    George    A 1114 

Smith,    Alonzo 1060 

Smith,  David  C 3,32 

Smith,    Fred    E 774 

Smith,    George   E 1066 

Smith.    Tames    Albert .538 

Smith.    John 624 

Smith,  L-ewis •.   342 

Smith,  William   H 341 

Snyder,  Abraham    588 

Snvder,  George  M 457 

Snvder,  Harvey  A..  M.  D 874 

Snvder,  Hiram  F 583 

Snvder,    Jacob    A 1049 

Snyder,   John   G 1015 

Snyder,  Maurice  G 370 

Snyder,   Michael    583 

.Snyder,   Mrs.   Susannah 1015 

Snvder.  Thomas   T 457 

Snvder,  William  E 299 

Sorrick.  John  W.,  M.  D 1082 

Souers,   David    910 

Souers,   William    910 

Sowers.  John 356 

Spade.  Calvin 554 

Spangler,  Charles  S 826 

Spangler,   Trvin   H 584 

Spangler,    Joseph 584 

Spangler.  Joseph 826 

Sparhawk.    Arthur 677 

Sparhawk,   FTarvev  A 676 

Spaulding.  Rufus  'P 262 


Spencer,   W.  A 278 

Sperry,  Henry  B 494 

Spielman,    Andrew    A 955 

Spriggle,  Frank 587 

Stahl,    Charles    H 287 

Stall,  A.   H.,   M.   D 846 

Stanford,    George 854 

Stanford,  George  C 853 

Stanford,    James 854 

Starr,    George    469 

Starr,  John  J 788 

Starr,    Simon 470 

Stauffer,  Reuben 711 

Stebick,   T.  J 763 

Steele,  Henderson  613 

Steele,   Isaac 613 

Steele,    St.    Clair 934 

Steese,  Abraham 1056 

Steese,    Alexander 1056 

Steigner,  William   932 

Stein,   Daniel    P 636 

Stein,   Harvey  E 538 

Stein,   Henrv    626 

Stelzer,  A.  j ; 950 

Stettler,  .  James    A 564 

Stettler,  William 565 

Stipe,   Frank   G 427 

Stocker,    Philip 487 

Stone,    N.   C 371 

Stone.    Nelson    B 401 

Stoner.  William  H 461 

Stotler,   Sherman  B 449 

Stratton,  Preston  D 782 

Strobel,   George 537 

Strobel,  Lorenzo 537 

Strobel,   William 537 

Stroh,  Freeman  W 714 

Stroh,  Henry   714 

Stroman,  Charles  Henry 1023 

Stroman,    John 1023 

Stuart,  Hon.  E.  W 299 

Stubbs,  George  J 751 

Stuhldreher,  Augustus  F 423 

Stump,  Elmer  E 751 

Stump,  Eohraim    59() 

Stump,    Hiram 559 

Stump.    Jacob 590 

Stump.  John 590 

Sturgeon.   Samuel   H..  M.  D...   983 

Sullivan,  James 831 

Swain,   Forest 693 

Swartz,  J.  V 488 

Sweitzer,  Louis  S.,  M.  D 981 

Swigart.  Aaron  .A 542 

Swigart.    Cbarles    H 59ft 

Swigart.    George 516 

Swigart,   George   A 516 

Swigart.  Homer  A 517 

Swigart,    Joseph 542 

Swinehart.   J.    A 383 

Switzer.    Charles 912 

Tavlor.   Daniel 496 

Taylor,    H.    H 736 

Taylor,   Theodore 496 

Teeple,   Aaron    397 


Teeple,  J.  Frank S2a 

Theiss,   F.   B 306 

Thomas,   Charles  E 871 

Thomas,  David  J 661 

Thomas,   George    C 871 

Thomas,  John    061 

Thompson,    Benjamin    F 362 

Thompson,  Dr.  Moses 1099 

Thompson,  Otis  Reed 363 

Thompson,  Sherman  P 1099 

Thompson,    Sylvester 1100 

Thompson,  Virgil 409 

Thornton,  Aaron  652 

Thornton,    Harvey    '. .   652 

Tibbals,  Hon.  Newell     D 308 

Tifft,  John  D 858 

Tifft,    Smith    D 858 

Tobin,  W.  T 514 

Tod,  Hon.  David 741 

Todd,  Harry  D.,  M.  D 604 

Tracv.   Benjamin   F 1113 

Treash,  Philip  B 386 

Treman,    Milan 617 

Triplett,  Austin  J 355 

Triplett,    John 356 

Triplett,   William 356 

Tryon,    Charles    B 703 

Trvon,  Jesse 703 

Tschantz.  Charles 897 

Turner,    Robert 380 

Tweed.  Fred  W : 508 

Underwood,  E.  S.,  M.  D 474 

Underwood.   Ira  L 858 

Underwood,  Warren  J.,  M.  D.  477 

Upson,    Anson 628 

Upson,    Edwin 628 

Upson,  Philo  B 365 

Upson,    Rufus     P 626 

Upson,   Reuben    366 

Upson.  Hon.  William  H 272 

Vallen,   Abel 619 

Vallen,  Durastus 619 

Vandersall,   William  L 911 

Van    Horn,   Milton  A 460 

Van   Horn,  Robert 460 

Vaughan,    John    R 313 

Vaughan,    William    T 313 

Viali.  Fred  S 466 

Viall,  George 338 

Viall,    John    F 563 

Viall,    Otis    K 563 

Viall.   Sullivan   472 

Viall,    Svlvester    G 471 

Viele,    Henry    C 959 

Vogan,   F.    Daton 764 

Vogt.  Christian    1086 

Vogt,  Daniel   682 

Vogt.    Henry 623 

Vongunton,  Gottlieb  1110 

Voris.    Hon.   Alvin   C 306 

Voris.    Edwin    F 305 




Wadsworth,  George  H 1054 

Waggoner,   William aia 

Wagoner,  George   372 

Wasjoner,    Henrv    L 722 

Wayriner,   Philip" 372 

Was.  .nor.   William   H 529 

Wainwriglit,    Walter 74S 

Wakcman,    T.    W 29'.) 

W  al<lUu-ch,    John 936 

Walker.  Richard  B SOI 

Walhice,  Hiram   H 901 

Walhice,  James   VV 90:; 

Wal.'^li,    John    W 7C(J 

Walsh.   William 700 

Walters.    William 971 

Waltz,    David 597 

Waltz,    Frank 758 

Waltz,     Madison 597 

Wannamaker.   rion.   R.    M  .  .  .    314 
Warbiirton,  Joseph.  M.D....    630 

Ware.  Israel   539 

\\'are.   Norman    539 

Warner,  Adam   K 885 

Warner,   C.    C 342 

Warner.    Frank S77 

Warner,    Henry 927 

Warner,  John 927 

Warner,   John   A .s,s4 

Warner.  John  J 71,! 

\Varner,    Milton    H 4.T5 

Warner,    Samuel 1074 

Warner,  Samuel 877 

Warner.   Solomon 435 

Warner.   William   A ....926 

Warner,   W.  Wallace   486 

Waterman,    Lawson 892 

Waters,   Lorenzo   Dow 269 

Walters,  Charles  H 1012 

\\  ay,    Ezra 372 

W^ay,    Joseph : 375 

^\'ay,    Loren 372 

Weber,  John  C 442 

Weber,  John  ri..  AI.D 478 

Weeks.     .Arthur     I :;87 


Weeks,    Frederick   H lull) 

Weidcner,    Charles    A 773 

Weimer,    Adam 718 

Weimcr,   Henry  H 718 

Welton,   Allen    S93 

Werner,    Paul    E 811 

Wesener,  Joseph  E 883 

West,    H.    A 794 

Wetmore,   Charles   B 564 

Wetinore,     Edwin 564 

Wetmore,    Silas 564 

Weygandt,    John    F 354 

Weygandt,    Jonathan 354 

White,   Abia OSS 

White,  John  W 595 

White,    Milo OSS 

White,    Walter   A 705 

Whitman,    John 580 

Whitman,  John  A 580 

Whitmore,    George    T 1043 

Whitney,  Joseph  A.   P 500 

Whittemore,  F.  E 280 

Wickline,    Charles    W 551 

Wigley,    Joseph 777 

Wilcox,  Frank  A 896 

Wilco.x,     H.    C 970 

Wilcox,  Orlando   •. .  .  284 

Wildes,  W.  J 557 

Williams,  Harrv   934 

Williams,    John    K 926 

Williamson,  Julius  0 825 

Williamson,   Palmer 825 

Wills,    W.    J 557 

Wills,    J.    M 552 

Wilson,  R.   M 916 

Wilson,    W.    E 1080 

Windsor,   John   T 680 

Windsor,    William,   Jr 685 

Winegerter.   Dr.   Joseph 752 

Winkler,    A 385 

Winter,  William  H 717 

Winum,    Joseph 985 

Wise,    Bvron    P 444 

Wise.    Charles    E 913 


Wise,     Daniel 913 

Wise,    Harvey   .\ 573 

Wise,     Henry 573 

Wise,   Louis  J.,   ai.D 763 

Wise,    Norman 893 

Wise,    W.    G 438 

Witner,    Urias    C 1099 

Wolcott,   Christopher   1' 20.! 

Wolf,    Fred    W 911 

Wolf,   John 845 

Wolfsperger,  Waller  R 783 

Wood,    Alfred    599 

Wood,   Benjamin    599 

Wood.    Frederick 807 

Wood.  Frederick  C 800 

Wood,    Thomas     1005 

Wood,  William      N 1005 

Woo-ds.  A.  T.,  M.  D 378 

Woolf.  Clark  E 568 

Worden,    Lynn 609 

Work.    Alanson 419 

Work,   B.   G SIS 

Work,   Gerald   S 764 

Worron,   George   H 437 

Wright,  Dr.  Amos 254 

Wright,  Elizur 065 

Wright,    Col.    George    M 279 

Wright,    Francis    H 004 

Wright,    James    F 697 

Wright,   Hon.   Thomas 736 

Wuchter.    George    W 1029 

Wuchter,   William    1029 

Wunderlich.    Freilerick 576 

Yeager,   Joseph    493 

Young,  William  E 317 

Zeller,    Fred    G 774 

Zeller,   George    623 

Zilio.x,    Samuel    F 803 

Zimmerlv  Brothers 668 

Zindel,    Fred 339 

Zwisler.   Clarence   M 006 

Index  of  Dkm 

Akron  Brewing  Company's  Plant,  Akron.  The 112 

Akron  City  Hall   SS 

Akron  City  Hospital  and  Nurses'  Home  25S 

Akron  Public  Library  96 

Akron  'Views — 

Adolph  Avenue,  Looking  South 96 

Entrance  to  Akron  Rural  Cemetery  106 

Entrance  to  Grace  Park  106 

From  West  of  the  Canal — 1S53   42 

From  West  of  the  Canal — 1904   43 

Main  Street  Looking  South  From  Market 150 

West  Market  Street  150 

American  Cereal  Mills  53 

Big  Falls — The  Gorge  1 00 

BucHTEL  College  "Views — 

Academ\'  208 

Buchtel   Hall    208 

Campus    208 

Crouse  Gymnasium   208 

Residence  of  the  President 86 

Brown.  John.  Home  230 

Campus,  The,  Hudson   42 

Children's  Home.  Akron  126 

Churches — 

Baptist,  Akron    323 

First  Church  of  Christ 8fi 

First  Congregational,  Akron   232 

First  Congregational,  Hudson  116 

First  M.  E.,  Akron  222 

First  Presbyterian,  Akron    86 

First  Universalist,  Akron   232 

Grace  Reformed,  Akron   222 

High  Street  Synagogue,  Akron   . . .  . : 233 

St.  Bernard's  Catholic,  Akron   58 

St.  Mary's  Catholic,  Akron   58 

St.  Paul's  Episcopal,  Akron  58 

St.  Vincent  De  Paul's  Catholic.  Akron  58 

County  Infirmary   106 

County  Jail,  New    .53 

Court  House,  New  456 

Court  House,  Old  52 

Cuyahoga  Falls— Square  Showing  the  Churches 116 

Cuyahoga  River,  A  "View  on  the  116 

Diamond  Match  Company,  Akron  150 

Diamond  Rubber  Works,  Akron    150 

Dobson  Building,  Akron   250 

Fire  Engine  House,  No.  5,  Akron  52 

First  National  Bank,  Akron   250 

Flatiron  Building,  Akron   250 

Fisher  Bros.'  Plant,  The,  Akron  112 

German-American   Music  Hall    52 

Glens,  The,  Cuyahoga  Falls  '  116 

Goodrich,  B.  F.  Company,  Akron 150 

Hamilton  Building,  Akron   112 

L  O.  O.  F.  Building,  Akron  250 

In  Perkins  Park  456 

Lake  Anna,  Barberton   106 

Lakeside,  Summit  Lake   96 

Market  House,  Akron 150 

Masonic  Temple,  Akron   126 

Moody  &  Thomas  Mill,  Peninsula 870 

Nursery,  Mary  Day,  Akron  126 

Old  Maid's  Kitchen,  The  Gorge   106 

Post  Office,  Akron  96 

Residences — 

Andrews,  James  H 76 

Baldwin,  Harvey   136 

Baughman,  Reuben  B 700 

Breitenstine,    John     948 

Conger,  Mrs.  A.  L 76 

Franklin,  Walter  a 136 

Gault,  Elmer  A 136 

Hoye,  M.  W 456 

Manton,  H.  B 258 

Marvin,  Mrs.  Richard  P 76 

Mason,  F.  H 258 

Perkins   Homestead    76 

Raymond,  Charles  B 258 

Seiberling,  Hon.  Gustavus 1057 

Seiberling,  Milton  A 708 

Warner,  Milton  H 434 

Work,  Bertram  G 76 

Work,  Mrs.  Etta  W 76 

School  Buildings — 

Crosby  School,  Akron   182 

Findley  School,  Akron  182 

First  High  School   456 

First   School  House    456 

Fraunfelter  School.  Akron   86 

High   School,   Akron    86 

High  School,  Cuyahoga  Falls 116 

Kent  School,  Akron 183 

Miller  School,  Akron  86 

St.  Bernard's  School,  Akron   58 

St.  Mary's  School,  Akron   58 

St.  "Vincent  De  Paul's  School,  Akron 136 

Spicer   School,   .\kron    182 

Silver  Lake  Park  52 

L'nion  Depot,  Akron  113 

Werner  Company,  Plant  and  Office  of  The 160 

Y.  M.  C.  A.  Building,  Akron  88 

V.  W.  C.  A.  Building.  .Vkron  456 

f)\ms  of  Sutntnlt  County 



Description  of  the  Physical  Features  of  the  County — Its   Economic    Geology — The   Soil; 
Its  Drainage  and  Fertility — Coal — Gas — Oil. 

The  surface  of  Summit  County  presents  a 
remarkable  vai'iety.  The  AVesterner,  stand- 
ing in  the  midst  of  "The  Plains."  as  the  terri- 
tory lying  north  of  the  city  of  Akron  used  to 
be  called,  sees  much  to  remind  him  of  Ne- 
braska and  Kansas.  Parts  of  other  townships 
are  also  as  level,  or  as  gently  rolling,  as  the 
prairies  of  the  West.  Stand  on  the  summit 
of  some  of  the  Northampton  Hills,  and  the 
view  reminds  you  of  the  fine  scenery  of  New 
England.  Ponds  abound  in  all  parts  of  the 
count}'.  Silver  Lake  and  Wyoga  Lake  are 
the  principal  ones  in  the  northern  part;  Tur- 
key-foot Lake  and  Long  Lake  lie  ensconced 
among  the  green  hills  in  the  southern  town- 
ships; Springfield  Lake  is  a  beauty  spot  in 
the  eastern  part,  and  Shocolog  Pond  and 
White  and  Black  Ponds  diver.-ify  the  west- 
ern portion,  while  Summit  Lake  occupies  the 
central  part  of  the  county  and  gives  to  the 
citizen  of  Akron  the  advantages  of  a  water- 
ing place  within  the  very  limits  of  his  city. 

Brooks  and  rivers  flow  in  nearly  every  di- 
rection. Their  economic  ui3es  are  many.  The 
Cuyahoga  River  bisects  the  northern  half  of 
the  county  and  furnishes  extensive  >.vater 
power  for  manufacturing  purposes.     In  many 

places  its  watei-s  are  diverted  for  irrigating 
purposes,  and  the  fortunate  farmei-s  who  till 
the  land  along  its  course  fear  no  season  of 
drought.  In  the  southern  part  of  the  county 
the  same  advantages  are  furnished  by  the  Tus- 
carawas River.  These  are  Summit  County's 
principal  streams.  They  have  many 
branches  or  tributaries  which  ramify  even  to 
the  remotest  corners  of  the  county.  Among 
others  should  be  named  Wolf  Creek,  Pigeon 
Creek,  Yellow  Creek,  Tinker's  Creek,  Brandy- 
wine  Creek,  Mud  Brook  and  Sand  Run.  This 
enumeration  will  give  the  reader  some  idea  of 
the  wonderful  way  in  which  this  favored 
county  is  watered  bj-  running  streams.  In 
earlier  times  the  Cuyahoga  and  Tuscarawas 
rivers  were  navigable  by  boats  of  consider- 
able size.  New  Portage,  at  the  southern  ter- 
minus of  the  Portage  Path,  was  the  head  of 
na\agation  on  the  Tuscarawas,  while  boats 
from  Lake  Erie  ascended  the  Cuyahoga  as  far 
;is  Old  Portage,  at  the  northern  end  of  the 

Perhaps  all  will  agree  that  the  most  strik- 
ingly beautiful  section  of  Summit  County  is 
the  Cuyahoga  Valley,  which  begins  at  Akron 
and  gradually  grows  in  depth  and  increases 


in  width  as  it  approaches  the  northern  limits 
of  the  county.  In  Cuyalioga  County  it  parts 
with  much  of  its  beauty.  Finally  the  hills 
and  great  bluffs  cease  altogether  and  the  river, 
murky,  nuiddy  and  ill-smelling  from  the  con- 
tamination of  several  hundred  thousand  citi- 
zens of  Cleveland,  flows  lazily  into  Lake  Erie. 
There  is  an  interesting  geological  story  con- 
nected with  this  river  which  will  be  told  later 
on  in  this  chapter.  Another  striking  feature 
of  the  topography  of  this  county  is  the  Gorge 
of  the  Cuyahoga,  which  extends  from  Cuya- 
hoga Falls,  a  distance  of  about  three  miles 
west,  or  almost  to  the  meeting-place  of  the 
waters  of  the  Big  and  Little  Cuyahoga.  It 
has  many  of  the  elements  of  beauty  which 
characterize  Watkins  Glen  and  other  famous 
resorts  for  travelers.  The  Gorge  was  caused 
by  the  erosion  of  the  river,  which  now  flows 
at  the  foot  of  precipitous  cliffs,  two  hundred 
feet  or  more  below  the  surface  of  the  sur- 
rounding country.  On  both  sides  the  land 
stretches  away  in  level  fashion,  and  the  trav- 
eler approaches  without  any  warning  from 
Nature  that  a  great  chasm  yawns  in  front  of 
him.  Suddenly  he  stands  on  the  edge  of 
the  precipice,  and  through  the  interwoven 
branches  of  the  hemlocks  sees  the  foaming, 
tossing  water  far  below  him,  in  the  cool  depths 
of  the  Glens.  About  half  way  down  the 
Gorge  the  river  tumbles  over  a  ledge  of  harder 
sandstone  and  makes  a  very  pretty  cascade 
known  by  the  prosaic  name  of  "Big  Falls." 
It  is  a  pity  that  so  charming  a  spot  sliould 
be  called  by  so  commonplace,  if  not  ugly, 
name.  At  Cuyahoga  Falls  there  are  more 
cascades,  but  their  beauty  is  largely  destroyed 
by  the  factories  and  buildings,  which  line  the 
banks  of  the  river  there.  There  is  a  remark- 
able variety  in  the  flora  of  these  glens.  The 
procession  of  the  flowers  is  uninterrupted  from 
the  first  skunk-cabbage  of  early  April  to  the 
last  aster  and  witch-hazel  blossom  of  lat€ 
October.  The  oaks,  the  maples,  the  elm,  the 
ash,  many  of  the  nut  trees  and  several  of  the 
evergreens  flourish  here  most  luxuriantly. 
Only  the  great,  dripping  walls  that  rise  sheer 
to  the  top  are  bare  of  vegetation,  and  even 
these  are  covered  in  places  with  mosses  and 

lichens,  and  here  and  there  one  can  see  a  little 
green  hemlock  that  has  obtained  a  root-hold 
in  a  crevice  in  the  cliff. 

A  close  second  in  the  popular  choice  for 
beauty  is  the  famous  "Lake  Region,"  stretch- 
ing from  the  southern  limits  of  Akron  to  the 
extreme  south  part  of  the  county.  The  hills 
rise  here  to  a  considerable  elevation — the 
highest  being  more  than  eleven  hundred  feet 
above  sea  level.  A  chain  of  lakes  fed  by 
springs  and  subterranean  streams  stretches 
north  and  south  between  them.  These  lakes 
are  a  legacy  from  the  great  glacier,  or  glaciers, 
which  in  the  ice  age  flowed  down  from  the 
north  and  covered  all  this  region.  Th&se  hills 
of  sand,  gravel  and  boulders  had  their  birth 
at  that  period,  too.  In  fact,  the  face  of  Sum- 
mit County,  as  we  know  it  at  the  present  time, 
is  largely  the  result  of  the  titanic  forces  of 
Nature,  which  operated  during  the  so-called 
Ice  Age,  in  North  America.  This  is  not  the 
place  to  refer  to  the  proofs  that  a  great  ice 
sheet  did  at  one  time  cover  all  the  northern 
and  western  portions  of  Ohio;  it  is  perhaps 
sufficient  to  say  that  the  investigations  of 
geologists  have  demon.strated  beyond  reason- 
able doubt  the  glacial  hypothesis  first  ad- 
vanced by  Louis  Agassiz.  The  terminal  mo- 
raine which  marks  the  .southern  boundary  of 
the  ice  has  been  traced  across  Ohio  by  Prof. 
George  Frederick  Wright,  of  Oberlin,  with 
great  accuracy.  This  terminal  moraine  is  the 
deposit  of  boulders,  gravel  and  drift  which 
was  left  upon  the  original  surface  by  the 
melting  of  the  ice.  Akron  lies  a  few  seconds 
north  of  the  41st  parallel,  north  latitude.  Be- 
ginning in  Western  New  York  at  the  42nd 
parallel,  the  southern  ice  limit  crosses  into 
Pennsylvania  and  takes  a  course  almost  di- 
rectly south  to  Homewood,  which  is  on  the 
41st  parallel.  It  then  turns  almost  due  west 
and  passes  through  Massillon,  and  when  it 
reaches  Mansfield  it  turns  at  an  angle  of 
ninety  degrees  and  proceeds  due  south  to 
Logan.  Its  course  is  then  southwest,  through 
Chillicothe  and  across  the  39th  parallel  into 
Kentucky.  It  passes  a  few  miles  south  of 
Cincinnati,  and  near  Louisville  it  turns 
abi'uptly  north  and  proceeds  into  Indiana  to 



near  the  40th  parallel.  All  the  land  lying 
north  of  this  line  was  covered  for  centuries 
with  a  river  of  solid  ice,  which  was  not  less 
than  200  feet  in  thickness  or  depth,  and 
which  may  have  been  as  great  as  500  or  600 
feet.  It  is  spoken  of  as  a  "river"  of  ice.  That 
means  it  was  flowing.  It  advanced  very 
slowly — about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  each  year. 
It  required  nearly  a  thousand  years  for  it  to 
cross  the  State  of  Ohio.  The  gi-eat  Canadian 
boulders,  which  were  brought  by  the  ice  from 
their  original  home  in  the  Laurentian  Hills 
and  deposited  about  Cincinnati,  were,  per- 
haps, more  than  2,000  years  in  making  the 
journey.  Is  it  any  wonder  that  their  sharp 
edges  and  angles  were  worn  off  and  that  we 
find  them  today  smooth  and  rounded? 
Countless  boulders  of  this  kind  are  distributed 
over  the  whole  surface  of  Summit  County. 
No  metamorphic  or  granite  rocks  occur  here 
naturally.  Our  "hard-heads,"  as  the  farmers 
call  them,  were  all  transported,  then.  When 
detached  from  the  parent,  cliffs  or  ledges  they 
were  all  of  sharp  edges  and  possessed  of  many 
sharp  angles.  The  grinding  and  rolling  and 
abrasion  to  which  they  were  subjected  as  the 
great  ice  river  rolled  them  on  made  them 
smooth  and  rounded  as  we  find  them  today. 
The  citizen  who  keeps  house  nowadays  will 
understand  that  ice  is  hea\nt-.  Perhaps  it  is 
possible  to  a.scertain  mathematically  the  power 
exerted  by  a  moving  mass  of  ice  several  hun- 
dred miles  wide  and  500  or  600  feet  in  thick- 
ness. Whether  that  be  true  or  not,  we  can 
see  about  us  the  results  of  such  tremendous 
forces.  On  Keeley's  Island  in  Lake  Erie,  for 
instance,  there  ai'e  places  where  the  pre-gla- 
cial  limestone  surface  was  planed  off  as  smooth 
as  a  floor.  In  other  places  axe  grooves  six  to 
twenty-four  inches  in  depth,  and  as  wide, 
where  a  granite  boulder  was  pushed  bodily 
through  the  hard  limestone,  with  as  much 
ease,  apparently,  as  though  the  resisting  sur- 
face had  been  so  much  butter.  So,  the  great 
ice  sheet  ploughed  and  planed  its  way  south, 
scooping  out  depressions,  scraping  off  the 
hills,  and  widening  the  old  canyons  and  val- 
leys. When  it  reached  the  Ohio  River  it 
made  a  dam  500  or  600  feet  high  acros.s  the 

Ohio  valley.  The  dammed  up  waters  spread 
out  on  all  sides  and  as  far  back  as  the  head- 
watei"3  of  the  Allegheny  and  Monongaliela 
rivers.  This  made  a  deep  lake  more  than  400 
miles  long  and  200  miles  wide.  The  geolo- 
gists have  named  it  Lake  Ohio.  The  present 
.site  of  Pittsburgh  was  then  300  feet  under 
water.  The  present  site  of  Summit  County 
was  under  as  many  feet  of  solid  ice.  The 
northern  shore  of  this  lake  did  not  extend  be- 
yond Massillon.  The  Cincinnati  ice-dam  may 
have  held  these  waters  impounded  for  cen- 
turies, but,  like  all  other  laies,  there  came  a 
time  when  its  existence  miLst  end.  When  the 
climate  ameliorated,  the  cold  of  winter  was 
no  longer  able  to  repair  the  ravages  made  on 
the  ice  by  the  increasing  heat  of  the  summer 
sun.  The  ice-barrier  weakened  and  at  length 
gave  way.  The  imprisoned  waters  rushed  in 
tremendous  fury  down  the  Ohio  and  Missis- 
sippi valleys  to  the  sea.  What  a  flood  there 
must  have  been  then ! 

When  the  recession  of  the  ice  sheet  began 
these  floods  became  an  annual  affair.  Taking 
as  a  basis  Professor  Agassiz's  figures  as  deter- 
mined by  his  observations  in  Switzerland,  it 
is  easy  to  estimate  that  from  the  natural  melt- 
ing of  the  glacier  during  each  summer  enough 
water  was  formed  to  cover  the  ice-free  portion 
of  the  State  to  a  depth  of  40  feet.  These 
floods,  occurring  annuall\'  for  many  years, 
washed  gi-eat  quantities  of  gravel  and  sand 
toward  the  south.  Thus  the  gi"eat  gravel  hills 
in  the  southern  part.s  of  Summit  Count}'  were 
formed.  The  glacier,  as  it  ploughed  its  way 
south,  uncovered  subterranean  water-courses 
and  made  many  depressions  in  the  surface  of 
the  land.  Thus  our  lakes  were  formed.  For 
many  centuries  thej'  were  supplied  with  water 
from  the  melting  ice,  slowly  retreating  north- 
ward. Since  then  the  loss  by  evaporation  has 
been  replenished  by  rainfall  and  the  water 
from  bottom  springs. 

Finally,  in  the  retreat  of  the  ice-sheet  be- 
fore the  victorious  forces  of  the  Sun,  the  great 
watershed  of  Ohio  was  reached.  Summit 
County  occupies  a  position  on  this  watershed. 
Until  Akron  was  reached  all  the  water  from 
the    melting  glacier   had   flowed   toward   the 



southeast,  as  the  slope  of  the  land  in  the  State 
south  of  this  locality  was  in  that  direction. 
But  as  you  go  north  from  Akron,  the  slope  of 
the  land  is  northerly.  Hence,  when  the  ice- 
sheet-  had  passed  over  the  crest  of  the  land 
here,  the  water  from  its  melting  was  unable 
to  find  an  outlet  until  it  had  risen  high 
enough  to  flow  over  the  height  of  land  at 
Summit  Lake  and  then  pursue  the  usual  and 
natural  com-se  toward  the  southeast.  Al- 
though the  slope  of  the  land  was  toward  the 
north,  yet  the  water  could  not  flow  in  that 
direction  as  a  great  barrier  of  ice  200  or  300 
feet  high  effectually  blocked  the  way.  This 
barrier  filled  not  only  the  old  valley  of  the 
Cuyahoga,  but  covered  the  whole  northern 
portion  of  the  State.  Thus  the  floods  from 
the  great  ice-mass  filled  the  whole  valley  be- 
tween the  high  land  at  Akron  and  the  face  of 
the  glacier  slowly  retreating  northward.  By 
the  time  Cleveland  was  reached  the  whole 
valley,  as  we  know  it  now,  was  one  great  lake 
extending  from  Cleveland  to  Akron.  This 
lake  had  its  outlet  through  a  short  river  which 
flowed  from  North  Akron,  in  the  bed  of  the 
present  Ohio  Canal,  to  a  point  south  of  Sum- 
mit Lake,  where  the  Tuscarawas  meets  the 
canal.  Professor  Claypole  gave  to  this  river 
the  name  "Akron  River."  The  great  lake, 
which  in  its  deepest  part  must  have  been  al- 
most 300  feet  deep,  he  called  "Cuyahoga 
Lake."  It  is  difficult  to  estimate  the  length 
of  time  this  lake  and  the  Akron  River  were  in 
existence.  It  was  probably  many  centuries. 
They  existed  until  the  ice-sheet  was  well  be- 
yond Lake  Erie,  and  the  Niagara  River  and 
the  St.  Lawrence  were  open  to  the  sea.  AVIien 
this  happened,  then  the  Cuyahoga  Lake  was 
drained  rapidly  into  Lake  Erie  and  the  Akron 
River  started  to  flow  north  and  finally  ceased 
to  flow  at  all,  except  as  a  very  small  outlet  for 
the  lake  on  the  summit  now  called  Summit 
Lake.  While  Cuyahoga  Lake  existed  it  was  a 
very  muddy  lake.  The  grinding  of  the  sur- 
face by  the  movement  of  the  glacier  produced 
an  immense  amount  of  fine  mud  which  was 
carried  by  the  water  from  the  melting  ice  into 
the  lake.  Here,  aftcT  a.  time,  it  was  deposited 
a.s  a  fine  sediment  n]wn  the  bottom   of  the 

lake.  The  occasional  deposits  of  boulders  or 
gravel  are  accounted  for  by  the  fact  that  ice- 
bergs or  floes,  becoming  detached  from  the 
face  of  the  glacier,  and  beaiing  on  their  sur- 
faces a  burden  of  gravel  or  boulders,  floated 
out  into  the  lake,  and  there  melting,  made 
the  deposits  referred  to.  In  the  "Geology  of 
Ohio,"  volume  1,  page  552,  occurs  the  first 
mention  of  the  existence  of  this  ide-dam, 
which  stopped  the  northward  flow  of  all  the 
rivers  emptying  into  Lake  Erie.  The  credit 
for  the  discovery  must  be  given  to  Dr.  New- 

A  former  Akron  citizen  who  was  professor 
of  geology,  Dr.  E.  W.  Claypole,  has  written 
very  entertainingly  of  this  episode  in  the  geo- 
logical history  of  Summit,  and  we  will  do  well 
to  listen  to  his  own  words  as  he  describes  it. 

"As  the  conditions  of  existence  of  all  these 
lakes  were  essentially  identical,  a  description 
of  all  of  them  would  be  tedious  and  involve 
much  useless  repetition.  My  purpose  here  is 
not  to  present  all  the  details  of  the  retreat 
of  the  ice,  but  to  show  its  general  course  and 
its  inevitable  results.  I  will  therefore  select 
one  of  these  as  an  illustration,  and  merely 
name  the  rest.  For  this  purpose  I  choose  the 
Cuyahoga  River,  which  I  have  carefully 
studied.  This  river  rises  in  Geauga  County, 
and,  after  flowing  for  almost  50  miles  in  a 
southwesterly  direction,  turns  sharply  to  the 
north  near  Akron,  and  thence  follows  this 
course  until  it  falls  into  the  lake  at  Cleve- 

"The  caiLse  of  this  sudden  change  of  direc- 
tion in  the  channel  of  the  Cuyahoga  River, 
is  the  following:  Along  the  earlier  part  of 
its  course,  it  is  flowing  in  a  post-glacial  chan- 
nel on  the  top  of  the  plateau  of  Northern 
Ohio.  As  it  approaches  Akron  it  passes 
through  a  deep  gorge  in  the  lower  carbon- 
iferous rocks  cut  by  itself  since  the  ice  re- 
treated. This  gorge  is,  in  it?  lower  part,  not 
less  than  300  feet  below  the  level  of  the  ad- 
joining country  and  its  length  is  between  two 
and  three  miles.  At  the  lower  end  of  the 
gorge  the  river  escapes  from  its  imprisoning 
walls  of  rock  into  a  wide-open  valley — -its 
own  pre-glacial  channel — which  retains  it  for 



the  rest  of  its  course.  This  channel  extendi 
backward  in  a  southeasterly  direction  above 
the  point  where  the  Cuj-ahoga  now  enters  it 
for  several  miles,  passing  between  Akron  and 
the  present  river.  It  is  occupied  by  a  small 
branch  stream — the  Little  Cuyahoga.  It 
gradually  ri^es  and  becomes  less  distinct,  be- 
ing heavily  clogged  with  drift,  which  has 
most  likely  been  the  cause  of  diverting  the 
water  that  pre-glacially  flowed  along  it  into 
the  present  channel. 

"Let  us  take  our  stand  on  one  of  the  so- 
called  hills  overlooking  the  vale  of  the  Cuya- 
hoga, between  Akron  and  Cleveland,  nea.r 
Peninsula,  for  example.  The  broad  valley  lies 
about  200  feet  beneath  our  feet.  Through 
it  the  lazy  stream  slowly  meanders  in  a  chan- 
nel cut  in  one  place  through  deep,  soft  de- 
posits of  drift,  and  in  another  through  solid 
rocks  of  the  Cuyalioga  shale.  But  the  valley 
is  a  pigmy  besides  that  deeper  and  older  one 
in  which  the  Cuyahoga  used  to  flow  before 
the  Great  Ice  Age  came  on.  The  hill  on 
which  we  now  stand  did  not  then  exi?t.  The 
plateau,  or  terrace,  out  of  which  it  has  been 
carved,  is  a  deposit  of  drift,  left  here  during 
the  retreat  of  the  ice.  Over  on  the  western 
side  of  the  vaJley  is  another  terrace  on  the 
same  level  and  of  the  same  age,  ©.Iso  cut  and 
scarred  by  water-courses.  Deep'  under  both, 
and  in  places  below  the  present  level  of 
the  river,  is  the  solid  rock  floor  of  the  valley, 
not  yet  cleared  of  its  cumbering  load  of  gla- 
cial drift.  The  .stream  is  now  crowding  the 
left  or  western  bank  of  its  pre-glacial  valley. 
The  ground  there  rises  abniptly,  and  less  than 
a  quarter  of  a  mile  from  the  river  the  solid 
sandstone  (Berea  Grit)  is  quarried  above  the 
water  level.  Turn  now  and  look  eastward, 
and  there,  at  a  distance  of  about  two  miles, 
we  see  the  massive  carboniferous  conglomerate 
in  almost  vertical  cliffs  rising  at  least  100  feet 
above  the  plateau  on  which  we  are  standing, 
and  forming  the  well-known  'Boston  Ledges.' 
These  are  the  old  banks  of  the  Cuyahoga,  and 
mark  the  pre-glacial  channel  of  the  river. 
Between  these  on  the  east  and  a  similar  out- 
crop on  the  west  was  a  valley  deeper  than  the 
present,  and  nearh^  three  miles  wide,  scooped 

out  by  the  river  itself  during  post-carbonif- 
erous ages,  and  along  this  valley  flowed  the 
old  Cuyahoga,  not  necessarily  a  lai'ger  stream 
than  its  successor,  but  one  of  vastly  greater 

"Go  back  now  in  imagination  to  that  period 
of  the  Ice  Age  when  the  edge  of  the  retreat- 
ing glacier  had  crossed  the  waterehed  of  Ohio 
on  its  backward  march,  and,  extending  across 
the  country  from  east  to  west,  was  lying  a 
little  north  of  our  present  position ;  that  is  to 
say,  between  Peninsula  and  Cleveland.  Our 
former  point  of  view  is  now  untenable;  it  is 
under  water.  But  we  can  stand  on  the  top 
of  Boston  Ledges  and  look  across  the  vallej'  to 
the  westward.  The  whole  is  one  lake  of  ice- 
cold  water.  If  it  is  summer,  the  shores  are 
clad  with  a  hardy  vegetation  suited  to  an  arc- 
tic climate  and  the  neighborhood  of  the 
glacier.  If  winter,  the  landscape  is  covered 
with  snow,  and  the  glittering  ice-fr'ont  is 
plainly  in  sight.  Soundings  show  us  that 
the  water  in  the  lake  is  more  than  200  feet 
deep.  If  we  trace  its  margin  we  find  it  cut 
by  deep  fiords  reaching  back  into  the  coun- 
try, and,  of  course,  full  of  water  up  to  the 
lake  level.  Its  main  course  is  due  south  until 
a  point  is  reached  about  a  mile  north  of 
Akron,  where  the  bank  turns  slightly  to  the 
eastward  and  curves  sharplj^  around  the  head 
of  an  inlet  which  forms  the  real  end  of  the 
lake.  This  point  was  neai'  the  'Old  Forge.' 
Returning  to  the  west  along  its  south  shore 
we  reach  another  deep  bay  stretching  south- 
ward, in  which  the  water  rapidly  shallows, 
and  here  we  find  the  outlet  of  our  lake 
through  the  valley  in  which  now  lies  the  city 
of  Akron.  A  small  stream  is  flowing  south- 
ward along  a  channel  where  formerly  was  a 
tributary  to  the  Cuyahoga,  and  pas.sing  over 
the  edge  of  the  watershed,  which  forms  in 
reality  the  southern  border  of  the  lake,  it 
reaches  the  Tuscarawas,  by  which  its  water 
passes  into  the  Muskingiim,  and  then  to  the 
Ohio,  thus  making  the  Lake  Region  tribu- 
tary to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico. 

"Oro.s.sing  this  small  river  and  returning 
northward  along  its  we.stern  bank,  we  regain 
the  main  bodv  of  the  lake,  the  shore  of  which 



runs  westward  for  a  short  distance.  It  then 
•turns  northwai'd  and,  tracing  it,  we  reach, 
after  making  several  circuits  around  deep  in- 
lets, a  point  opposite  to  our  previous  station 
at  Peninsula. 

"To  this  body  of  water,  never  seen  by  man, 
other  than  the  early  paleolithic  savage,  the 
distinct  ancestor  of  our  present  Esquimaux, 
clinging  to  the  margin  of  the  retreating  ice- 
sheet,  I  propose  to  give  the  name  'Lake  Cuya- 
hoga' in  order  to  associate  it  with  the  exist- 
ing river,  and  to  connect  the  present  with  that 
which  has  passed  away. 

''Lake  Cuyahoga,  then,  was  a  body  of 
water  pounded  back  against  the  watershed  by 
the  retreating  ice-front,  and  rising  higher 
and  higher,  until  it  at  last  it  found  an  outlet 
at  the  lowest  point — the  Akron  Water  Gap. 
Its  dimensions  varied  from  time  to  time.  Now 
the  glacier  advanced  under  accumulating 
snow  and  ice  in  the  cold  winter,  and  pressed 
the  water  over  the  outlet.  Now  again  it  re- 
treated under  warm  skies  and  diminution  of 
snow,  and  the  water  from  its  melting  filled  the 
space  from  which  the  ice  had  disappeared. 
Alternately  receding  and  advancing,  the  ice- 
front  determined  the  size  of  the  lake.  In  sum- 
mer a  furious  torrent,  white  with  glacier- 
milk,  swept  down  the  Akron  Valley  and 
through  Summit  Lake  to  the  Tuscarawas 
River;  the  whole  length  of  this  stream  was 
about  four  miles.  In  winter  it  flowed  in  si- 
lence, its  sources  frost-locked  and  its  w'aters 

"To  this  temporary  stream,  a  product  of  the 
retreating  ice-sheet,  whose  very  existence 
would  now  be  unknown  save  for  the  researches 
of  geologists,  I  propose  to  give  the  name  'The 
Akron  River.'       ***** 

"In  all  probability,  a  hardy  vegetation  of 
pines,  firs,  hemlock-spruce,  and  red-cedar  fol- 
lowed close  upon  the  retreating  ice,  and  soon 
clothed  the  shores  of  the  lake  and  the  adjoin- 
ing country  with  a  dark  forest,  under  which 
various  northern  plants  and  animals  found  a 
congenial  home.  Man  himself  hugged  the  re- 
treating ice,  withdrawing  with  it  to  the  north. 

"It  is  po&gible  even  now  to  find  in  the  damp, 
cool  gorges  along  the  Cuyahoga  Valley  strong 

organic  confirmation  of  the  probability  sug- 
gested. Here  linger  many  plants  whose 
home  is  far  north  in  Canada — survivors  from 
a  time  when  the  climate  conditions  were  such 
as  suited  a  northern  flora.  The  secular  rise 
of  temperature  has  exterminated  them  from 
the  high  lands,  but  in  these  shady  moist  glens 
they  still  find  a  congenial  habitat,  and  main- 
tain a  somewhat  precarious  existence.  Among 
those  plants  may  be  mentioned  the  follow- 

Hemlock  Spruce,        Abies  Canadeiijis, 
American  Arbor-vitse,  Thuja  Occidentalis, 
Canadian  Yew,  Taxus  Canadensis, 

Mountain  Maple,        Acer  Spicatum, 
Paper  Birch,  Betula  Papyracea, 

Red-berried  Elder,     Sambucus  Pubens, 
Purple  Raspberry,     Rubus  Odoratus, 
Pale  Touch-me-not,   Impatiens  Pallida, 
Calla,  Calla  Palustri'^, 

(caltha  paulustris). 
Swamp  Saxifrage,      Saxifraga  Pennsylvania, 
Goldthread,       '         Coptis  Trifolia, 
Mountain  Shield-fern,  Lasterea  Montana, 
Long  Club-moss,         Lycopodium  Lucidulum. 

"All  these,  with  other  plants  of  northern 
affinity,  may  be  found  in  or  near  the  deep 
gorges  of  the  Cuyahoga  Valley,  and  give  to 
them  a  character  unlike  that  of  other  places 
in  the  vicinity.  It  is  scarcely  possible  to 
explain  their  presence  on  any  other  theory 
than  that  above  adopted — that  they  are  relics 
of  a  similar  flora  that  once  covered  the  whole 
country,  but  which  has  been  exterminated  by 
change  of  conditions." 

AVhen  the  great  cosmic  forces  which  formed 
the  continents  had  subsided  and  the  last 
great  upheaval  had  taken  place,  other  natural 
forces  began  to  operate  toward  the  prepara- 
tion of  the  land  lift  by  the  receding  oceans 
for  the  coming  of  man.  We  call  it  land  in 
contradistinction  to  the  water  of  the  oceans; 
but  the  surface  of  the  dry  portions  of  the 
world  disclosed  no  vegetation  or  soil  and  pre- 
sented no  aspect  save  that  of  bare  rock.  Here 
it  stretched  away  in  the  long  billows  of  the 
plains;  there  it  was  heaved  up  in  lofty, 
ragged   mountain   ranges.      The   atmosphere, 



the  rains,  the  frost,  and  the  sun  then  began 
the  work  of  soil-making.  Under  their  in- 
fluence the  rocks  began  to  disintegrate,  and 
gradual]}'  the  soil  M'as  formed.  When  the 
natural  conditions  became  such  as  to  favor 
vegetation,  the  forests  and  the  grass  took  their 
places  in  the  mundane  sj'stem.  In  the  pre- 
glacial  era  it  is  probable  that  the  general  sur- 
face appearance  was  much  as  it  is  today. 
Great  rivers  had  eroded  deep  valleys  and  can- 
yons; the  hills  were  forest-clad;  luxuriant 
grasses  abounded  in  the  intervales;  swamps 
like  ours  were  common,  and  lakes  diversified 
the  topography. 

Then  the  great  ice-sheet  pushed  down  from 
the  frozen  North.  AVe  may  well  believe  that 
it  was  a  destroyer.  Of  course,  no  vegetation 
could  survive.  The  damage,  if  such  it  may 
be  called,  was  more  fundamental,  however, 
than  the  destruction  of  the  things  growing  in 
and  upon  the  soil.  The  soil  itself  was  de- 
stroyed. The  great  mass  of  ice,  steadily  mov- 
ing forward,  pushed  up  the  soil  from  the  un- 
derlying rocks  and  washed  it  away  in  the 
great  glacial  floods  which  attended  the  melt- 
ing of  the  ice.  Its  melting  also  left  the 
great  moraines  of  gravel  and  stones  upon  the 
bare  surface  of  the  mother  rocks.  It  did  more 
than  these  things;  it  even  planed  and  fur- 
rowed these  constituent  rocks  themselves. 
Thus  the  hills  were  reduced  in  elevation  and 
the  valleys  raised.  The  canyon  eroded  by  the 
pre^glacial  Cuyahoga  was  widened  into  the 
valley  as  we  know  it  today.  The  river  of 
that  time  flowed  in  a  bed  two  hundred  feet 
below  its  present  bed.  It  is  flowing  now  upon 
the  top  of  two  hundred  feet  of  glacial  drift. 
We  must  look  to  the  glacier  for  the  reason 
why  the  northern  portion  of  our  county  is 
covered  with  heavy  clay,  difficult  to  till,  but 
very  rich  in  desirable  soil  qualities;  while 
the  southern  portion  is  sandy  and  gravelly. 
It  must  not  be  inferred  from  the  foregoing 
that  Nature  had  her  work  of  soil-making  all 
to  do  over  again  after  the  final  departure  of 
the  ice.  The  glacial  deposits  and  the  sedi- 
ment of  glacial  lakes,  left  upon  the  surface 
of  the  earth,  were  a  long  step  forward  in  the 
work  of  restoring  the  soil.     As  pointed  out 

by  Prof.  Claypole,  our  flora  is  considerably 
richer  by  reason  of  the  Arctic  conditions 
which  attended  the  coming  of  the  ice. 

Fortunately  for  us,  the  erosion  of  the  Cuya- 
hoga and  the  various  deep  borings  made  in 
this  vicinity  in  the  search  for  water  and  oil 
and  coal  make  the  determination  of  the 
geological  structure  of  Summit  County  an 
easy  matter.  There  are  various  out-croppings 
of  the  different  strata,  also,  which  greatly  as- 
sist the  geologist  in  this  work. 

The  lowest  formation  in  the  county  is  the 
Erie  Shale,  which  occurs  in  the  upper  part 
of  the  Devonian.  It  is  almost  homogeneous 
in  its  nature  and  is  a  soft  shale  of  a  bluish- 
gray  color.  It  is  sometimes  varied  with  bands 
of  calcareous  sandstone  and  is  occasionally 
found  carrying  fossils.  It  is  exposed  at 
Peninsula  and  -in  some  of  the  gorges  opening 
into  the  Cuyahoga  Valley.  When  the  quar- 
rying for  the  improvement  of  the  Arcturus 
Springs  in  the  Sand  Run  Gorge  was  done, 
some  beautiful  specimens  of  the  blue  iron 
stone  with  bands  of  a  rich  brown  color  were 
broken  off  the  Erie  shale  out-crop  there. 

Above  the  Erie  shale  is  the  Cleveland 
shale,  which  is  black  and  highly  bituminous. 
It  is  probably  a  lower  member  of  the  Waver- 
ly  or  subcarboniferous  .  It  is  rich  in  carbon 
and,  upon  distillation,  gas  and  oil  may  be 
obtained  from  it.  This  shale  may  also  be  seen 
to  good  advantage  in  the  steep  cliffs  along  the 
Cuyahoga.  The  next  formation  is  the  Bed- 
ford shale,  which  takes  its  name  from  Bed- 
fordjin  Cuyahoga  County.  It  is  exposed  in  Bed- 
ford Glens.  One  peculiarity  of  this  stratum  is 
the  thin  bands  of  sandstone,  from  which  flag- 
ging for  side-walks,  etc.,  can  be  easily  made. 
Above  the  Bedford  shale  is  found  the  Berea 
sandstone,  which  comes  to  the  surface  in  the 
southern  part,  of  Boston  township.  It  also 
outcrops  on  the  high  land  in  Northfield  town- 
ship. The  large  quarries  at  Peninsula  are 
constituted  of  Berea  sandstone.  It  1=  of  a 
uniform  white  or  .gray  color  and  its  close 
texture  and  resisting  qualities  make  it  a 
splendid  stone  for  building.  It  is  capable 
of  being  quarried  in  large  blocks.  In  the 
lower   parts    of   the    Peninsula    quarries    the 



saiul,~tone  is  extremely  Iiai'd  and  posst^sses  a 
sharp  grit  which  makes  it  especially  valuable 
for  the  manufacture  of  niill-stoues.  Much  of 
it  is  used  for  this  purpose  and  also  for  making 
grind-stones.  It  is  topped  by  a  thin  layer  of 
black,  bituminous  shale.  Below  Cuyahoga 
Falls  this  sandstone  may  be  seen  exposed  and 
the  cascade  in  Brandywine  Creek  is  over  this 
formation  also.  Next  above  the  Berea  sand- 
stone comes  Cuyahoga  shale,  so  called  because 
of  its  fine  exposure  in  the  bluffs  below  Cuya- 
hoga Falls.  In  the  main,:  it  is  composed  of 
a  soft  argillaceous  shale,  but  also  contains  a 
bed  of  hard,  fine-grained  sandstone.  The  Big 
Falls  at  the  Old  Maid's  Kitchen  are  due  to 
this  hard  sandstone  resisting  the  eroding  pow- 
ers of  the  river.  It  is  foTmed  on  the  surface 
in  parts  of  Northfield  township.  A  bed  of 
limestone  occurs  near  the  top  of  this  shale 
just  below  Cuyahoga  Falls,  from  which  quick- 
lime was  made  at  the  time  of  the  construc- 
tion of  the  Ohio  canal,  as  alluded  to  else- 
where in  this  history.  A  very  good  cement 
could  doubtless  be  made  from  it.  In  Rich- 
field  township  a  bed  of  fossiliferous  limestone 
occurs,  in  which  some  very  remarkable  fos- 
sil plants  and  animals  have  been  found. 

Next  above  the  Cuyalioga  shale  comes  the 
most  common  rock  formation  to  be  found  in 
the  county.  It  is  Carboniferous  Conglomer- 
ate. It  is  well  to  remember  the  name,  for  it 
is  the  surface  rock  of  the  townships  of  North- 
ampton, Copley,  Portage,  Tallmadge,  Spring- 
field, Coventry,  Norton,  Twinsbui'g,  Hudson, 
Stow,  Boston,  Richfield  and  Bath.  It  is  an 
extremely  coaree  sandstone  and  generally  con- 
tains, thickly  imbedded  in  it,  small,  round, 
white  quartz  pebbles.  The  stone  is  of  a  yel- 
lowish color,  except  where  it  has  been  stained 
red  or  brown  by  oxide  of  iron.  This  sand- 
stone is  extensively  quarried  just  above  Old 
Portage  at  the  plant  of  the  Akron  White  Sand 
Company.     After  grinding  and  washing,  the 

product  is  shipped  to  various  centers  to  be 
used  in  the  process  of  glass-making.  At  Bos- 
ton Ledges  and  on  the  top  of  the  bluffs  about 
Old  Maid's  Kitchen  it  may  also  be  studied  to 
good  advantage.  This  stratum  averages  about 
100  feet  in  thickness.  On  account  of  its 
strength  and  durability  it  is  much  used  for 
rougher  construction  purposes,  such  as  foun- 
dations, bridges  and  culverts. 

It  is  not  po.?sible  to  find  coal  north  of  the 
place  of  outcrop  of  the  Carboniferous  Con- 
glomerate, for  the  coal  measures  all  lie  above 
it.  Sometimes  it  is  missing  and  the  coal  beds 
lie  directly  above  the  Cuyalioga  shale.  The 
rocks  containing  the  coal  measures  all  lie  in 
the  southern  part  of  the  county.  In  them  are 
found  four  different  seams  of  coal.  The  top 
and  bottom  seams  are  about  200  feet  apart. 
The  lowest,  of  course,  is  the  best  coal.  In  the 
Ohio  Geological  Reports  it  is  called  Coal  No. 
1.  It  is  of  the  same  grade  as  the  best  Ohio 
bituminous  coal.  It  is  found  in  basins  or 
])ockets  which  were  the  swamps  of  the  coal- 
forming  period.  It  occurs  about  twenty-five 
feet  above  the  Carboniferous  Conglomerate, 
or,  when  the  latter  is  wanting,  the  Cuyahoga 
Shale.  The  next  seam  gives  us  coal  No.  2, 
which  is  of  little  value.  Coal  No.  3  comes 
to  the  surface  near  Mogadore.  It  is  a  thin 
stratum  and  is  of  value  only  because  of  the 
under-clay,  which  is  used  in  making  sewer- 
pipe  and  coarse  pottery.  In  the  southeastern 
part  of  the  county  coal  No.  4  is  found.  It  is 
of  little  value,  except  for  local  consumption. 
A  bed  of  lime-stone  is  sometimes  found  above 
both  No.  3  and  No.  4.  This  lime-stone  car- 
ries a  low-grade  iron  ore,  of  which  use  was 
made  in  the  early  days  of  Summit  County. 
The  last  blast-furnace  has  long  since  drawn  its 
fires,  and  the  only  use  which  can  be  made  of 
this  lime-stone  bed  at  the  present  time  would 
be  the  manufacture  of  lime,  cement,  or  mate- 
rial for  road-making. 



Pioneer  Conditions — Indian  Trading — Wild  Garae — Home-Made  Garments — Pioneer  Hos- 
pitality— Social  Amusements — First  Published  Description  of  Summit  County — Making 
of  Summit  County — Western  Reserve — Organization  of  the  County — County  Seat  Se- 
lected— County  Seat  Contests — Adams'  Reception — Territorial  Changes. 

Unfortunately  for  the  purposes  of  the  mod- 
ern historian,  the  early  settlers  of  Summit 
County  left  no  written  record  of  their  expe- 
riences in  breaking  the  forest  and  founding 
homes  in  the  wilderness.  Only  a  few  meager 
accounts  contained  in  letters  and  recorded  in 
journals,  exasperatingly  deficient  in  details, 
have  been  left  to  give  succeeding  generations 
an  idea  of  how  the  pioneers  in  the  land  lived. 
Many  oral  traditions  have  survived,  however, 
and  many  vivid  stories  are  still  being  told 
which  have  never  been  seen  in  pi'int. 

In  1904  the  total  valuation  of  property  in 
the  State  of  Ohio  was  $2,113,808,168.  The 
real  wealth  of  Ohio  in  this  year — 1907 — is 
probably  not  far  from  five  billions  of  dollars. 
In  respect  to  wealth,  ours  is  the  fourth  State  in 
the  Union,  only  New  York,  Massachusetts  and 
Pennsylvania  exceeding  it.  It  is  difficult  to 
realize  that  this  has  practically  all  been  ac- 
cumulated within  one  century.  Every  nook 
and  corner  of  the  State  has '  kept  pace  with 
the  growth  of  American  culture  and  refine- 
ment. Ohio  is  abreast  of  the  times  in  every 
desirable  respect.  The  humblest  today  enjoy 
advantages  which  would  have  been  extreme 
luxuries  for  their  predecessors  of  only  two 
or  three  generations  back.  Contrast  the  life 
of  today  with  the  following  picture  of  the 
everyday  experiences  in  the  early  years  of  the 
past  century  found  in  Carpenter  and  Arthur's 

History  of  Ohio.  It  was  written  at  an  early 
time,  when  the  first  cornel's  were  still  with  us 
and  were  fond  of  relating  their  early  hard- 


The  present  resident's  of  the  now  flourish- 
ing State  of  Ohio,  living  in  the  midst  of 
plenty,  can  form  but  a  faint  conception  of  the 
hardships  and  privations  endured  by  their 
predecessors.  The  first  object  of  the  pioneer, 
after  selecting  a  suitable  spot,  was  to  build  a 
log  cabin  of  proper  dimensions  as  a  residence 
for  his  family.  The  walls  of  his  cabin  were 
constructed  of  logs  piled  one  upon  another, 
the  space  between  being  completely  closed 
with  tempered  clay.  The  floor  was  made  of 
puncheons  or  planks,  formed  by  splitting  logs 
to  about  two  and  a  half  or  three  inches  in 
thickness,  and  hewing  them  on  one  or  both 
sides  with  a  broad-axe.  The  roof  and  ceiling 
-were  composed  of  clap-boards,  a  species  of 
pioneer  lumber  resembling  barrel  staves  be- 
fore they  are  shaved,  but  split  longer,  wider 
and  thinner.  The  walls  of  the  log  cabin 
having  been  erected,  the  dooi^  and  windows 
were  then  sawn  out;  the  steps  of  the  door 
being  made  with  the  pieces  cut  from  the 
walls,  and  the  door  itaelf  formed  of  the  same 
material  a."  the  floor.  The  apertures  in  the 
walls  intended  for  windows  were  pasted  over 



with  paper  lubricated  with  bear's  oil  or  lard, 
which  was  used  as  a  substitute  for  glass.  This 
paper  resisted  the  rain  tolerably  well,  and  at 
the  same  time  subdued  the  direct  rays  of  the 
sun,  and  admitted  into  the  mde  apartment  a 
light  beautifully  softened  and  mellowed. 

The  furniture  of  the  log  cabin  corresponded 
to  the  cabin  itself  in  simplicity  and  i-udeness 
of  construction.  The  bedstead  was  usually 
formed  in  the  following  manner.  Two  round 
poles  were  first  fixed  in  the  floor  as  uprights, 
at  a  distance  from  each  other  and  from  the 
walls  of  the  cabin,  equal  to  the  intended 
length  and  breadth  of  the  bedstead.  A  pole 
was  then  inserted  into  either  post  as  a  side 
rail,  and  two  poles  were  also  fixed  in  them,  at 
right  angles  to  the  plane  of  the  wall,  their 
ends  being  wedged  into  the  crevices  between 
the  logs.  Some  puncheons  were  then  split 
and  laid  from  the  side-rail  across  the  bed- 
stead, their  ends  being  also  inserted  into  the 
chinks  of  the  log  wall.  This  constituted  the 
bottom  of  the  bedstead.  The  skins  of  the 
bear,  the  buffalo  and  the  deer  formed  the 
bedding.  The  shelves  of  the  log  cabin 
were  made  of  clap-board,  supported  on 
wooden  pegs  driven  in  between  the  logs,  and 
on  these  were  displayed  such  wooden,  pewter 
and  earthenware  plates  and  dishes  as  the 
pioneer  was  fortunate  enough  to  possess.  One 
pot,  kettle  and  frying-pan  were  considered  to 
be  the  only  articles  absolutely  indispensable, 
though  some  included  the  tea-kettle.  The 
few  plates  and  dishes  on  the  clap-board  shelf 
were  sufficient  for  the  simple  wants  of  their 
owners,  who  relished  their  food  none  the  less 
that  it  was  eaten  from  common  trenchers  and 
from  a  puncheon  table.  The  great  scarcity 
of  domestic  utensils  among  the  settlers  often 
taxed  their  ingenuity  to  supply  the  want  when 
an  influx  of  visitors  unexpectedly  trespassed 
upon  their  hospitality. 

"A  year  or  two  after  we  arrived,"  writes 
one  of  the  earlier  pioneers,  "a  visiting  party 
was  arranged  by  the  ladies  in  order  to  call 
on  a  neighboring  family  who  lived  a  little  out 
of  the  common  way.  The  hostess  was  much 
pleased  to  see  us,  and  immediately  commenced 
preparing  the  usual  treat  on  such  occasion.* — 

a  cup  of  tea  with  its  accompaniments.  She 
had  only  one  fire-proof  vessel  in  the  house — 
an  old,  broken  bake-kettle — and  it  was  some 
time  before  tea  was  ready.  In  the  first  place, 
some  pork  was  fried  in  the  kettle  to  obtain 
lard;  secondly,  some  cakes  were  made  and 
fried  in  it;  thirdly,  some  short  cakes  were 
prepared  in  it;  fourthly,  it  was  used  as  a 
bucket  to  draw  water;  fifthly,  the  water  was 
boiled  in  it;  finally,  the  tea  was  put  in,  and 
a  very  excellent  and  sociable  dish  of  tea  we 

The  seats  in  the  log  house  were  generally 
three-legged  stools,  for,  owing  to  the  uneven- 
ness  of  the  puncheon  floor  a  chair  with  four 
legs  could  not  readily  be  made  to  stand  even- 
ly upon  its  surface.  Some  of  the  wealthier 
families  might  have  a  few  split-bottomed 
chairs,  but  more  frequently  stools  and  benches 
occupied  the  place  of  chairs  and  sofas. 

After  the  pioneer  had  completed  his  log 
house,  the  next  thing  to  be  done  was  to  effect 
a  "clearing"  around  it  for  a  "corn-patch." 
When  the  trees  were  cut  down  the  ground 
was  usually  ploughed  with  a  shovel-plough, 
this  'being  the  best  instrument  with  which  to 
force  a  way  among  the  roots.  As  the  clear- 
ing expanded,  many  were  the  farinaceous 
delicacies  M^hich  covered  the  settler's  puncheon 
table.  The  johnny-cake,  made  of  corn-meal, 
hominy,  or  pounded  maize,  thoroughly  boiled, 
and  other  savoury  preparations  of  flour  and 
milk.  The  forest  furnished  him  with  an 
abundance  of  venison  and  wild  turkeys,  while 
corn  "pone"  supplied  the  place  of  every  va- 
riety of  pastry.  Hogs  and  sheep  were,  how- 
ever, seldom  raised,  on  account  of  the  wolves 
and  bears  which  infested  the  woods. 

The  corn  of  the  first  settlers  was  either 
pounded  in  a  "hominy  block,"  which  was 
made  by  burning  a  hole  into  the  end  of  a 
block  of  wood,  or  ground  in  a  hand-mill. 
After  the  corn  was  sufficiently  pounded  it 
was  passed  through  a  sieve,  and  the  finer  por- 
tion of  the  meal  having  been  made  into  bread 
and  mush,  the  coarse  remainder  was  boiled 
for  hominy.  The  supper  of  the  pioneer  usu- 
ally consisted  of  and  milk.  A  capacious 
pot  containing  this  preparation  was  sometimes 



placed  on  the  table,  and  all  the  guests  invited 
to  help  themselves.  More  commonly,  how- 
ever, each  person  was  furnished  with  a  pew- 
ter spoon,  and  a  tin  cup  containing  milk,  into 
which  he  infused  the  pure  mush  in  propor- 
tions most  agreeable  to  his  taste. 

The  pioneers  had  frequently  great  diffi- 
culties to  surmount  before  they  could  get 
their  corn  ground.  Notwith.standing,  the 
rich  harvests  of  maize  yielded  by  their  clear- 
ings, meal  was  a  very  scarce  article  in  their 
cabins.  To  procure  it  they  had  to  choose 
between  the  hominy  mortar  or  a  toilsome 
journey  of  upward  of  thirty  miles,  over  an 
Indian  trail,  to  the  nearest  mill.  In  1791 
flour  was  so  scarce  and  dear,  that  the  little 
which  could  be  afforded  in  families  was  laid 
by  to  be  used  only  in  sickness  or  for  the  en- 
tertainment of  friends,  for,  although  corn 
was  then  abundant,  there  was  but  one  float- 
ing mill  on  the  Little  Miami.  It  was  built 
in  a  small  fiat-boat  tied  to  the  bank,  its  wheel 
being  slowly  turned  by  the  force  of  the  cur- 
rent. It  was  barely  sufficient  to  supply  the 
inhabitants  of  Columbia  (the  second  settle- 
ment in  Ohio)  with  meal;  and,  sometimes, 
from  low  water  and  other  unfavorable  cir- 
cumstances, was  of  little  or  no  sers'ice.  At 
such  times  the  deficiency  in  flour  had  to  be 
supplied  by  hand  mills,  a  most  laborious  mode 
of  grinding. 

About  this  time  each  house  in  Cleveland, 
Cuyahoga  County,  had  its  own  hand  grist- 
mill in  the  chimney  corner,  which  has  been 
thus  described:  "The  stones  were  of  the  com- 
mon grindstone  gi'it,  about  four  inches  thick 
and  twenty  inches  in  diameter.  The  ninner 
was  turned  by  hand,  with  a  pole  set  in  the 
top  of  it  near  the  verge.  The  upper  end  of 
the  pole  went  into  another  hole  inserted  into 
a  board  and  nailed  on  the  underside  of  the 
joist,  immediately  over  the  hole  in  the  verge 
of  the  runner.  One  person  turned  the  stone, 
and  another  fed  the  corn  into  the  eye  with  his 
hands.  It  was  very  hard  work  to  grind,  and 
the  operators  alternately  changed  places."  It 
took  the  hard  labor  of  two  hours  to  supply 
enough  for  one  person  for  a  single  day. 

About  the  year  1800  one  or  two  grist-mills. 

operating  by  water,  were  erected.  One  of 
these  was  built  at  Newbury,  in  Cuyahoga 
County.  In  Miami  County  the  most  popular 
millers  were  Patterson,  below  Dayton,  and 
Owen  Davis,  on  Beaver  Creek.  But  the  dis- 
tance of  many  of  the  settlements  from  these 
mills,  and  the  want  of  proper  roads,  often 
made  the  expense  of  grinding  a  single  bushel 
equal  the  value  of  two  or  three. 

It  was  not  an  uncommon  thing  for  the 
pioneer  to  leave  his  family  in  the  wilderness 
with  a  stinted  supply  of  food,  and  with  his 
team  or  pack-horse  travel  twenty  or  thirty 
miles  for  provisions.  The  necessary  ap- 
pendages of  his  journey  were  an  axe,  a  pocket- 
compass,  a  blanket  and  bells.  He  had  to  cut 
a  TOad  through  the  woods  with  the  axe,  wide 
enough  for  his  team,  ford  .almost  impassable 
streams,  and,  as  the  day  drew  to  its  close,  look 
out  for  a  suitable  place  for  a  night's  encamp- 
ment. Having  decided  on  the  spot,  he  then, 
by  means  of  flint,  steel,  and  a  charge  of  pow- 
der, kindled  a  fire  to  dissipate  the  gloom  and 
damps  of  night,  to  drive  off  the  mosquitoes, 
and  to  prevent  the  approach  of  wild  animals. 
The  harness  being  removed  from  the  cattle, 
the  bells  were  attached  to  their  necks,  and 
they  were  driven  forth  to  find  such  pasturage 
as  the  forest  afforded.  After  having  par- 
taken of  his  solitary  meal,  the  blanket  was 
spread  on  the  ground  in  the  neighborhood  of 
the  camp-fire,  and  the  wearied  backwoodsman, 
wrapped  in  its  warm  folds,  .slept  soundly  be- 
neath the  trees.  In  the  morning,  or  more 
frequently,  long  before  the  break  of  day,  he 
listened  to  catch  the  sound  of  bells,  to  him 
sweet  music,  for  not  unfrequently  hours  were 
consumed  in  tedious  wanderings  before  he 
could  recover  his  stray  cattle,  harness  them  to 
his  team,  and  resume  his  journey.  On 
reaching  his  place  of  destination,  if  he  could 
only  get  his  grinding  done  by  waiting  no 
longer  than  a  day  and  a  night  at  the  mill,  he 
esteemed  himself  fortunate.  The  corn  hav- 
ing been  ground,  the  pioneer  retraced  his 
steps  to  his  lonely  and  secluded  family,  and 
not  unfrequently  had  scarcely  time  to  rest 
and  refresh  himself,  before  the  same  journey 
had  to  be  repeated. 



Jacob  Foust,  one  of  the  Ohio  backwoods- 
men, when  his  wife  was  sick,  and  he  could 
obtain  nothing  to  eat  that  she  relished,  pro- 
cured a  bushel  of  wheat,  and,  throwing  it  on 
his  shouldere,  carried  it  to  Zanesville  to  get 
it  ground,  a  distance  of  more  than  seventy- 
five  miles  from  his  dwelling,  bjf  the  tortuous 
path  he  had  to  traverse.  His  object  accom- 
plished, he  once  more  resumed  his  load,  and 
returned  homo,  fording  the  streams  and  camp- 
ing ovit  at  nights. 

The  animal  food  which  covered  the  table  of 
the  settler  was  chiefly  obtained  from  the 
woods.  Hunters,  the  better  to  elude  the  ever- 
watchful  eye  of  the  deer  and  turkey,  wore 
hunting-skirts  of  a  color  suited  to  the  season 
of  the  year.  In  spring  and  summer  their 
dress  was  green;  in  the  fall  of  the  year  it 
resembled  the  fallen  leaves,  and  in  winter,  as 
nearly  as  possible,  the  bark  of  trees.  If  there 
was  any  snow  on  the  ground,  the  hunters 
put  on  a  white  hunting-shirt.  As  soon  as 
the  leaves  had  fallen,  and  the  weather  became 
rainy,  the  hunter  began  to  feel  uneasy  at 
home.  "Everything  about  him  became  dis- 
agreeable. The  house  was  too  warm,  the  bed 
too  soft,  and  even  the  good  wife  for  the  time 
was  not  thought  to  be  a  good  companion."  A 
party  was  soon  formed,  and  on  the  appointed 
day  the  little  cavalcade,  with  horses  carrying 
flour,  meal,  blankets,  and  other  requisites, 
were  on  their  way  to  the  hunting-camp.  This 
was  always  formed  in  some  sheltered  and  se- 
questered spot,  and  consisted  of  a  rude  camp, 
with  a  log  fire  in  the  open  air  in  front  of  it, 
the  interior  of  the  hut  being  well  lined  with 
skins  and  moss,  the  only  bedding  on  which 
these  hunters  were  accustomed  to  sleep. 

It  was  to  the  spoils  of  the  chase  that  the 
pioneers  and  Indians  trusted  for  the  skins  and 
furs  to  barter  for  the  few  necessaries  they  re- 
quired from  tlie  Eastern  States.  An  Indian 
trail  from  Sandusky  to  the  Tuscarawas,  passed 
by  the  residence  of  Mr.  Harris,  who  formed 
the  first  regular  settlement  at  Harrisville,  .in 
Medina  County.  It  was  a  narrow,  hard- 
trodden  bridlepath.  In  the  fall  the  Indians 
traversed  it  from  the  west  to  this  region,  re- 
mained through  the  winter  to  hunt,  and  re- 

turned in  the  spring;  their  horses  laden  with 
furs,  jerked  venison,  and  bear's  oil,  the  last 
an  extensive  article  of  commerce.  Their 
horses  were  loose,  and  followed  each  other 
in  single  hunter's  file,  and  it  was  by  no  means 
remarkable  to  see  a  single  hunter  returning 
with  as  many  as  twenty  horses  laden  with  his 
winter's  work,  and  usually  accompanied  by 
his  squaw. 


The  mode  in  which  business  was  con- 
ducted with  the  Indians  by  the  fur  traders, 
was  as  follows:  The  Indians  walked  into 
the  merchant's  store,  and  deliberately  seated 
themselves,  upon  which  the  latter  presented 
each  of  his  visitors  with  a  small  piece  of 
tobacco.  Having  lighted  their  pipes,  they 
smoked  and  talked  together  awhile.  One  of 
the  Indians  then  went  to  the  counter  of  the 
merchant,  and,  taking  up  the  yard-stick, 
pointed  to  the  first  article  he  desired  to  pos- 
sess, and  inquired  its  price.  A  muskrat  skin 
^vas  equal  in  value  to  a  quarter  of  a  dollar ;  a 
raccoon  skin,  a  third  of  a  dollar;  a  doeskin, 
half  a  dollar,  and  a  buckskin,  a  dollar.  The 
questions  were  asked  after  this  manner :  "How 
many  buckskins  for  a  shirt  pattern?"  The 
Indian,  learning  the  price  of  the  fii-st  article, 
paid  for  it  by  selecting  the  required  number 
of  skins,  and  handing  them  to  the  trader,  be- 
fore proceeding  to  the  second,  when 
he  repeated  the  same  process,  paying  for 
everything  as  he  went  along.  While  the  first 
Indian  was  trading  the  others  looked  on  in 
silence,  and  when  he  was  through,  a.nother 
took  his  place,  until  all  were  satLsfied.  No 
one  desired  to  trade  before  his  turn,  but  all 
observed  a  proper  deconim,  and  never  offered 
a  lower  price,  but,  if  dissatisfied,  passed  on 
to  the  next  article.  They  were  careful  not 
to  trade  when  intoxicated;  but  usually  re- 
served some  of  their  skins  with  which  to  buy 
liquor,  and  close  their  business  transactions 
with  a  frolic. 

To  such  of  the  pioneers,  however,  as  did 
not  hunt,  the  long  winter  evenings  were 
rather  tedious.  They  had  no  candles,  and 
cared  but  little  about  them,   except  at  such 








seasons.  The  deficiency  in  light  was,  how- 
ever, partially  remedied  by  torches  made  of 
pine-knots,  or  the  bark  of  the  shelly  hickory. 
To  relieve  the  tedium,  the  pioneer  would  read 
aloud  to  hi>s  family  from  such  books  as  his 
cabin  afforded,  or  engage  in  the  usual  opera- 
tions of  the  season,  such  as  shelling  corn, 
scraping  turnips,  stemming  and  twisting  to- 
bacco, plaiting  straw  for  hats,  or  ci'acking 
walnuts  and  hickory  nuts,  of  which  the  in- 
mates of  every  cabin  usually  laid  in  a'  good 
winter's  supply. 


The  wolf  for  a  considerable  time  caused 
much  trouble  to  the  pioneers,  and  prevented 
the  profitable  raising  of  sheep  and  hogs  in 
the  neighborhood  of  the  "clearing."  In  or- 
der to  preserve  the  hogs  from  the  attacks  of 
these  animals,  it  was  necessary  to  build  the 
walls  of  the  hog-pen  so  high  that  the  wolf 
could  neither  jump  nor  climb  them.  Their 
depredations  were  so  great  that  the  state  of- 
fered a  bounty  of  from  four  to  six  dollars 
apiece  on  their  scalps.  This  made  wolf  hunt- 
ing rather  a  lucrative  business,  and  called  into 
action  all  the  talent  of  the  country.  Some- 
times these  ferocious  animals  were  taken  in 
traps.  The  wolf-trap  resembled  a  box  in  ap- 
pearance, formed  of  log-s,  and  floored  with 
puncheons.  It  was  usually  made  about  six 
feet  in  length,  four  feet  in  width,  and  three 
feet  in  depth.  A  very  heavy  puncheon  lid 
was  moved  by  an  axle  at  one  end,  the  trap 
being  set  by  a  figure  four,  and  baited.  On 
one  occasion,  a  hunter  went  into  a  wolf-trap 
to  adjust  the  spring,  when  the  lid  .suddenly 
fell  and  hurled  him  into  the  pit.  Unable  to 
raise  the  cover,  and  several  miles  from  the 
nearest  house,  he  was  imprisoned  for  a  day 
and  night  in  his  own  trap,  and  would  have 
perished  but  for  a  passing  hunter,  who  heard 
his  groans  and  instantlj'  relieved  him. 

Bears  and  panthers  were  at  one  time  com- 
mon in  the  northwestern  territory,  but  their 
depredations  on  the  hog-pen  were  not  so  fre- 
quent as  those  of  the  wolf  and  the  wild-cat, 
and  they  were  tisually  more  shy  in  tlicir 


Most  of  the  articles  of  dress  worn  by  the 
first  settlers  were  of  domestic  manufacture. 
Wool  was  not  yet  introduced  into  the  country, 
and  all  their  home-spun  garments  were  made 
from  flax  or  hemp,  or  from'  the  skins  of  the 
deer,  which,  when  nicely  dressed,  afforded 
warm  and  comfortable  clothing.  Such  was 
the  settler's  everyday  and  holiday  garb.  A 
common  American  check  was  considered  a 
superb  article  for  a  bridal-dress,  and  such  a 
thing  as  silk  or  satin  was  never  dreamt  of. 
A  yard  of  cotton  check,  which  can  now  be  ob- 
tained for  twelve  and  a  half  cents,  then  cost 
one  dollar,  and  five  yards  was  deemed  an 
ample  dress  pattern.  The  coarser  calicoes 
were  one  dollar  per  yard,  while  whiskey  was 
from  one  to  two  dollai's  per  gallon,  and  as 
much  of  this  article  was  sold  as  of  anything 
else.  The  country  merchants,  however,  found 
it  advantageous  to  their  business  to  place  a 
bottle  of  liquor  on  each  end  of  the  counter 
for  the  gratuitous  use  of  their  customers. 

In  the  fall  of  1800,  Ebenezer  Zane  laid  out 
a  town  in  Fairfield  County,  and  in  compli- 
ment to  a  number  of  emigrants  from  Lan- 
caster County,  Pennsylvania,  who  had  pur- 
chased lots,  called  it  New  Lancaster.  It  re- 
tained that  name  until  1805,  when,  by  an 
act  of  the  legi.slature,  the  word  "New"  was 
dropped.  Shortly  after  the  settlement  was 
made,  and  'while  the  stumps  were  yet  in  the 
streets,  the  cheapness  of  whiskey  occasionally 
led  some  of  the  settlers  to  indulge  in  drunken 
frolics,  which  not  un frequently  ended  in  a 

In  the  absence  of  law,  the  better  disposed 
part  of  the  population  held  a  meeting,  at 
which  it  was  resolved  tliat  any  person  in  the 
settlement  foimd  intoxicated  .should  for  every 
such  offense  either  dig  a  stump  out  of  the 
street,  of  which  there  were  many,  or  suffer 
personal  chastisement.  The  result  was.  that, 
after  several  of  the  offenders  had  expiated 
their  offenses,  dram-drinking  cea.sed.  and  so- 
briety and  good  conduct  marked  the  char- 
acter of  the  people. 

For  many  years  the  pioneers  lived  together 



on  the  footing  of  social  equality.  The  rich 
and  the  poor  dressed  nearly  alike.  What  lit- 
tle aristocratic  feeling  any  new  settler  might 
bring  with  hini',  was  soon  dissipated,  for  all 
soon  found  themselves  equally  dependent. 
The  pioneers  knew  who  were  sick  for  manj' 
miles  ai-ound,  and  would  very  cheerfully 
tender  their  assistance  to  each  other  under 
such  circumstances.  All  sympathized  on 
these  occa-sions,  and  the  log  cabin  of  the  in- 
valid would  be  visited,  not  only  by  those  in 
his  own  immediate  neighborhood,  but  by  set- 
tlers from  a  distance,  who  would  keep  him 
well  supplied  with  the  best  of  everything  their 
primitive  habits  could  afford. 


The  stranger  ever  received  at  the  log  cabin 
of  these  pioneers  a  generous  welcome.  The 
rough  fare  on  the  puncheon  table  was  most 
cheerfully  shared,  and  any  offer  of  remunera- 
tion would  offend  them.  Even  the  Indian, 
in  times  of  peace,  was  no  exception,  and  would 
be  received  and  kindly  entertained  with  such 
fare  as  the  cabin  afforded.  The  pioneer  hos- 
pitality, together  with  its  happy  effects  on 
one  occasion,  is  well  exemplified  in  the  fol- 
lowing confession  of  converted  Wyandot  chief, 
named  Rohn-yen-ness.  He  had  been  chosen 
by  his  tribe  to  murder  Andrew  Poe,  a  woods- 
man, celebrated  in  border  warfare,  who  had 
slain,  among  others,  one  of  the  bravest  war- 
riors in  the  Wyandot  nation.  This  Indian 
proceeded  to  Poe's  house,  where  he  was  re- 
ceived with  utmost  and  hospitality. 
Poe,  having  no  suspicion  whatever  of  his  de- 
sign, furnished  him  with  the  very  best  which 
his  cabin  afforded.  When  bedtime  came,  a  pal- 
let was  carefully  prepared  for  their  Indian 
guest  by  the  hospitable  couple  in  their  own 
chamber.  The  unsuspicious  hunter  and  his 
famih'^  having  fallen  into  a  deep  sleep,  the 
Indian  had  now  a  fair  opportunity  to  accom- 
plish their  destruction.  He  thought  of  the 
duty  he  owed  to  his  nation,  of  the  death  of  its 
most  valiant  warrior,  and  of  the  anger  of  his . 
tribe :  but  Poe  had  received  him  with  so  much 

kindness,  had  treated  him  so  much  like  a 
brother,  that  he  could  not  summon  a  suffi- 
cient amount  of  resolution  to  kill  him,  and  in 
this  unsettled  state  of  mind  he  lay  till  about 
midnight.  Once  more  he  arose  from  his  pal- 
let, and  approached  his  sleeping  host.  His 
sinewy  arm  was  uplifted,  and  the  murderous 
weapon  glittered  in  his  hand.  Again  the 
kindness  of  the  sleeping  pioneer  overcame 
the  resolution  of  the  Indian,  who,  feeling  it 
to  be  unworthy  the  character  of  a  warrior  to 
kill  even  an  enemy  who  had  reposed  in  him 
such  generous  confidence,  returned  to  his  pal- 
let and  slept  till  morning.  During  the  war, 
however,  it  was  necessary  to  be  more  guarded 
in  entertaining  Indians,  and,  although  the 
following  incident  is  more  romantic  than 
tragic,  it  affords  a  good  general  illustration 
of  the  danger  to  which  the  settlers  were  ex- 

One  night,  just  before  retiring  to  rest,  a 
backwoodsman  of  the  name  of  Minor  Spicer, 
residing  near  Akron,  in  Summit  County, 
heardi  some  one  call  an  front  of  his  log 
cabin.  He  went  out  and  saw  a  large  Indian 
with  two  rifles  in  his  hand  and  a  deer  quar- 
tered and  hung  across  his  horse.  Spicer  asked 
him  what  he  wanted.  The  Indian  replied  in 
his  own  dialect,  when  the  other  told  him  he 
must  speak  English  or  he  would  unhorse  him. 
He  finally  gave  Spicer  to  understand  that  he 
wanted  to  stay  all  night,  a  request  which  was 
reluctantly  gi-anted.  The  rifles  of  the  Indian 
were  laid  in  a  corner,  his  venison  hung  up, 
his  horse  stabled  in  an  out-house,  and  the 
Indian  invited  to  enter  the  dwelling  of  the 

The  savage  now  cut  a  piece  of  venison  for 
Mrs.  Spicer  to  cook  for  him,  which  she  did 
in  the  usual  way,  with  a  liberal  supply  of 
pepper  and  salt.  He  drew  near  the  table  and 
ate  only  sparingly.  The  family  being  ready 
to  retire,  he  placed  his  scalping-knife  and 
tomahawk  in  the  corner  with  his  rifles,  and, 
stretching  himself  upon  the  hearth  before 
the  fire,  was  soon  apparently  asleep.  After 
a  while  he  was  observed  to  raise  himself 
slowly  from  his  recumbent  position  and  sit 


upright  on  the  hearth,  looking  stealthily  over 
his  shoulder,  to  see  if  all  was  still.  Having 
satisfied  himself  that  the  family  slept,  the 
savage  rose  to  his  feet,  and  stepped  lightly 
across  the  floor  to  the  corner  where  lay  his 
implements 'of  death.  At  this  juncture  the 
feelings  of  Spicer  and  his  wife  may  be  imag- 
ined, for  they  were  only  feigning  sleep,  and 
were  intently  watching.  The  Indian  stood 
half  a  minute  to  see  if  he  had  awakened  any- 
one, and  then  slowly  drew  forth  from  its 
scabbard  the  glittering  scalping-knife.  At 
the  moment  when  Spicer  was  about  to  lay 
his  hand  upon  his  rifle,  which  stood  near  his 
bed  the  Indiim  crossed  quietly  to  the  venison, 
cut  several  steaks  from  it.  and  was  soon  after 
busily  engaged  in  broiling  a  supply  for  him- 
self, freed  from  the  pepper,  which  had  pre- 
viously offended  his  unsophisticated  taste. 


The  social  amusements  of  the  pioneers 
originated  in  the  peculiarities  of  their  habits, 
and  were  especially  characteristic.  On  the  ar- 
rival of  a  new  settler,  every  one  was  expected 
to  perform  a  certain  amount  of  gratuitous 
labor  at  the  "log-rolling,"  or  the  raising  of 
the  new  cabin.  Some  felled  the  trees  and  cut 
them  the  proper  length:  others  prepared 
puncheons  for  the  floor,  and  clap-boards  for 
the  roof,  while  another  neighbor  with  his  t-eam 
hauled  these  materials  to  the  site  on  which 
the  cabin  was  to  be  erected.  A  large  num- 
ber of  persons  usually  assembled  at  this  place 
on  the  day  appointed  for  the  raising,  by  whom 
the  walls  of  the  house  w-ere  speedily  con- 
structed. The  labors  of  the  day  having 
ended,  the  evening  was  spent  in  dancing  and 
other  innocent  amusements.  If  the  company 
had  no  fiddler,  which  was  not  unfrequently 
the  case,  some  of  the  party  would  supply  the 
deficiency  by  singing. 

Marriages  among  the  pioneers  wpi'p  gen- 
erally contracted  in  early  life,  and  on  these 
truly  festive  occasions  the  youth  of  both  sexes 
in  the  immediate  neighborhoods,  and  for  fif- 
teen or  tw^enty  miles  around,  would  be  gath- 

ered together.  On  the  morning  of  the  wed- 
ding day  the  bridegi'ooni  and  his  friends,  with 
their  numerous  visitors,  assembled  at  the 
house  of  the  bride,  and,  after  the  ceremony 
was  performed,  the  company  were  enter- 
tained with  a  most  substantial  backwoods 
feast  of  beef,  pork,  fowls,  with  plenty  of  po- 
tatoes, cabbages  and  other  vegetables.  After 
dinner  the  young  people  engaged  in  various 
rural  sports  until  dancing  commenced,  which 
was  kept  up  for  the  remainder  of  the  day, 
and  not  unfrequently  through  the  whole  of 
the  night.  The  dances  most  in  vogue  being 
ordinarily  three  and  four-hand  reel-,  or 
square  sets  and  jigs. 

The  next  day  the  whole  party  were  accus- 
tomed to  return  to  the  house  of  the  "''groom" 
to  partake  of  the  "infair."  On  arriving 
within  a  mile  of  the  dwelling,  two  young  nif  n 
would  volunteer  to  race  for  the  bottle. 
Mounted  on  ponies  (the  rougher  the  road  the 
better)  both  started  with  an  Indian  yell,  and 
away  they  went  over  logs,  brush,  muddy  hol- 
lows, hills  and  glens,  the  obstacles  on  the  road 
only  serving  for  a  better  display  of  rival  in- 
trepidity and  horsemanship.  The  bottle  was 
always  filled  and  ready  to  be  presented  to  the 
first  who  reached  the  door.  The  successful 
competitor  having  drank  the  health  of  the 
bride  and  groom,  then  returned  in  triumph 
to  distribute  potations  among  the  company. 

Although  among  the  pioneers  disputes 
would  occasionally  arise,  biit  few  ever  thought 
of  settling  them  by  legal  proceedings.  There 
were  other  modes  of  adjudication.  Some- 
times a  duel  would  decide  all  difficulties.  At 
others  the  pugilistic  ring  was  formed,  and, 
after  a  fight,  which  often  afforded  an  oppor- 
tunity of  displaying  great  courage  and  im- 
mense powers  of  endurance,  the  conqueror 
w-ould  shake  hands  with  the  vanquished,  and 
a  perfect  good  feeling  would  usually  be  re- 
stored betw-een  the  contending  parties.  It  is 
true  there  were  some  justices  of  the  peace, 
men  generally  chosen  by  the  pioneers  on  ac- 
coimt  of  their  strong,  natural  sense,  who  ad- 
mirably answered  all  the  purposes  of  their 




In  the  spring  of  1755,  James  Smith,  a 
youth  of  18  years,  was  taken  captive  by 
three  Indians,  about  five  miles  above  Bedford, 
Pennsylvania.  He  was  taken  by  them  to 
the  banks  of  the  Allegheny  River,  opposite 
Fort  Duquesne,  where  he  was  compelled  to 
run  the  gauntlet,  consisting  of  two  long  I'anks 
of  Indians,  two  or  three  rods  apart.  He  es- 
caped with  a  slight  tomahawk  injury,  and  his 
fleetness  and  skill  awakened  such  an  admira- 
tion among  the  Indians  that  they  spared  his 
life  and  adopted  him  into  the  tribe,  the  name 
of  which  wa^  Caughnewaga.  Several  years 
later,  upon  the  conclusion  of  a  treaty  with 
the  whites,  he  was  released  and  returned  to 
civilization.  In  1799  there  was  published 
in  Lexington,  Kentucky,  by  John  Bradford,  a 
book  entitled  "Narrative  of  the  Captivity  of 
Colonel  James  Smith  Among  the  Ohio  In- 
dians, Between  May,  1755,  and  April,  1759." 
It  is  a  most  thrilling  .story  of  Jame.s  Smith's 
experience  during  his  Indian  life,  and  its 
authenticity  is  unimpeached.  In  his  Indian 
hunting  trips  he  traversed  our  portage  path 
and  has  left  us  the  first  description  of  the 
adjacent  country  which  has  been  published. 
It  is  given  in  Colonel  Smith's  own  words  and 
is  as  follows: 

"Sometime  in  October  another  adopted 
brother,  older  than  Tontileango,  came  to  pay 
us  a  visit  at  Sunyendeand  and  asked  me  to 
take  a  hunt  with  'hiin  on  Guyahaga.  A.s  they 
always  used  me  as  a  freeman,  and  gave  me  the 
liberty  of  choosing,  I  told  him  that  I  was  at- 
tached to  Tontileango,  had  never  seen  him 
before,  and,  therefore,  asked  some  time  to 
consider  this.  He  told  me  that  the  party  he 
was  going  with  would  not  be  along,  or  at  the 
mouth  of  this  little  lake,  in  less  than  six 
days,  and  I  could  in  this  time  be  acquainted 
with  him,  and  judge  for  myself.  I  consulted 
with  Tontileango  on  this  occasion,  and  he 
told  me  that  our  old  brother,  Tecaughretanego 
(which  was  his  name)  was  a  chief  and  a  bet- 
ter man  than  he  was,  and  if  I  went  with  him 
I  might  expect  to  be  well  used,  but  he  said  I 

might  do  as  I  pleased,  and  if  I  stayed  lie 
would  use  me  as  he  had  done.  I  told  him 
that  he  had  acted  in  every  respect  as  a  brother 
to  me,  yet  1  was  much  pleased  with  my  old 
brother's  conduct  and  conversation,  and  as 
he  was  going  to  a  part  of  the  country  I  had 
never  been  in,  I  wished  to  go  with  him.  He 
said  that  he  was  perfectly  willing. 

"I  then  went  with  Tecaughretanego  to  the 
mouth  of  the  little  lake,  where  he  met  with 
the  company  he  intended  going  with,  which 
was  composed  of  Caughnewagas  and  Ottawas. 
Here  I  was  introduced  to  a  Caughnewaga  sis- 
ter, and  others  I  had  never  seen  before.  My 
sister's  name  was  Mary,  which  they  pro- 
nounced Maully.  I  asked  Tecaughretanego 
how  it  came  that  she  had  an  English  name. 
He  said  that  he  did  not  know  that  it  was  an 
English  name,  but  it  was  the  name  the  priest 
gave  her  when  she  was  baptized,  and  which 
he  said  was  the  name  of  the  mother  of  Jesus. 
He  said  there  were  a  great  many  of  the 
Caughnewagas  and  Ottawas  that  were  a  kind 
of  half  Roman  Catholics,  but  as  for  himself 
he  said  that  the  priest  and  he  could  not  agree, 
as  they  held  notions  that  contradicted  both 
sense  and  reason  and  had  the  assurance  to 
tell  him  that  the  book  of  God  taught  them 
these  foolish  absurdities,  but  he  could  not  be- 
lieve that  the  great  and  good  spirit  ever  taught 
them  any  such  nonsense,  and,  therefore,  he 
concluded  that  the  Indians'  old  religion  was 
better  than  this  new  way  of  worshi)iing  (Sod. 

"The  Otta\A'as  have  a  very  useful  kind  of 
tents,  which  they  carry  with  them,  mad-^  of 
flags,  plaited  and  stitched  together  in  a  very 
artful  manner,  so  as  to  turn  the  rain  and  wind 
well.  Each  mat  is  made  fifteen  feet  long  and 
about  five  feet  broad.  In  order  to  erect  this 
kind  of  tent  they  cut  a  number  of  long, 
straight  poles,  which  they  drive  into  the 
ground  in  the  form  of  a  circle,  leaning  in- 
wards; then  they  spread  the  mats  on 
these  poles,  beginning  at  the  bottom  and 
extending  up.  leaving  only  a  hole  in  the  top 
uncovered,  and  this  hole  answers  the  place  of 
a  chimney.  They  make  fire  of  dry  split  wood 
in  the  middle,  and  spread  down  bark  mats 
and  .skins  for  bedding,  on  which  they  sleep 



in  a  crooked  posture,  all  around  the  fire,  as 
the  length  of  their  beds  will  not  admit  of 
their  stretching  themselves.  In  place  of  a 
door  they  lift  up  one  end  of  a  mat  and  creep 
in,  and  let  the  mat  fall  down  behind  them. 
These  tents  are  wai'm  and  dry,  and  tolerab- 
ly clear  of  smoke.  Their  lumber  they  keep 
under  birch  bark  canoes,  which  they  carry 
out  and  turn  up  for  a  shelter,  where  they 
keep  everything  from  the  rain.  Nothing  is 
in  the  tents  but  themselves  and  their  bedding. 
"This  company  had  four  birch  canoes  and 
four  tents.  We  were  kindly  received  and 
they  gave  us  plenty  of  hominy  and  wild  fowl 
boiled  and  roasted.  As  geese,  ducks,  swans, 
etc.,  here  are  well  grain-fed,  they  were  re- 
markably fat,  especiallj^  the  green-necked 
ducks.  The  wild  fowl  fed  upon  a  kind  of 
wild  rice  that  grows  spontaneously  in  the 
shallow  water,  or  wet  places  along  the  sides 
or  in  the  corners  of  the  lakes.  As  the  wind 
was  high  and  we  could  not  proceed  on  uur 
voyage  we  remained  here  several  days  and 
killed  abundance  of  wild  fowl  and  a  number 
of  raccoons. 

"When  a  company  of  Indians  are  moving 
together  on  the  lake,  as  it  is  at  this  time  of 
the  year,  often  dangerous  sailing,  the  old  men 
hold  a  council,  and  when  they  agree  to  em- 
bark, every  one  is  engaged  immediately  in 
making  ready,  without  offering  one  word 
against  the  mea.sure,  though  the  lake  may  be 
boisterous  and  horrid.     One  morning,  though 

..e  wind  appeared  to  me  to  be  as  high  as  in 
days  past,  the  billows  raging,  yet  the  call  was 
given   yohohyohoh,   which   was   quickly  an- 

vvered  by  all  -ooh-ooh,  which  signifies  agreed. 
'.7e  were  all  instantly  engaged  in    preparing 

'  start,  and  had  considerable  difficulties  in 
•juibarking.  As  soon  as  we  got  into  our  ca- 
r  )es  we  fell  to  paddling  with  all  our  might, 
working  out  from  the  shore.  Though  this 
sort  of  canoe  rides  waves  beyond  what  could 
be  expected,  yet  the  water  several  times  dashed 
into  them.  When  we  got  out  about  half  a 
mile  from  shore  we  hoisted  sail,  and  as  it  was 
nearly  a  west  wind,  we  then  seemed  to  ride 
•the  waves  with  ease,  and  went  on  at  a  rapid 
rr.^e.    We  then  all  laid  down  our  paddles,  ex- 

cepting one  that  steered,  and  no  water 
dashed  into  our  canoe  until  we  came  near 
shore  again.  We  sailed  about  sixty  miles  that 
day  and  encamped  some  time  before  night. 
The  next  day  we  again  embarked  and  went 
on  very  well  for  sometime,  but  the  lake  being 
boisterous  and  the  wind  not  fair,  we  were 
obliged  to  make  the  shore,  which  we  accom- 
plished with  hard  work  and  some  difficulty  in 

The  next  morning  a  council  was  held  by 
the  old  men.  As  we  had  this  day  to  pass  by 
a  long  precipice  of  rocks  on  the  shore  about 
nine  miles,  which  rendered  it  impossible  for 
us  to  land,  though  the  wind  was  high  and 
the  lake  rough,  yet  as  it  was  fair,  we  were 
all  ordered  to  embark.  We  wrought  ourselves 
from  the  shore  and  hoisted  sail  (what  we 
used  in  place  of  sail  cloth  were  our  tent  mats, 
which  answered  the  purpose  very  well),  and 
went  on  for  some  time  with  a  fair  wind,  until 
we  were  opposite  to  the  precipice,  and  then  it 
turned  toward  the  shore,  and  we  began  to 
fear  that  we  should  be  cast  upon  the  rocks. 
Two  of  the  canoes  were  considerably  farther 
out  from  the  rocks  than  the  canoe  I  was  in. 
Those  who  were  farthest  out  in  the  lake  did 
not  let  down  their  sails  until  they  had  passed 
the  precipice,  but  as  we  were  nearer  the  rock, 
we  were  obliged  to' lower  our  sails  and  paddle 
with  all  our  might.  With  much  difficulty  we 
cleared  ourselves  of  the  rock  and  landed. 

This  night  the  wind  fell  and  the  next 
morning  the  lake  was  tolerably  calm  and  we 
embarked  without  difficulty,  and  paddled 
along  near  the  shore,  until  we  came  to  the 
mouth  of  the  Cuyahaga,  which  empties  into 
Lake  Erie  on  the  south  side  betwixt  Cane- 
sadooharie  and  Presque  Isle.  We  turned  up 
Cuyahaga  and  encamped,  where  we  stayed 
and  hunted  several  'days,  and  so  we  kept 
moving  and  hunting  until  we  came  to  the 
forks  of  Cuyahoga. 

"This  is  a  vers'-  gentle  river  and  but  few 
ripples  or  swift  running  place?  from  the 
mouth  to  the  forks.  Deer  here  were  tolerably 
plentv,  large  and  fat,  but  bear  and  other  game 
scarce.  The  upland  is  hilly  and  principally 
second  and  third-rate  land:  the  timber  chiefly 



black  oak,  white  oak,  hickory  and  dog-wood. 
The  bottoms  are  rich  and  large,  and  the  tim- 
ber is  walnut,  locust,  mulberry,  sugar-tree, 
redhaw,  blackhaw,  wild  apple  trees,  etc.  The 
west  branch  of  this  river  interlocks  with  the 
east  branch  of  Muskingum,  and  the  east 
branch  with  the  Big  Beaver  Creek  that  emp- 
ties into  the  Ohio  about  thirty  miles  below 
Pittsburg.  From  the  forks  of  Cuyahaga  to 
the  east  branch  of  Muskingum,  there  is  a 
carrying  place,  where  the  Indians  carry  their 
canoes,  etc.,  from  the  waters  of  Lake  Erie 
into  the  waters  of  the  Ohio. 

"From  the  forks  I  went  over  with  some 
hunters  to  the  east  branch  of  .Muskingum, 
where  they  killed  several  deer,  and  a  number 
of  beavers,  and  returned  heavy  laden  with 
skins  and  meat,  which  we  carried  on  our 
backs,  as  we  had  no  horses.  Tlie  land  here 
is  chiefly  second  and  third-rate,  and  the  tim- 
ber chiefly  oak  and  hickory.  A  little  above 
the  forks,  on  the  east  branch  of  Cuyahaga, 
are  considerable  rapids,  very  rocky  for  some 
distance,  but  no  perpendicular  falls. 

"The  party  then  built  for  themselves  a 
'chestnut  canoe'  of  large  dimension?  and  en- 
joyed a  fine  paddling  trip  down  the  river. 
They  then  skirted  the  south  shore  of  Lake 
Erie  until  they  passed  the  mouth  of  San- 
dusky, where  they  put  in  on  account  of  the 
wind  having  arisen.  The  narrative  contains 
the  following  paragraph  on  profanity,  which 
may  not  be  -without  a  useful  lesson  even  in 
these  regenerate  days. 

"I  remember  that  Tecaughretanego,  when 
something  displeased  him,  said  'God  damn  it.' 
I  asked  him  if  he  knew  what  he  then  said. 
He  said  he  did  and  mentioned  one  of  their 
degrading  expressions,  which  he  supposed  to 
be  the  meaning,  or  something  like  the  mean- 
ing of  what  he  had  said.  I  told  him  that  it 
did  not  bear  the  least  resemblance  to  it,  that 
what  he  had  said  was  calling  upon  the  Great 
Spirit  to  punish  the  object  he  was  displeased 
with.  He  stood  for  some  time  amazed,  and 
then  said:  'If  this  be  the  meaning  of  these 
words,  what  sort  of  people  are  the  whites?' 
"When  the  traders  were  among  us  these 
words  semed  to  be  intermixed  with  all  their 

discourse.  He  told  me  to  reconsider  what 
I  had  said,  for  he  thought  I  must  be  mis- 
taken in  my  definition.  If  I  was  not  mis- 
taken, he  said,  the  traders  applied  these  words, 
not  only  wickedly,  but  oftentimes  very  fool- 
ishly, and  contrary  to  sense  or  reason.  He 
said  he  remembered  once  of  a  trader's  acci- 
dentally breaking  his  gun  lock,  and  on  that 
occasion  calling  out  aloud,  'God  damn  it.' 
"Surely,'  said  he,  'the  gun  lock  was  not  an 
object  worthy  of  punishment  for  Owananeeyo, 
or  the  Great  Spirit.'  He  also  observed  the 
traders  often  used  this  expression  when  they 
were  in  good  humor  and  not  displeased  with 
anything.  I  acknowledged  that  the  traders 
used  this  expression  very  often  in  a  most  irra- 
tional, inconsistent  and  impious  manner,  yet 
I  still  asserted  that  I  had  given  the  true  mean- 
ing of  these  words.  He  replied,  if  so,  the 
traders  are  as  bad  as  Oonasharoona,  or  the 
underground  inhabitants,  which  is  the  name 
they  give  to  devils,  as  they  entertain  a  no- 
tion that  their  place  of  residence  is  under  the 



The  two  northernmost  townships  of  Sum- 
mit County  are  situated  in  the  very  center  of 
the  Western  Reserve.  The  full  designation  of 
this  district  is  "The  Western  Reserve  of  Con- 
necticut." The  connection  of  the  name  Con- 
necticut with  land  in  Ohio,  situated  six  hun- 
dred miles  distant  from  the  state  of  that  name, 
came  about  in  this  way.  In  the  year  1662, 
King  Charles  II  of  England  granted  a  charter 
to  Connecticut,  which,  after  recognizing  the 
claims  of  that  colony  resting  upon  former 
grants,  conveyed  to  it  all  the  land  now  occu- 
pied by  it  and,  in  addition  thereto,  all  the  ter- 
ritory lying  west  of  it  between  the  41st  and 
42nd  North  Paxallels,  or  the  extent  of  its 
breadth,  from  sea  to  sea.  Thus,  the  colony 
of  Connecticut  had  a  legal  title  to  all  the  land 
lying  west  of  the  Delaware  River  between  41° 
and  42°  2'  N.  Latitude,  to  the  Pacific  Oceaii. 
Certain  terms  in  the  charter  excepted  from  its 


provisions  the  Hudson  valley,  which  was  part 
of  the  territory  of  New  York.  Had  this  claim 
not  been  abandoned  and  had  Connecticut's 
title  been  held  valid,  she  would  have  possessed 
nearly  two-fifths  of  the  state  of  Pennsylvania, 
about  one-third  of  Ohio,  a  portion  of  Michi- 
gan and  all  the  western  states  whose  extent 
is  intersected  by  those  parallels.  This  claim 
of  Connecticut  gave  rise,  later,  to  serious  dis- 
putes and  much  bloodshed  and  suffering. 

The  royal  ignorance  of  American  geog- 
raphy, in  England,  was  astounding.  Con- 
flicting grants  had  been  made  on  a  large  scale 
and  nearly  all  the  colonies  were  making  claim 
to  parts  of  Pennsylvania  and  the  western 
lands.  Virginia,  Maryland  and  New  Jersey 
were  each  trying  to  obtain  possession  of  the 
southern  part  of  Pennsylvania.  Several  of 
their  charters  contained  conveyances  which 
overlapped.  Each  colony  thought  that  it  was 
in  the  right  and  relied  upon  the  validity  of 
its  own  royal  grant.  Nineteen  years  after 
making  his  grant  to  Connecticut,  Charles  II 
made  another  grant,  by  a  royal  charter,  con- 
veying to  Pennsylvania  the  territory  she  con- 
tinues to  occupy  and  extending  as  far  North 
as  the  43°  N.  Latitude.  Thus  Connecticut's 
territory  was  overlapped  by  one  degree  and 
the  way  prepared  for  a  tremendous  contro- 
versy. Perhaps  in  justice  to  the  memory  of 
Charles  II,  it  should  be  said  that  the  bestowal 
of  these  lands  upon  the  Penns  was  made  after 
a  report  by  the  Attorney  for  the  Crown,  that 
"The  tract  of  land  desired  by  William  Penn 
seens  to  be  undisposed  of  by  his  Majesty,  ex- 
cept the  imaginary  lines  of  New  England  pat- 
ents, which  are  bounded  westwardly  by  the 
main  ocean,  should  give  them  a  real,  though 
impracticable,  right  to  all  those  vast  terri- 
tories."    (The  italics  are  our.s.) 

Connecticut's  cl.vims:    western   reserve. 

In  1653,  Connectic;it  be2;an  to  assert  her 
rights  in  a  physical  way.  She  took  possession 
of  several  towns  on  Long  Island  which  were 
located  within  the  limits  of  her  claims.  She 
made  trouble  for  the  Dutch  on  Manhattan 
Island,  a  readable  account  of  which  is  con- 

tained in  Washington  Ii-ving's  "Knicker- 
bocker History  of  New  York."  Just  one  hun- 
dred years  later  she  formed  the  Susquehanna 
Company,  which  soon  numbered  over  1200 
persons.  It  was  organized  for  the  sole  pur- 
pose of  taking  possession  of  and  colonizing 
the  beautiful  Wyoming  valley  in  Pennsyl- 
vania, which  Connecticut  exploring  parties 
had  discovered  three  years  before.  This  com- 
pany purchased  for  about  $10,000.00,  from 
the  Six  Nations,  the  Indian  title  to  all  the 
land  lying  within  the  Wyoming  valley.  The 
attempt  at  colonization,  which  followed,  gave 
rise  to  the  "Pennanite  War." 

In  1762,  the  first  settlement  was  made  and 
the  first  massacre  of  Wyoming  came  in  Oc- 
tober of  that  year.  Although  driven  out  time 
and  time  again,  imprisoned,  subjected  to  every 
kind  of  maltreatment,  and  many  of  them 
killed,  the  Connecticut  colonists  persisted  in 
their  purpose.  Upon  the  commencement  of 
the  Revolutionary  War,  nearly  six  thousand 
people  from  Connecticut  had  taken  possession 
of  land  in  Pennsylvania.  On  July  3.  1778, 
occurred  the  awful  massacre  of  the  peaceful 
inhabitants  of  Wyoming  at  the  hands  of  the 
combined  forces  of  Indians  and  British.  This 
was  one  of  the  bloodiest,  most  atrocious  and 
fiendish  deeds  of  which  history  ha.s  made  any 
record.  The  entire  settlement  of  Wyoming 
was  obliterated.  The  earnestness  of  the  peo- 
ple of  Connecticut  may  be  seen  from  the  fact 
that  in  November  of  the  same  year,  they 
returned,  in  numbers,  to  possess  themselves 
of  this  valley  of  blood. 

When  the  Revolutionary  War  was  over  and 
the  Commonwealth  of  Pennsylvania,  which 
in  the  meantime  had  acquired  the  title  of  the 
heirs  of  William  Penn  to  all  the  land  in  dis- 
pute, could  give  her  attention  to  the  contro- 
versy ;  she  appealed  to  the  Congress  organized 
under  the  Articles  of  Confederation.  She 
presented  a  petition  on  the  3rd  day  of  No- 
vember, 1781,  praying  that  Congress  would 
adjudicate  the  claims  of  the  different  states 
to  the  disputed  territories.  Congress  granted 
the  petition  and  appointed  a  Board  of  Com- 
mi.ssioners,  selected  by  the  delegates  of  Con- 
necticut and  Pennsylvania,  to  pass  upon  the 



respective  claims.  The  verdict  of  the  Com- 
mission was  as  follows:  "We  axe  unani- 
mously of  opinion  that  the  jurisdiction  and 
preemption  of  all  territory  lying  within  the 
charter  of  Pennsylvania,  and  now  claimed  by 
the  State  of  Connecticut,  do  of  right  belong 
to  the  State  of  Pennsylvania.  We  are  unani- 
mously of  the  opinion  that  Connecticut  has 
no  right  to  the  lands  in  controversy." 

It  is  probable  that  this  award  was  made  on 
grounds  of  policy  only.  Connecticut's  claims 
in  law  were  well  founded  and  her  rights, 
therefore,  were  .superior  to  Pennsylvania's, 
but  the  conflicting  claims  of  the  other  col- 
onies, particularly  Virginia,  New  York  and 
Massachusetts,  were  bringing  the  young  na- 
tion to  the  verge  of  civil  war.  It  is  not  alto- 
gether improbable  that  a  compact  was  made 
with  Connecticut  to  reimburse  her  in  some 
other  way,  by  land  located  elsewhere,  in 
return  for  her  surrender  of  Pennsylvania 
settlements  she  had  made.  There  are  many 
who  believe  that  she  was  allowed  to  retain  her 
title  to  the  Wfestern  Reserve  on  this  account. 
This  tract  contains  more  land  than  the  parent 
state  itself,  and  now  has  a  larger  population. 
Thi^m^as  what  Connecticut  received  as  a  balm 
forTRr  feelings,  .so  nidely  wounded  by  the 
decree  of  the  Trenton  Court,  as  the  Board 
of  Commi&sioners  was  called. 

One  of  the  greatest  problems  befove  the 
new  American  nation  was  the  settlement  of 
the  land  claims  made  by  the  different  states 
composing  it.  Congress  made  an  appeal  direct 
to  the  states  that  all  claims  to  western  lands, 
or  any  territory  lying  outside  the  boundaries 
of  the  respective  states,  should  be  ceded  to  the 
general  government,  for  the  benefit  of  all. 
This  appeal  succeeded.  In  1780,  the  state  of 
New-York  granted  to  the  United  States  all 
her  right,  title  and  interest  in  and  to  all 
western  lands.  In  1784,  Virginia  did  the 
same.  Massachusetts  followed  in  1785.  On 
the  11th  day  of  May,  1786,  the  state  of  Con- 
necticut relinquished  all  her  right,  title,  in- 
terest, juri-sdiction  and  claim  to  all  lands  and 
territories  lying  west  of  a  line  120  miles  west 
of  and  parallel  with  the  western  boundary 
line  of  the  state  of  Pennsvlvania,  biit  she  ex- 

pressly reserved  from  her  conveyance  all  the 
land  lying  between  41°  and  42°  2'  North 
Latitude,  and  bounded  on  the  East  by  the 
west  line  of  Pennsylvania,  and  on  the  West 
by  a  line  parallel  with  the  west  line  of  Penn- 
sylvania and  120  miles  west  of  it.  This  re- 
served land  contained  3,366,921  acres,  as  a 
subsequent  sui-vey  showed.  This  was  nearly 
200,000  acres  more  than  the  parent  state  con- 
tained. It  embraced  what  is  now  the  coun- 
ties of  Ashtabula,  Lake,  Geauga,  Trumbull, 
Cuyahoga,  Portage,  Medina,  Lorain,  Erie, 
Huron  and  parts  of  the  counties  of  Maho- 
ning, Summit  and  Ashland.  The  popular 
designation  of  this  tract  was  soon  established 
as  "The  Connecticut  Western  Reserve."  On 
September  14,  1786,  Connecticut  made  a 
deed  to  Congress  of  the  po.s3essions  and  in- 
terests enumerated  in  her  offer  and  duly  re- 
served the  lands  which  Congress  agreed  should 
remain  in  her  name. 

In  1792,  Connecticut  set  a.side  half  a  mil- 
lion acres  of  land,  being  the  extreme  western 
end  of  her  reser\'ed  territory,  for  division 
among  those  who  had  suffered  by  incursions 
of  British  soldiers  and  their  Indian  allies 
during  the  Revolution.  of  those  who 
had  suffered  in  this  way  had  met  their  losses 
owing  to  the  British  having  burned  several 
Connecticut  towns.  For  this  reason,  the  tract 
of  half  a  million  acres  which  was  at  first  called 
the  Sufferers'  Lands  was  afterwards  given  tlie 
name  of  "The  Fire  Lands."  which  is  retained 
to  this  day. 

Connecticut  determined  to  sell  the  balance 
of  her  land  in  the  Western  Reserve.  In  May, 
1795,  the  Connecticut  legislature,  in  session 
at  Hartford,  passed  a  resolution  providing  for 
the  sale  of  all  land  in  the  Western  Reserve, 
except  the  Fire  Lands.  The  legislature  ap- 
pointed a  committee,  who  eventually  sold  the 
lands  offered,  for  the  total  sum  of  $1,200,- 
000.00.  Forty-eight  different  deeds  were 
made  to  as  many  different  grantee.s.  In  the 
same  year  these  forty-eight  buyers  formed  the 
Connecticut  Land  Company.  The  Company 
was  composed  of  some  of  the  best  and  most 
prominent  men  in  Connecticut. 

In   ilav,   1796,   General  Moses  Cleaveland 







led  an  expedition  of  fifty-two  persons,  for  the 
purpose  of  making  a  survey  of  the  lands  just 
purchased.  He  was  a  veteran  of  the  Revo- 
lutionary ^^'ar,  a  lawyer  by  profession,  and 
a  graduate  of  Yale.  It  wa^  on  this  surveying 
expedition,  in  July,  1796,  that  Cleveland  was 
founded  and  the  site  surveyed  into  city  lots. 
On  July  10,  1800,  Congress  made  the  whole 
Western  Reserve  one  county  and  gave  it  a 
government.  It  was  named  Trumbull  County, 
of  the  Northwest  Territory,  being  so  named 
in  honor  of  Jonathan  Trumbull,  who  was 
then  governor  of  Connecticut.  "Warren  was 
made  the  county  seat. 


Summit  County  is  one  of  the  counties  form- 
ing the  southern  half  of  the  Reserve.  All 
but  its  two  southernmost  townships,  Green 
and  Franklin,  lie  within  the  boundaries  of 
the  "Western  Reserve.  These  townships  are 
six  miles  square,  while  the  others  of  the 
county  are  each  five  miles  square.  In  1833, 
a  few  citizens  in  Akron,  which  at  that  time 
was  situated  in  Portage  County,  began  to  agi- 
tate the  question  of  forming  a  new  county, 
with  Akron  as  its  nucleus.  Ravenna  was 
the  county  seat  of  Portage  Coimty,  and  it 
was  a  long  and  difficult  trip  there.  Akron 
had  grown  very  fast  and  began  to  covet 
the  advantages  of  being  the  seat  of  govern- 
ment of  the  county.  The  new  county  project 
of  course  had  the  support  of  all  the  villages 
adjacent  to  Akron  and  of  all  the  farmers  liv- 
ing in  that  vicinity. 

Doctor  Eliakim'  Crosby  was  the  prime 
mover  in  this  matter,  as  he  was  in  every  laud- 
able enterprise.  The  energy  and  versatility 
of  the  man  are  worthy  of  remark  in  any  his- 
tory of  Summit  County.  He  was  the  most 
indefatigable  of  all  the  founders  of  Akron, 
or  of  all  who  have  wrought  for  her  welfare 
and  advancement.  He  made  an  ofiFer  to  give 
$2,000.00  toward  the  erection  of  the  new 
county  buildings,  if  Akron  should  be  made 
the  county  seat  of  the  new  county.  The 
proposition  encountered  much  vicorous  op- 
position, especially  on  the  part  of  Ravenna 

citizens.  For  six  years  the  projectors  kept  at 
work,  trying  to  arouse  sentiment  in  favor 
of  the  project  and  especially  trying  to  get  the 
representatives  from  the  counties  interested  to 
present  a  bill  in  the  legislature  for  the  creation 
of  the  new  one. 

At  last  it  was  accomplished  by  means  of  a 
political  deal.  The  Whigs  of  Akron  and  vi- 
cinity voted  with  the  Democrats  of  Portage 
County  and  succeeded  in  electing  two  repre- 
sentatives from  Portage  County  who  were 
pledged  to  the  creation  of  the  new  county. 
The  new  State  Senator  for  the  district  was 
Colonel  Simon  Perkins,  who  was  in  favor  of 
the  project.  The  legislature  convened  on  the 
first  Monday  in  December.  1889,  and  a  bill 
was  introduced  by  Hon.  Rufus  P.  Spalding, 
the  new  representative,  providing  that  the 
townships  of  Twinsburg,  Northfield,  Boston, 
Hudson,  Stow,  Northampton,  Portage,-  Tall- 
madge,  Springfield  and  Coventry  in  Portage 
County;  Richfield,  Bath,  Copley  and  Norton 
in  Medina  County,  and  Franklin  and  Green 
in  Stark  County,  be  erected  into  a  separate 
county,  to  be  known  by  the  name  of  "Sum- 
mit." In  order  to  restore  the  constitutional 
area  to  Medina  County,  the  bill  transferred 
Homer  and  Spencer  townships  from  Lorain 
to  Medina  County.  It  provided  for  the  col- 
lection of  taxes,  the  maintenance  of  suits  at 
law,  the  continuance  of  officials  in  office  until 
the  election  of  their  successors  and  that 
Franklin  and  Green  townships  should  not  be 
taxed  for  the  erection  of  county  buildings 
during  a  term  of  fifty  years  after  the  passage 
of  the  Act.  It  stipulated  the  first  election  for 
officers  of  the  new  county  should  be  held  on 
the  first  Monday  in  April,  1840,  and  that 
courts  should  be  held  in  Akron  until  the 
county  seat  was  located.  This  was  to  be  done 
by  commissioners  to  be  appointed  by  the 

The  name  "Summit"  expressly  given  as  the 
name  of  the  new  county,  was  obtained  from 
the  summit  level  of  the  Ohio  canal,  which 
level  begins  in  the  south  part  of  Akron.  It  ex- 
tends from  Lock  one  to  New  Portage.  This 
long  stretch  of  canal  without  a  lock,  being  lo- 
cated upon  the  very  highest  land  along  the 



whole  length  of  the  canal,  was  called  Summit 
Level.  It  is  probable  that  the  name  was  se- 
lected 'by  Dr.  Eliakim  Cro.sby,  Colonel  Simon 
Perkins,  or  Judge  Rufus  P.  Spalding.  The 
last  named  probably  drew  up  the  bill. 

With  the  introduction  of  this  bill,  began 
one  of  the  hottest  legislative  battles  of  the  ses- 
sion. A  powerful  opposition  arose  at  once. 
If  the  bill  passed,  Medina,  Lorain,  Portage 
and  Stark  counties  would  lose  some  of  their 
best  townships.  The  constituents  of  the  legis- 
lators representing  these  counties  were  op- 
posed to  it  to  a  man.  These  legislators  were, 
therefore,  fighting  for  personal  prestige  as  well 
as  principle.  They  enlisted  the  support  of  the 
legislators  of  all  other  counties  which  had 
been  threatened  with  a  like  fate.  A  strong 
lobby  went  to  Columbus  to  work  against  the 
bill.  Not  a  stone  was  left  unturned  in  a  search 
to  find  weapons  to  bring  about  its  defeat.  The 
opposition  brought  all  possible  filibustering 
tactics  into  play.  They  moved  postpone- 
ments, laying  on  the  table,  referring  to  com- 
mittees, amendments,  adjournments  and  every 
parliamentary  device  allowed  by  the  rules  of 
procedure.  The  ground  was  fought  inch  by 

The  result  was  a  .splendid  victory  for  the 
new  representatives.  It  reflects  much  credit 
upon  their  skill  and  sagacity.  On  Feb.  6, 
1840,  the  bill  passed  the  House  of  Represent- 
atives, thirty- four  votes  being  cast  in  its  favor 
and  thirty-one  against.  The  margin  by  which 
success  had  been  won  was  very  small.  On 
the  28th  it  emerged  triumphant  from  a  battle 
in  the  Senate,  equally  as  fiercely  contested. 
Here  the  vote  stood  19  in  its  favor  and  15 
against  it.  On  March  3,  1840,  it  was  signed 
by  the  Speaker  of  the  House  and  the  Presi- 
dent of  the  Senate  and  became  a  law. 

The  legislature  then  appointed  James  Mc- 
Connell,  of  Holmes;  Warren  Sabin,  of  Clin- 
ton, and  Jacob  Williard,  of  Columbiana,  as 
a  Board  of  Commissioners  to  establish  a 
county  seat  for  the  new-created  county.  Sum- 
mit was  put  in  the  Third  Judicial  District, 
with  A.shtabula,  Portage  and  Trumbull  and 
into  the  Fifteenth  Congressional  District  of 

Ohio,  with  Cuyahoga,  Lorain,  Medina  and 
Portage.  The  people  of  the  neighboring 
counties  were  much  discomfited  by  their  de- 
feat, and  for  a  long  time,  looked  upon  the 
inhabitants  of  Akron  as  robbers  and  despoil- 
ers.  The  news  of  the  passage  of  the  bill 
through  both  houses  reached  Akron  on  the 
evening  of  March  2,  1840,  and  an  impromptu 
celebration  was  held,  lasting  nearly  all  the 
night.  On  the  4th  a  formal  celebration  was 
had,  consisting  of  a  parade  of  all  the  military 
companies  and  bands  in  the  county;  a  ban- 
quet in  the  open  air  in  the  grove  on  the 
"Gore,"  about  where  the  present  Court  House 
stands;  speeches  by  prominent  citizens  of  the 
county ;  and,  in  the  evening,  a  big  dinner  and 
ball  in  the  "Ohio  Exchange,"  an  hotel  which 
stood  on  the  southwest  corner  of  Main  and 
Market  streets.  According  to  the  newspapers 
of  the  time,  the  affair  was  a  great  success  and 
the  new  county  w-as  started  on  its  successful 
career  under  the  happiest  auspices. 

The  first  officers  elected  for  the  new  county 
offices  were  temporary  ones.  They  were  to 
hold  office  only  from  the  time  of  the  spring 
election  in  April  until  the  regular  state  and 
county  election,  which,  at  that  period  of  the 
State's  history,  was  held  in  October.  Thus, 
on  the  first  Monday  in  April,  there  wcve 
chosen:  For  county  treasurer,  William 
O'Brien,  of  Hudson ;  auditor,  Birdsey  Booth, 
of  Cuyahoga  Falls;  recorder,  Alexander  .John- 
ston, of  Green;  sheriff,  Thomas  Wikon.  of 
Northfield;  county  attorney,  Geo.  Kirknm,  of 
Akron ;  coroner,  Elisha  Hinsdale,  of  Norton ; 
county  eommi-ssioners,  Augastus  Foot,  of 
Twinsburg;  John  Hoy,  of  Franklin,  and 
Jonathan  Starr,  of  Coplev;  appraisers,  Fred 
A.  Sprague,  of  Richfield;  Milo  Stone,  of  Tall- 
madge,  and  Thomas  Jones,  of  Franklin.  No 
probate  judge  was  elected,  as  the  laws  of  the 
State  did  not  provide  for  such  courts  at  that 
time.  Temporary  quarters  for  the  county 
officers  were  secured  in  the  Stone  Block  on 
the  side  of  Howard  Street,  near  Market, 
the  third  floor  being  used  as  a  court-room 
with  the  jail  in  one  corner. 




In  May  the  Board  of  Commissioners  for  lo- 
cating the  county  seat  appeared  upon  the 
scene  and  called  a  public  meeting  to  hear 
arguments  in  favor  of  the  different  sites  pro- 
posed. Only  three  were  seriously  considered 
— Akron,  Cuyahoga  Falls  and  Summit  City, 
the  new  town  just  laid  out  by  Dr.  Eliakin 
Crosby  as  the  w^estern  terminus  of  his  "Chuck- 
ery  Race."  The  advocates  of  each  of  these 
sites  had  promised  that  the  new  court-house 
would  be  erected  free  of  cost  to  the  tax- 
paj'ers  of  the  county  if  their  particular  site 
should  be  selected.  The  commissioners  de- 
cided unanimously  in  favor  of  Akron  and  set 
off  land  on  the  "Gore,"  which  had  been  do- 
nated to  the  county  through  the  generosity 
of  General  Simon  Perkins,  of  Warren,  as  the 
place  at  which  to  build  the  new  court-house. 

As  this  site  was  just  midway  between  North 
Akron,  or  Cascade,  as  it  was  sometimes  called, 
and  South  Akron,  the  older  village,  both 
places  joined  in  another  celebration.  A  com- 
mittee of  sixteen  citizens  was  appointed  for  the 
purpose  of  raising  money  by  subscription; 
$17,500.00  was  raised.  The  county  commis- 
sioners then  appointed  Dr.  J.  D.  Commins, 
Richard  Home  and  Col.  Simon  Perkins,  Jr., 
as  a  building  commission  to  collect  the  .sub- 
scriptions, make  all  contracts  and  have  full 
charge  of  the  work  of  erecting  the  new 
building.  They  were  the  first  "Court-House 
Commission."  The  second  was  appointed  in 
1905.  They  let  the  contract  to  Ithiel  Mills, 
of  Akron,  and  by  January,  1841,  he  had  com- 
pleted the  foundations. 


In  the  meantime  trouble  was  brewing  and 
Akron  was  in  a  fair  way  of  losing  her  ad- 
vantage as  the  county  seat  of  Summit.  It 
happened  in  this  way:  The  orator  who  pre- 
sented the  claims  of  Cuyahoga  Falls,  at  the 
meeting  called  by  the  commissioners,  was 
Elisha  N.  Sill,  of  that  village.  His  defeat 
rankled  and  he  was  waiting  and  watching  for 
a  chance  to  retrieve  it.  He  was  a  man  of 
much  force  of  character  and  occupied  an  in- 

fluential place  among  the  Whig  party  of  the 
county.  Upon  the  expiration  of  the  term 
of  Senator  Perkins,  Mr.  Sill  secured  the  Whig 
nomination,  as  his  successor,  and  was  elected. 
Among  his  first  acts  as  a  legislator,  was  the 
introduction  of  a  bill  to  re-locate  the  county 
seat  of  Summit  County.  Mr.  Sill's  influence 
with  his  party  was  sufficient  to  overcome  the 
opposition  in  both  houses  and  it  became  a 
law.  When  this  news  reached  Akron  there 
no  celebration.  Her  citizens  were  almost  in 

The  new  legislative  commission  consisted 
of  Jacob  Hoagland,  of  Highland;  William 
Kendall,  of  Scioto,  and  Valentine  Winters,  of 
Montgomery.  In  May,  1841,  they  came  to 
Akron,  looked  over  the  competing  sites  and 
conducted  an  exciting  meeting  in  the  old 
stone  church  on  North  High  Street,  which 
lasted  all  day.  Senator  Sill  spoke  for  Cuya- 
hoga Falls  and  Hon.  Rufus  P.  Spalding  for 
Akron.  Interested  citizens  of  these  two  places 
filled  the  church  to  the  doors.  The  excite- 
ment was  intense.  The  next  morning  the 
commissioners  astounded  the  whole  commu- 
nity by  announcing  that  a  majority  of  them 
were  in  favor  of  Summit  City,  the  paper- 
town  on  what  is  now  North  Hill.  It  was  evi- 
dently a  compromise  decision.  Mr.  Kendall 
made  a  minority  report  in  favor  of  Akron. 
The  particular  site  staked  out  by  the  com- 
missioners was  about  half  way  up  North  Hill, 
nearly  where  the  Bryan  School  now  stands. 
The  crowd  which  accompanied  them  expressed 
such  disapproval  that  the  majority  commis- 
■sioners  became  much  nettled,  pulled  up  the 
stakes  and  drove  on  to  Cuyahoga  Falls,  where 
they  located  the  new  court-house  on  the  south 
?ide  of  Broad  Street,  between  Front  and  Sec- 
ond Streets. 

The  county  officials  divided  on  this  ques- 
tion. Some  moved  their  offices  to  Cuyahoga 
Falls;  others  retained  theirs  at  Akron.  The 
building  commissioners  stopped  work  on  the 
new  at  Akron.  Cuyahoga  Falls 
made  no  move  to  build  one  there.  All  felt 
it  would  be  necessary  to  await  the  next  session 
of  the  legislature  for  decisive  action  by  that 



The  Whig  party  held  its  convention  at 
Cuyahoga  Falls  that  year  and  nominated  for 
representatives  Amos  Seward,  of  Tallmadge, 
and  Hai-vey  Whedon,  of  Hudson,  both  favor- 
able to  Cuyahoga  Falls  as  the  proper  site  for 
the  county  seat.  A  Peoples  Convention  was 
called  to  meet  at  Akron  and  a  bi-partisan 
ticket  was  nominated.  Hon.  Rufus  P.  Spald- 
ing, a  Democrat,  and  Colonel  Simon  Perkins, 
a  Whig,  were  the  nominees  for  representa- 
tives. In  the  election  which  ensued,  this 
ticket  was  triumphantly  elected.  The  Whig 
ticket  was  simply  snowed  under.  The  vote 
for  the  Akron  ticket  was  nearly  three  to  one. 

When  the  legislature  assembled,  the  new 
Representatives  began  the  work  for  which 
they  had  been  sent  there.  Feeling  confident 
because  of  the  result  of  the  last  election,  which 
had,  in  reality,  been  an  issue  simply  between 
Akron  and  Cuyahoga  Falls,  they  agreed  to  the  matter  of  locating  the  county  seat 
to  a  vote  of  the  citizens  of  Summit  County, 
and  prepared  and  introduced  a  bill  for  the 
purpose.  Senator  Sill  fought  it  vigorously  in 
the  Senate,  but  it  passed  both  houses  and  was 
signed  March  2,  1842. 

On  the  first  Monday  in  April  the  election 
to  choose  the  county  seat  was  held.  A  poll  of 
the  votes  showed  that  Akron  had  received 
2,978;  Cuyahoga  Falls,  1,384;  Summit  City. 
101,  and  other  places,  24.  Thus  Akron's 
plurality  and  majority  were  each  more  than 
the  total  vote  cast  for  Cuyahoga  Falls.  It  was 
felt  all  over  the  county  that  this  decisive 
victory  settled  the  question  for  all  time  to 
come,  and  so  it  proved. 

The  court-house  was  finished  and  accepted 
by  the  coimty  commis.sioners  December  6, 
1843.  The  minutes  of  this  meeting  show  that 
"having  examined  the  court-house,  the  board 
proposed  as  an  offset  to  the  gpnernl  had  char- 
acter of  the  work,  which  the  building  trustees 

fully  admitted,  to  accept  it,  if  the  windows 
were  made  to  work,  *  *  *  the  doors  better 
hung,  *  *  *  and  the  windows  screened, 
etc."  In  spite  of  this  sweeping  condemna- 
tion, the  building  stood  sixty-four  years,  or 
until  this  year  of  grace,  1907,  in  which  it  is 
proposed  to  demolish  it,  because  of  the  erec- 
tion of  the  fine  new  court-house  just  west  of 
it.  In  1867  wings  were  added  on  the  north 
and  south  sides. 


On  the  morning  of  Nov.  2,  1843,  it  was 
learned  that  ex-President  John  Quincy 
Adams,  who  w-as  on  his  way  to  lay  a  corner 
stone  for  a  public  building  at  Cincinnati,  was 
coming  up  the  canal  from  Ckveland  and 
would  stop  over  in  Akron  while  his  packet 
was  being  "locked"  through  the  local  21 
locks.  Bells  were  rung,  whistles  blown,  and 
almost  the  entire  population  were  notified  in 
a  short  time  that  the  distinguished  visitor 
would  make  an  address  in  the  court-room. 
Although  it  was  not  yet  nine  o'clock  in  the- 
morning,  the  court-house  was  crowded  and 
Mr.  Adams  received  a  most  enthusiastic  wel- 
come. This  was  the  first  meeting  held  in  the 
old  (then  new)   court-house. 


The  only  changes  which  have  been  made 
in  the  territory  of  Summit  County,  were  to 
establish  townships  co-extensive  with  the  mu- 
nicipalities of  Akron,  Cuyahoga  Falls  and 
Middlebury,  for  purposes  of  government. 
Thus  in  1851  Cuyahoga  Falls  Township  was 
created;  in  1857,  the  township  of  Middlebury, 
and,  in  1888,  the  township  of  Akron. 



A  Roster  of  Officials  from  the  Organization   of  the  County  down  to  1907. 

The  following  is  a  complete  roster  of  all 
the  officials  of  Summit  County  for  the  year 
1907.  A  list  of  all  county  officials  occupy- 
ing the  more  important  positions  since  the 
beginning  of  the  county  will  be  found  at 
the  end  of  the  chapter. 

Judges  of  the  Circuit  Court  for  the  Eighth 
Judicial  Circuit:  Ulysses  L.  Marvin,  of 
Akron ;  Louis  H.  Winch,  of  Cleveland ;  F.  A. 
Henry,  of  Cleveland. 

Judges  of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas  for 
the  Second  Subdivision  of  the  Fourth  Judi- 
cial Circuit:  George  C.  Hayden,  of  Medina; 
Clarence  G.  Washburn,  Elyria;  Reuben  M. 
Wanamaker,  Akron;  Dayton  A.  Doyle, 

Probate  Judge,  William  E.  Pardee;  treas- 
urer, Isaac  S.  Myers;  auditor,  Marcus  D. 
Buckman ;  clerk  of  courts,  Clint  W.  Kline ; 
sheriff,  Dan  P.  Stein;  recorder,  .John  Sowers; 
county  commissionere,  L.  H.  Oviatt,  Hudson ; 
Gus  Seiberling,  Barberton,  and  John  Frank, 
Fairlawn;  prosecuting  attorney,  Henry  M. 
Hagelbarger;  coroner,  H.  S.  Davidson,  Bar- 
berton :  referee  in  bankruptcy,  Harry  L.  Sny- 
der. Infirmary  directors,  W.  H.  Wagoner, 
Coventry  township;  Z.  F.  Chamberlain,  Ma- 
cedonia, and  J.  M.  Johnston,  Akron. 

Superintendent  of  infirmary,  S.  B.  Stotler. 
Jury  Commissioners:  W.  H.  Stoner,  P.  G. 
Ewart,  of  Springfield;  George  Edwards,  of 
Twinsburg,  and  W.  H.  McBarnes.  Surveyor, 
Joseph  A.  Gehres.  County  detective,  H.  M. 
Watters.    Stenographer  of  courts,  W.  H.  Col- 

lins. Trustees  of  the  Children's  Home:  A. 
M.  Armstrong,  J.  B.  Senter,  of  Northfield 
township;  F.  M.  Green  and  Charles  Hart. 
Superintendent  of  the  Children's  Home,  D. 
R.  Braucher.  Members  of  the  Court  House 
Building  Commission:  L.  H.  Oviatt,  chair- 
man; John  C.  Frank,  secretary;  Gus  Seiber- 
ling; J.  Park  Alexander,  R.  F.  Palmer,  W.  A. 
Morton  and  John  Frank,  of  Fairlawn.  Mem- 
bers of  the  Board  of  Countv  School  Examin- 
ers: M.  S.  Kirk,  of  Akron';  H.  0.  Bolich,  of 
Copley  township,  and  C.  A.  Flickinger,  of 
Peninsula.  Deputy  State  supervisors  of  elec- 
tions: F.  C.  Wilson,  chief  deputy;  R.  E. 
Lewis,  clerk.  Members  of  the  Summit  County 
Soldiers  and  Sailors'  Relief  Commission :  John 
C.  Weber,  of  Akron ;  John  C.  Reid,  of  Cuya- 
hoga Falls,  and  J.  R.  Campbell,  of  Akron, 
secretary.  Deputy  probate  judge,  Ora  Lytle. 
Deputy  clerks  of  courts:  Ed.  Mitchell,  Har- 
riett M.  Baad  and  Maud  Gostlin.  Deputy 
recorder,  B.  F.  Clark.  Deputy  auditor,  John 
Moore.  Deputy  sheriff,  B.  C.  Garman.  Su- 
perintendent of  Court,  Earl  Shepherd. 


Mayor,  Charles  W.  Kempel ;  solicitor,  Clyde 
F.  Beery ;  auditor,  William  A.  Durand ;  treas- 
urer, Fred  E.  Smith;  engineer,  John  W. 
Payne;  poor  director,  Joseph  Kendall;  city 
physician.  Dr.  A.  W.  Jones;  superintendent 
of  streets,  Edward  Dunn,  Jr. ;  .superintendent 
of  markets,   John   Wolf.      Board   of   Public 



Service:  William  J.  Wildes,  president;  J.  H. 
Burt,  vice-president;  James  J.  Mahonej'; 
Charles  H.  Watters,  clerk.  Board  of  Public 
Safety:  C.  C.  Warner,  president;  E.  C.  Hou- 
sel;  W.  H.  Kroeger,  clerk.  Police  Depart- 
ment: John  Durkin,  chief  of  police;  Robert 
Guillet,  captain;  Alva  G.  Greenlese,  lieuten- 
ant; Bert  Eckerman,  detective;  Harry  Welch 
and  Charles  Doerler,  special  duty  officers. 
Fire  Department:  John  Mertz,  chief;  Frank 
Rice,  assistant  chief;  Frank  F.  Loomis,  me- 
chanical engineer;  Julius  D.  Olsen,  lineman; 
H.  M.  Fritz,  captain  Station  No.  1;  C.  M. 
Smith,  captain  Station  No.  2;  C.  S.  Jost,  cap- 
tain Station  No.  3;  C.  E.  Tryon,  captain 
Station  No.  4;  John  Cummins,  captain  Sta- 
tion No.  5 ;  J.  D.  Dorner,  captain  Station  No. 
6;  N.  P.  Smith,  captain  Station  No.  7. 

City  Council:  Ira  A.  Priest,  president; 
Ray  F.  Hamlin,  clerk ;  Joseph  Dangel,  Adam 
G.  Ranck,  Harry  A.  Palmer,  councilmen- 
at-large.    Members  from  wards — Ward  1,  H. 

F.  Treap;  2,  F.  J.  Gostlin;  3,  Milo  S.  Wil- 
liams; 4,  J.  W.  Gauthier;  5,  John  Beynon; 
6,  Louis  D.  Seward;  7,  C.  H.  Gardner.' 

Board  of  Health:  Charles  W.  Kempel, 
president  ex  officio;  Dr.  A.  A.  Kohler,  health 
officer;  Michael  W.  Hoye,  sanitary  policeman 
and  milk  inspector;  James  D.  Chandler, 
George  W.,  John  C.  Weber,  A.  P. 
Woodring  and  William  E.  Young. 

Library  Board:  John  C.  Frank,  George  P. 
Atwater,  William  T.  Vaughn.  Henry  Kraft, 

G.  D.  Seward  and  M.  V.  Halter. 

Board  of  Education:  F.  G.  Stipe,  presi- 
dent; J.  F.  Barnhart,  clerk;  F.  E.  Smith, 
treasurer;  H.  V.  Hotchkiss,  superintendent 
of  instruction;  Charles  Watson,  truant  officer; 
J.  T.  Flower,  I.  C.   Gibbons,  F.   G.  Marsh, 

E.  W.  Stuart,  A.  E.  Kling,  F.  G.  Stipe  and 

F.  W.  Rockwell,  members. 

Teachers'  Examination  Committee:  H.  V. 
Hotchkiss,  Lee  R.  Knight  and  L.  D.  Slusser. 
Special  teachers :  N.  L.  Glover,  music ;  Grace 
C.  Sylla,  drawing;  D.  E.  Watkins,  elocution. 
Principals  of  Schools:  High  School,  D.  C. 
Rybolt;  Allen  School,  J.  L.  McFarland; 
Bowen,  Margaret  L.  McCready;  Bryan,  M.  E. 
Campbell ;  Crosby,  Harriet  M.  Jones ;  Findley, 

Mame  E.  Knapp;  Fraunfelter,  Jessie  V. 
Waltz;  Grace,  Agnes  W.  WatkinS;  Henry,  J. 
H.  App;  Howe,  E.  P.  Lillie;  Kent,  W.  H. 
Kopf;  Lane,  Sue  E.  Vincent;  Legget,  Eliza- 
beth Camp;  Miller,  W.  C.  Bowers;  Perkins 
Normal,  Lee  R.  Knight;  Spicer,  J.  R.  Smith. 
Parochial  Schools:  St.  Bernard's,  Sisters 
of  St.  Dominic;  St.  Mary's  Sisters  of  St.  Jo- 
seph; St.  Vincent's,  Sisters  of  St.  Joseph.  Sa- 
cred Heart  Academy.  German  Lutheran 
Parish  School. 


Mayor,  James  McNamara;  clerk,  George 
Davis;  solicitor,  C.  M.  Karch;  treasurer,  E. 

A.  Miller;  engineer,  H.  W.  Alcorn;  Marshal, 
D.  R.  Ferguson;  chief  of  Fire  Department, 
J.  M.  Royston;  health  officer,  B.  Roden- 
baugh;  sanitary  policeman,  J.  P.  David. 
members  of  council:  W.  A.  Bryan,  B.  C. 
Chandler,   H.   Y.   Herman,   A.   W.   Sample, 

B.  C.  Ross,  Charles  Worthen.  Trustees  of 
public  affairs,  F.  A.  Hale,  M.  C.  Hastings, 
W.  S.  Mitchell.  Board  of  Education:  C.  A. 
Carlson,  president;  0.  N.  Craig,  clerk;  T.  J. 
Davies,  H.  S.  Davidson,  W.  P.  Welker,  U.  G. 
High.  Superintendent  of  Schools,  J.  M.  Carr. 
The  schools  of  Barberton  are  the  High  School, 
Baird  Avenue,  Rose  Street,  Hopocan  Avenue, 
Portage,  Riverside,  Central  and  St.  Augus- 
tine's Catholic   (parochial)   School. 


Perhaps  all  will  agree  that  the  one  Summit 
County  citizen  whose  fame  has  spread  the 
farthest  was  John  Brown,  the  hero  of  Har- 
per's Ferry  and  the  Kansas  struggle.  He  was 
not  a  native  of  the  county,  having  been  born 
in  Connecticut,  but,  at  the  age  of  four  years, 
his  father  brought  him,  with  the  rest  of  his 
family,  to  Hudson.  There  his  early  days 
were  spent;  there  he  was  educated,  and  there 
it  was  he  married  the  wife  of  his  youth.  He 
spent  twenty-one  years  in  Hudson,  two  in 
Richfield   and   two   in    Akron.      Thereafter, 



Massachusetts,  New  York  and  the  Nation 
claimed  him.  Hudson  can  justly  claim  that 
it  was  his  rearing  in  the  atmosphere  of  free- 
dom and  sentiment  of  anti-bondage,  which 
has  always  prevailed  there,  that  was  the  in- 
spiration of  his  later  life,  and  furnished  the 
animus  of  the  acts  that  brought  his  fame. 

The  Summit  County  man,  w'ho  has  risen 
highest  in  the  official  public  life  of  the  nation 
and  who  has  brought  to  his  county  its  great- 
est distinction  in  this  respect,  is  our  own  hon- 
ored and  beloved  United  States  Senator, 
Charles  Dick.  He  was  born  in  Akron  and 
has  never  lived  anywhere  else.  He  is  proud 
to  say  that  all  he  is,  he  owes  to  Summit 
County.  When  Senator  Marcus  A.  Hanna 
died  in  1904,  the  legislature  of  Ohio  obeyed 
the  wishes  of  the  Republican  party  of  the 
State  when  it  made  Charles  Dick  his  successor. 
He  served  the  unexpired  part  of  Senator 
Hanna's  term,  and,  in  1905,  began  the  serv- 
ice of  a  full  term.  Summit  County  will, 
therefore,  claim  a  United  States  Senator  until 
1911,  at  least.  If  he  desires  a  re-election  al 
that  time,  his  splendid  record  in  the  public 
service  should  bring  him  the  title  to  another 

A  high  place  in  the  Summit  County  Tem- 
ple of  Fame  belongs  to  Sidney  Edgerton,  a 
name  that  all  the  older  residents,  and  many 
of  the  younger,  will  never  hear  mentioned, 
save  with  the  deepest  feelings  of  love  and 
respect.  Sidney  Edgerton  came  to  .Vkron  in 
1844  from  New  York  State,  where  he  was 
born.  He  was  then  about  twenty-five  years 
of  age.  He  taught  school  and  .studied  law 
until  1852,  when  he  was  elected  prosecuting 
attorney  of  the  county.  In  1858,  and  again 
in  1860,  he  was  elected  to  Congress.  In  1863, 
President  Lincoln  appointed  him  Chief  Jus- 
tice of  Idaho,  from  which  he  resigned  (o 
accept  the  appointment  of  Governor  of  the 
Territory  of  Montana.  He  resigned  in  1866 
and  returned  to  Akron,  where  he  practiced 
law  until  his  death. 

Russell  A.  Alger  can  hardly  be  credited  to 
Summit  County,  a?  he  was  born  in  the  ad- 
joining county  of  Medina,  and  spent  the 
active   vears    of    his    career    as    a    citizen    of 

Michigan.  Most  of  his  education,  however, 
was  secured  in  Richfield,  where  he  attended 
the  old  Richfield  Academy.  He  also  taught 
school  there  two  winters  while  pursuing  his 
course.  He  spent  the  years  1857  and  1858 
in  Akron,  studying  law  in  the  office  of  Wol- 
cott  and  Upson.  In  1860  he  left  Cleveland, 
where  he  had  been  practicing  law  and  took 
up  his  residence  in  Michigan.  He  rose  to 
the  rank  of  major-general  in  the  Civil  War; 
was  made  Governor  of  Michigan  in  1884; 
became  secretary  of  war  in  President  McKin- 
ley's  Cabinet  in  1897;  and  in  1901  was 
elected  United  States  Senator,  which  position 
he  held  at  the  time  of  his  death  in  1907. 

Other  temporary  residents  of  Akron  for 
short  periods  who  afterwards  reached  high 
places  in  the  national  life  were: 

David  K.  Cartter,  who  practiced  law  in 
Akron  from  1836  to  1845,  coming  here  from 
New  York  State;  in  1848,  and  again  in  1850, 
he  was  elected  to  Congress ;  in  1861  appointed 
minister  to  Bolivia;  and  in  1863  appointed 
chief  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the 
District  of  Columbia. 

Wilbur  F.  Sanders,  came  to  Akron  in  1854, 
from  New  York  State;  taught  school  and 
studied  law  here  until  1861,  when  he  entered 
the  Union  Army ;  in  1863  he  became  a  citizen 
of  Montana,  and  when  that  territory  was  ad- 
mitted to  the  Union  in  1890,  he  was  elected 
United  States  Senator. 

Samuel  B.  Axtell,  who  for  some  years  had 
his  residence  in  Richfield,  was  elected  to 
Congress  from  a  California  district;  in  1875 
appointed  governor  of  Utah;  in  the  same 
year,  governor  of  New  Mexico;  in  1882  chief 
justice  of  New  Mexico. 

William  T.  Coggeshall,  lived  in  Akron 
from  1842  to  1847,  was  appointed  minister 
to  Ecuador  in  1865,  where  he  died  in  1867. 

Christopher  P.  Wolcott  was  born  in  Con- 
necticut December  17,  1820;  graduated  at 
Jefferson  College  in  1840 ;  was  admitted  to  the 
bar  and  come  to  Akron  in  1846.  He  was  the 
senior  member  of  the  distinguished  firm  of 
Wolcott  and  Upson.  In  1856,  he  was  ap- 
pointed attorney-general  of  the  State  of  Ohio 
to  fill  a  vacancv.  and  was  afterward  elected 



twice  to  that  office.  In  1862,  President  Lin- 
coln appointed  him  assistant  secretary  of  war. 
He  served  under  his  brother-in-law,  Edwin 
M.  Stanton,  until  within  two  months  of  his 
death.  He  died  at  his  home  in  Akron,  April 
4,  1863. 

Eufus  P.  Spalding,  a  native  of  Martha's 
Vineyard,  Massachusetts,  came  to  Akron  in 
1840,  and  in  1841  was  elected  Speaker  of  the 
Ohio  House  of  Representatives;  in  1848  ap- 
pointed justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  Ohio. 
At  the  expiration  of  his  term  he  moved  to 
Cleveland,  and  was  afterward  elected  to  Con- 
gress for  three  terms. 

One  of  the  most  distinguished  names  in 
Summit  County  history  is  that  of  William 
H.  Upson.  He  was  born  in  Franklin  County, 
Ohio,  in  1823,  but  came  to  Tallmadge  with 
his  parents  in  1832.  He  has  been  a  resi- 
dent of  the  county,  continuously,  since  that 
time.  He  came  to  Akron  in  1846,  a  few 
months  after  his  admission  to  the  bar.  He 
was  prosecuting  attorney  1848-1850;  Ohio 
State  Senator,  1853-1855;  elected  to  Congress 
in  1869,  and  again  in  1871 ;  delegate  to  Na- 
tional Republican  Convention  in  1864,  and 
voted  to  renominate  Abraham  Lincoln ;  dele- 
gate-at-large  from  Ohio  to  the  National  Re- 
publican Convention  in  1876;  in  1883  was 
appointed  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  of 
Ohio;  in  1884,  elected  judge  of  the  Circuit 
Court,  and  re-elected  in  1886  and  1890.  In 
1896  he  retired  from  active  practice  and  re- 
sumed his  domestic  quiet  in  Akron,  where  he 
still  lives. 

In  addition  to  those  already  mentioned, 
Summit  County  has  had  the  following  Rep- 
resentatives in  Congress :  George  Bliss,  1852- 
1854;  David  R.  Paige,  1882-1884;  George 
W.  Crouse,  1886-1888,  and  Charles  Dick, 
1898-1904.  She  has  had  Presidential  electors 
as  follows:  'Stephen  H.  Pitkin,  1868;  John 
R.  Buchtel,  1872;  Nathaniel  W.  Goodhue, 
1880,  and  Ulysses  L.  Marvin,  1884. 

This  senatorial  district  has  often  called 
upon  Summit  County  to  represent  the  dis- 
trict in  the  Ohio  Senate,  as  witness  these 
names  of  Senators:  Simon  Perkins,  1838- 
1840;   EHsha  N.   Sill,   1840-1842;  William 

Wetmore,  Jr.,  1844-1846 ;  Lucian  Swift,  1848- 
1850;  William  H.  Upson,  1853-1855;  George 
P.  Ashmun,  1857-1859;  Lucuis  V.  Bierce, 
1861-1863;  Newell  D.  Tibbals,  1865-1867; 
Henry  McKinney,  1869-1871;  N.  W.  Good- 
hue, 1873-1875;  D.  D.  Beebe,  1877-1881; 
George  W.  Crouse,  1885-1887 ;  J.  Park  Alex- 
ander, 1887-1891;  George  W.  Sieber,  1897- 
1899;  Nation  0.  Mather,  1905-1907. 

Common  Pleas  Judges — Van  R.  Hum- 
phrey, 1840-1848;  George  Bliss,  1851-1852; 
Robert  K.  Du  Bois,  1840-1845 ;  Charles  Sum- 
ner, 1840-1845;  Hugh  R.  Caldwell,  1840- 
1847;  John  B.  Clark,  1845-1846;  James  R. 
Ford,  1845-1849;  Sylvester  H.  Thompson, 
1846-1852;  John  Hoy,  1847-1852;  Samuel 
A.  Wheeler,  1849-1850;  Peter  Voris,  1850- 
1852;  James  S.  Carpenter,  1856-1861;  Sam- 
uel W.  McClure,  1870-1875;  Newell  D.  Tib- 
bals, 1875-1883;  Ulysses  L.  Marvin,  1883; 
Edwin  P.  Green,  1883-1891 ;  Alvin  C.  VorL^, 
1891-1895;  Jacob  A.  Kohler,  1895-1905; 
Reuben  M.  Wanamaker,  1905  to  date,  and 
Dayton  A.  Doyle,  1906  to  date. 

Probate  Judges:  Charles  G.  Ladd,  1851- 
1852;  Roland  0.  Hammond,  1852;  Constant 
Bryan,  1852-1853;  Noah  M.  Humphrey, 
1854-1860;  William  M.  Dodge,  1860-1861; 
A.  H.  Lewis,  1861;  Stephen  H.  Pitkin,  1861- 
1868;  Ulysses  L.  Mamn,  1869-1875:  Samuel 
C.  Williamson,  1875-1881;  Nathaniel  W. 
Goodhue,  1881-1883;  Charles  R.  Grant.  1883- 
1891 ;  Edward  W.  Stuart,  1891-1897 :  George 
M.  Anderson,  1897-1903 ;  William  E.  Pairdee, 
1908  to  date. 

Countv  Clerks:  Rufus  P.  Spalding,  1840; 
Lucian  Swift,  1840-1847;  Lucius  S.  Peck, 
1847-1851 ;  Nelson  B.  Stone,  1851-1853 ;  Ed- 
win P.  Green,  1854-1861;  John  A.  Means, 
1861-1864;  Charles  Rinehart,  1864-1870; 
John  A.  Means,  1870-1873;  George  W. 
Weeks,  1873-1879;  Sumner  Na.«h,  1879-1885; 
Othello  W  Hale,  1885-1891;  Nathaniel  P. 
Goodhue,  1891-1897;  Edward  A.  Hershey, 
1897-1903 ;  Clint  W.  Kline,  1903  to  date. 

County  Treasurers:  William  O'Brien,  1840- 
1842;  George  Y.  Wallace,  1842;  Milton  Ar- 
thur, 1842-1848;  William  H.  Dewev,  1848- 
1850;     Frederick     Wadsworth,     1850-1852; 

1  */*^*^ 


|T'  It 



'l-:  il-j 











ijj  i  i 

f  ft  i.ft;-- 11  y 





Chester  W.  Rice,  1852-1854;  Houston  Sisler, 
1854-1858;  Sullivan  S.  Wilson,  1858-1863; 
George  W.  Grouse,  1863;  Israel  E.  Carter, 
1863-1867;  Arthur  L.  Conger,  1867-1871; 
Schuyler  R.  Oviatt,  1871-1875;  David  R. 
Paige,  1875-1879;  Henry  C.  Viele,  1879- 
1883 ;  Arthur  M.  Cole,  1883-1887 ;  James  H. 
Seymour,  1887-1891 ;  Emmon  S.  Oviatt,  1891- 
1895;  R.  L.  Andrew,  1895-1897;  Lucius  C. 
Miles,  1897-1901 ;  Homer  Berger,  1901-1905 ; 
Fred  E.  Smith,  1905-1906;  Ulysses  Grant 
High,  1906 ;  Isaac  S.  Myers,  1907  to  date. 

County  Auditors:  Birdsey  Booth,  1840- 
1842;  Theron  A.  Noble,  1842-1848;  Na- 
thaniel W.  Goodhue,  1847-1852 ;  Henry  New- 
berry, Jr.,  1852-1854;  Charles  B.  Bernard, 
1854-1858;  George  W.  Crouse,  1858-1863: 
Sanford  M.  Burnham,  1863-1871;  Hosea 
Paul,  Jr.,  1871 ;  Edward  Buckingham,  1872- 
1881;  Aaron  Wagoner,  1881-1887;  Charles 
Dick,  1887-1893;  Charles  Grether,  1893- 
1896;  Louis  E.  Sisler,  1896-1904;  Marcus  D. 
Buckman,  1904  to  date. 

County  Recorders:  Alexander  Johnston, 
1840-1843;  Nahum  Fay,  1843-1849;  Jared 
Jennings,  1849-1852;  Henry  Purdy.  1852- 
1858;  Phillip  P.  Bock,  1858-1864;  J.  Alex- 
ander Lantz,  1864-1870;  Grenville  Thorpe, 
1870-1872 ;  Henry  C.  Viele,  1872 ;  George  H. 
Payne,  1872-1878:  Albert,  A.  Bartlett,  1878- 
1884;  Henry  C.  Searles,  1884-1890:  Benja- 
min F.  Clark,  1890-1896;  Willi=ton  Ailing. 
1896-1902 :  John  Sowers,  1902  to  date. 

County  Sheriffs:  Thoma.s  Wilson,  1840- 
1844;  Lewis  M.  James,  1844-1848;  William 
L.  Clarke,  1848-1852 ;  Dudley  Seward,  1852- 
1856;  Samuel  A.  Lane,  1856-1861;  Jacob 
Chisnell.  1861-1865;  James  Burlison.  1865- 
1869;  Augustus  Curtiss,  1869-1873;  Levi  J. 
McMurrav,  1873-1877;  Sam'l.  A.  Lane,  1877- 
1881;  William  McKinnev,  1881-1885;  Wil- 
ham  B.  Gamble,  1885-1889;  David  R.  Bunn, 
1889-1893;  William  Williams.  1893-1897; 
Horace  G.  Griffith,  1897-1901 :  Jarcd  Barker, 
1901-1907 ;  Dan  P.  Stine,  1907  to  date. 

Prosecuting  Attorneys:  William  M.  Dodfje, 
1840-1842;  George  Kirkum,  1842-1844:  Wil- 
liam S.  C.  Otis,  1844-1846;  Samuel  W.  Mc- 
Clure.  1846-1848;  William  H.  Upson,  1848- 

1850;  Harvey  Whedon,  1850-1852;  Sidney 
Edgerton,  1852-1856;  Henry  McKinney, 
1856-1860;  Newell  D.  Tibbals,  1860-1864; 
Edwin  P.  Green,  1864;  Edward  Oviatt,  1864- 
1868;  Jacob  A.  Kohler,  1868-1872;  Henry 
C.  Sanford,  1872-1874;  James  M.  PouLson, 
1874-1876;  Edward  W.  Stuart,  1876-1880; 
Charles  Baird,  1880-1884;  John  C.  Means, 
1884-1886;  Edwin  F.  Voris,  1886;  George  W. 
Sieber,  1886-1893;  Samuel  G.  Rogers,  1893- 
1896;  Reuben  M.  Wanamaker,  1893-1902; 
Henry  M.  Hagelbarger,  1902-1908. 

County  Surveyors:  Ru-ssell  H.  Ashmun, 
1840-1843 ;  Peter  Voris,  1843-1846 ;  Frederick 
Seward,  1846-1849;  Dwight  Newton,  1849- 
1852;  Schuyler  R.  Oviatt,  1852-1855;  Hosea 
Paul,  1855-1870;  Robert  S.  Paul,  1870-1874 
and  1877-1883 ;  John  W.  Seward,  1874-1877 ; 
Charles  E.  Perkins,  1883-1893:  Sherman 
Swigart,  1893-1896;  Joseph  A.  Gehres,'  1896- 

Infirmary  Superintendents :  Abraham 
Sichley,  1849-1855 ;  William  Chandler,  1855- 
1861 ;  Francis  T.  Husong,  1861-1868 ;  George 
W.  Glines,  1868-1878;  G^eorge  Feichter,  1878- 
1879 ;  Julia  F.  Glines,  1879-1882 ;  Willard  F. 
Hamlin,  1882-1887;  Sherman  B.  Stotler, 
]  887  to  the  present  time. 


Judges  of  Circuit  Court,  Eighth  Judicial 
Circuit  of  Ohio — Hon.  Ulysses  L.  Marvin, 
Akron;  Hon.  Louis  H.  Winch,  Cleveland; 
Hon.  F.  A.  Henry,  Cleveland. 

Judge.?  of  Common  Pleas  Court,  Second- 
Sub-division,  Fouth  Judicial  District  of 
Ohio — Hon.  Geo.  C.  Havden,  Medina;  Hon. 
C.  G.  Washburn,  Elyria;'^  Hon.  R.  M.  Wana- 
maker, Akron. 

Probate  Judge — W.  E.  Pardee. 

Commissioners — Philip  Wagoner,  Akron ; 
Eber  Hawkins,  West  Richfield';  L.  H.  Oviatt, 
Hudson;  Gus.  Seibcrling,  Barbcrton    (elect). 

Auditor — M.  D.  Buckman. 

Treasurer — Fred  E.  Smith. 

Clerk  of  Courts— Clint  W.  Kline. 

Sheriff— Daniel  P.  Stein. 

Recorder — John  Sowers. 



Prosecuting  Attorney — H.  M.  Hagelbar- 

Coroner — L.  B.  Humphrey. 

Infirmary  Directors — W.  EAVaters,  Akron ; 
Z.  F.  Chamberlain,  Macedonia;  J.  M.  Johns- 
ton, Fairlawn. 

Superintendent  of  Infirmary — S.  B.  Stot- 

Jury  Commissioners — W.  H.  Stoner,  F.  A. 
Green,  P.  G.  Ewart,  W.  H.  McBarnes. 

Surveyor — J.  A.  Gehre*. 

County  Detective — H.  M.  Watters. 

Stenographer — W.  H.  Collins. 

Trustees  Children's  Home — A.  M.  Arm- 
strong, Akron;  J.  B.  Senter,  Northfield;  F. 
M.  Green,  Akron;  J.  H.  Brewster,  Coventry; 
Mrs.  R.  E.  Grubb,  superintendent. 

Court  House  Commission — L.  H.  Oviatt, 
chairman ;  J.  C.  Frank,  secretary ;  Philip 
AVagoner,  Eber  Hawkins,  J.  Park  Alexander, 
R.  F.  Palmer,  W.  A.  Morton. 

County  School  Examiners — M.  S.  Kirk, 
Akron ;  F.  L.  Lytle,  Hudson ;  W.  M.  Glasgow, 

County  and  City  Board  of  Elections — E.  H. 
Bishop,  Akron,  chief  deputy;  F.  E.  Whitte- 
more,  Akron,  clerk;  R.  C.  Ellsworth,  Rich- 
field; F.  C.  Wilson,  Akron;  L.  C.  Koplin, 
Akron;  office,  520  and  522  Hamilton  build- 

Summit  County  Soldiers'  and  Sailors'  Re- 
lief Commission — J.  C.  Weber,  John  C.  Reid, 
Cuyahoga  Falls;  A.  P.  Baldwin,  secretary. 


Municipal  Offices  and  Council  Chamber, 
East  Mill,  corner  Broadway;  City  Prison,  86 
East  Mill ;  Treasurer's  Office,  Court  House ; 
Infirmary  Director's  Office,  90  South  Howard. 

Mayor — Charles  W.  Kempel. 

Solicitor — C.  F.  Beery. 

Auditor — W.  A.  Durand. 

Treasurer — Fred  E.  Smith. 

Engineer — J.  W.  Payne. 

Infirmary  Director — Jo.seph  Kendall. 

Superintendent  of  Streets — Edward  Dunn, 

Superintendent  of  Market^ — John  Wolf. 

Board  of  Public  Service— W.  J.  Wildes,  J. 
H.  Burt,  J.  J.  Mahoney;  C.  H.  Watters,  clerk. 

City  Council — Meets  first  and  third  Mon- 
day evenings  of  each  month:  Ira  A.  Priest, 
president;  Ray  F.  Hamlin,  clerk;  Joseph 
Dangel,  A.  G.  Ranck  and  J.  R.  Mell,  coun- 
cilmen  at  large.  First  Ward — J.  M.  Amund- 
son;  Second  Ward— F.  J.  Go.stlin;  Third 
Ward- M.  S.  Williams ;  Fourth  Ward— J.  W. 
Gauthier ;  Fifth  Ward— John  Beynon ;  Sixth 
Ward— L.  D.  Seward;  Seventh  Ward- S.  R. 
Thomas;  Board  of  Public  Safety— C.  C. 
Warner,  E.  C.  Housel. 

Police  Department — J.  F.  Durkin,  chief; 
Robert  Guillet,  captain ;  A.  G.  Greenlese,  lieu- 

Fire  Department— J.  T.  Mertz,  chief;  F.  F. 
Loomis,  mechanical  engineer. 

Fire  Station  No.  1  (Central) — Corner  High 
and  Church  streets;  H.  M;  Fritz,  captain. 

Fire  Station  No.  2 — Corner  East  Market 
and  Exchange,  East  Akron;  C.  M.  Smith, 

Fire  Station  No.  3 — South  Maple,  corner 
Crosby ;  Frank  Rice,  captain. 

Fire  Station  No.  4 — South  Main,  corner 
Fair;  C.  E.  Tryon,  captain. 

Fire  Station  No.  5 — East  Buchtel  avenue; 
John  Cummins,  captain. 

Fire  Station  No.  6 — Wooster  avenue;  C.  S. 
Jost,  captain. 

Fire  Station  No.  7 — North  Howard;  N.  P. 
Smith,  captain. 

Board  of  Health— Meets  first  Friday  of 
each  month :  Mayor  C.  W.  Kempel,  presi- 
dent; Dr.  A.  A.  Kohler,  health  officer;  M.  W. 
Hoye,  sanitary  police  and  milk  inspector;  G. 
B.  'Courson,  clerk;  J.  D.  Chandler,  G.  W. 
Crouse,  J.  C.  Weber,  A.  P.  Woodring,  Wm.  E. 

Library  Board — Meets  first  Friday  of  each 
month  at  library,  corner  Market  and  High 
streets;  J.  C.  Frank,  T.  J.  Mumford,  J.  W. 
Kelley,  W.  T.  Vaughan,  G.  D.  Seward,  Henry 

Parks — Fountain  Park  (Summit  County 
Agricultural  Society's  Fair  Grounds),  East 
North,  near  city  limits.  Grace  Park,  corner 
Prospect  and  Perkins;  Hill  Park,  corner  East 


Market  and  Broad ;  Neptune  Park,  West  Mar- 
ket, corner  Valley;  Perkins  Park,  south  of 
Maple  at  west  city  limits ;  Perkins  Square,  cor- 
ner Exchange  and  Bowery;  Pleasant  Park, 
corner  Thornton  and  Washington. 

Cemeteries — Akron  Rural  Cemetery,  west 
end  Glendale  avenue;  German  Catholic  Cem- 
etery, South  Maple,  adjoining  Rural  Ceme- 
tery; East  Akron  Cemetery,  East  Market, 
Sixth  Ward;  St.  Vincent  de  Paul  Cemetery, 
West  Market,  west  of  Balch;  Mount  Peace 
Cemetery,  North  Valley,  north  of  Doyle;  C. 

P.  Hass,  superintendent;  Old  Cemetery,  New- 
ton, near  east  city  line. 

Board  of  Education — James  T.  Flower, 
Isaac  C.  Gibbons,  Frank  G.  Marsh,  Frank  W. 
Rockwell,  Frank  G.  Stipe,  Edward  W. 
Stewart,  A.  E.  Kling. 

Board  of  Review — A.  J.  Weeks,  0.  L.  Sad- 
ler, John  Cook. 

Trustees  of  Sinking  Fund  and  Board  of 
Tax  Commissioners — C.  I.  Bruner,  Harry 
Hamlen,  Joseph  Thomas,  H.  E.  Andress. 



Introductory — Economic  Cau-ies  and  Growth  of  Akron — Its  Settlement  and  History- 
Public  Improvements — Akron  an  incorporated  Town — -City  Government — Mercantile 
Akron — Fire  and  Police  Departments — Riot  of  1900 — Aftermath  of  the  Riot. 

Akron,  the  City  of  Busy  Hands!  The 
place  of  rubber-making,  of  sewer-pipe  and 
clay  goods,  of  the  printing  of  books,  of  the 
grinding  of  grains  and  the  making  of  cereal 
foods!  All  these  are  done  here  on  the  largest 
scale  seen  in  any  one  place  on  the  Ameri- 
can continents.  You  may  add  to  them,  large 
factories  making  linoleum,  steam-engines  and 
mining  equipment,  steam  boilers,  traction-en- 
gines, electric  dynamos  and  motors,  steam 
drilling  machinery,  twist  drills  and  agricul- 
tural implements,  belting,  twine  and  cordage, 
varnishes  and  a  host  of  small  enterprises,  mak- 
ing nearly  everything  needed  by  man  or  re- 
quired for  the  gratifying  of  his  luxurious 

Industrialism  then  is  the  one  striking  fea- 
ture of  Akron  and  Akron  life.  Her  triumphs 
have  been  triumphs  of  her  industries.  Her 
dark  days  have  been  the  results  of  stagnation 
of  business.  The  influence  of  the  shop  per- 
meates her  whole  sphere  of  activity.  By  far 
the  larger  part  of  her  population  is  connected 
directly  with  the  shop  and  it  would  be  sur- 
prising if  this  interest  in  them  were  not 
deemed  the  paramount  one  generally,  and  the 
city's  social,  spiritual,  educational  and  even 
mercantile  interests,  modified  in  no  small  de- 
gree by  this  all-pervading  sentiment. 

Herein  we  may  find  ample  excuse  for  the 
"talking  shop,"  which  the  vistor  notices  at 
once.     For   the   same   reason   we   may  sym- 

pathize with  the  citizen  who  is  willing  to  sub- 
ordinate even  his  personal  comfort  to  the  pre- 
vailing spirit.  Any  agitation  to  abolish  the 
smoke  evil  is  sure  to  meet  with  the  objection 
that  smoke  imeans  turning  wheels,  and  busy 
men  and  women,  and  streams  of  wages  and 
prosperity.  If  a  big  factory  wants  a  street 
vacated  or  opened,  a  bridge  built  or  removed, 
a  street  paved,  a  sewer  built,  or  an  extension 
of  the  fire  department,  the  Akron  citizen  has 
not,  for  a  moment,  a  thought  of  objection. 
Nay,  rather  he  digs  into  his  pocket  and  brings 
forth  the  ready  cash.  Mind  you,  he  meets 
every  request  of  this  kind  with  great  per- 
sonal gladness  and  joy.  He  is  perfectly 
happy  in  doing  something  to  benefit  the 
"shops."  If  you  want  to  kill  any  projected 
movement  in  Akron  just  hint  that  it  will  be 
deleterious  to  the  factories,  or  that  the  manu- 
facturers will  find  it  necessary  to  oppose  it. 
On  the  other  hand  the  popular  policy  is  one 
that  will  aid  to  develop  manufacturing  and 

With  such  a  favorable  atmosphere  is  it  any 
wonder  that  Akron  has  grown  to  be  one  of 
the  great  manufacturing  cities  of  the  United 
States?  Is  not  this  the  very  best  inducement 
outside  capital  can  have  to  locate  here  ?  Akron 
has  never  paid  a  cent,  or  donated  a  foot  of 
ground,  or  exempted  any  enterprise  from  tax- 
ation for  a  day,  to  secure  the  location  of  any 
kind  of  business.    When  they  do  come  she 

J  -  --"^:^"V^>;^ 



makes  it  easy  for  them  to  stay  and  to  prosper. 
She  welcomes  them  with  open  arms  and  shows 
a  most  benignant  manner  ever  after.  This 
has  been  the  accepted  policy  for  half  a  cen- 
tury. How  well  it  has  succeeded  read  in  the 
history  of  Akron,  marvel  in  the  figures  of  the 
statistician,  and  beliold  in  the  multiplica- 
tion of  factories  and  enterprises.  The  history 
of  Akron  then  is  a  record  of  business  activ- 
ity primarily.  And  it  proves  good  reading — 
this  record,  beginning  with  the  conception 
of  an  idea  in  the  mind  of  a  business  man, 
covering  struggles,  ambitions  and  disappoint- 
ments of  early  days  and  ending  in  triumph 
for  sagacity,  courage  and  honesty.  Such  is 
an  oftrrepeated  storj^  in  Akron  life.  ■  The 
triumph  has  many  times  brought  with  it  a 
princely  fortune. 


These  business  successes  have  made  the 
name  of  Akron  well  known  in  every  corner 
of  the  earth.  All  her  products  are  finished 
goods,  ready  for  immediate  use  or  consump- 
tion. She  makes  no  raw  materials.  Many' 
of  her  manufacturing  rivals  produce  raw 
materials  largely  and  they  are  sent  away  to 
other  cities,  where  they  are  worked  over  and 
their  identity  lost.  When  they  reach  the  con- 
sumer they  bear  the  name  of  the  last  city 
which  had  a  hand  in  the  making  of  them. 
Akron-made  goods  never  lose  their  identity. 
Their  exportation  is  very  large,  and  hence 
Akron  labels,  boxes  and  bales  may  be  found 
all  over  the  earth.  Akron  travelers  abroad 
are  often  surprised  at  the  fame  of  their  lit- 
tle city  in  the  far-away  corners  of  the  world. 
Akron  cereal  goods  are  shipped  to  every  coun- 
try in  Europe,  mining  machinery  and  agri- 
cultural machines  to  Africa  and  South  Amer- 
ica and  rubber  products  to  Japan  and  China. 
Smaller  exportation?  of  other  products  are  as 

The  storv-  of  Akron,  then,  is  a  story  of 
manufacturing,  and,  if  a  very  large  part  of 
this  history  is  devoted  to  the  city's  industrial 
progress,  it  is  accounted  for  by  this  fact.  The 
great  name?  in  Akron  historv  are  the  names 

of  manufacturers — Perkins,  Miller,  Conger, 
Werner,  Schumacher,  Goodrich,  Barber, 
Grouse,,  Crosby,  Commins,  Seiberling,  Buch- 
tel,  Robinson.  Their  activities  were  the  mak- 
ing of  Akron.  They  furnished  the  true  basis 
for  the  city's  development. 


Reader,  do  not  get  the  impression  that 
Akron  people  live  and  have  lived  for  the 
making  of  things  alone.  Such  is  far  from 
being  the  case.  Manufacturing  is  not  deified. 
The  shops  are  not  set  up  as  idols.  The  manu- 
facturers are  not  worshipped,  and  the  all-es- 
sentials that  are  needed  to  make  character 
and  perfection  of  manhood  are  not  slighted. 

No  city  in  Ohio  makes  so  large  a  per  capita 
expenditure  for  the  maintenance  of  public 
schools.  Ohio  is  famous  for  the  excellence  of 
its  schools,  but  no  city  in  the  state  can  boast  of 
better  schools  than  Akron,  or  a  healthier  pub- 
lic sentiment  back  of  them,  or  a  greater  pride 
in  educational  achievement.  The  "Akron 
idea"  of  graded  schools  originated  here  and 
took  its  name  from  this  city.  Ohio's  whole 
school  system  has  for  its  basis  the  idea  of  the 
Akron  Congregational  clergyman,  who  started 
Akron's  schools  on  the  march  forward  six 
decades  ago. 

This  is  the  seat  of  Buchtel  College,  founded 
by,  and  taking  its  name  from  one  of  Akron's 
most  prominent  citizens,  and  one  foremost  in 
every  good  work.  If  a  large  part  of  this  his- 
tory is  devoted  to  the  story  of  the  rise  of 
Buchtel  College  it  is  because  of  the  important 
place  Buchtel  College  occupies  in  the  heart 
of  the  Akron  citizen.  He  is  proud  of  the 
position  it  has  earned,  he  glories  in  the  op- 
portunity it  offers  for  the  higher  education 
of  his  children,  right  at  his  very  door,  and 
he  sympathizes  with  "The  College"  in  her 
calamities  and  struggles  and  ambitions.' 

The  Catholic  Church  has  provided  many 
excellent  parochial  schools  for  the  training 
of  youth  of  that  communion. 

The  law  making  attendance  at  school  com- 
pulsory  is   rigorously     enforced    in     Akron. 



There  has  been  a  public  library,  open  to  all 
citizens,  from  the  earliest  days  of  the  com- 
munity. Lyceum  entertainments,  lecture 
courses  and  the  very  bCvSt  concerts  have  had 
their  part  in  the  popular  education  of  the 

Successes  in  education  have  made  the 
names  of  Jennings,  Bryan,  Leggett,  Find- 
ley,  Fraunfelter,  Rood  and  McAllister  hon- 
ored ones  in  the  city's  history. 


The  churches  occupy  a  relatively  more 
important  place  in  Akron  life  than  is  true 
of  most  municipal  communities.  In  view  of 
the  overwhelming  importance  of  the  manu- 
facturing interests  it  is  hard  to  believe  that 
this  is  so.  Close  study  of  conditions,  how- 
ever, demonstrates  its  truth.  Every  import- 
ant Christian  denomination  is  represented 
by  a  live  and  thriving  church  organization. 
Akron  is  one  of  the  important  church  cen- 
ters for  at  least  two  of  the  denominations — • 
the  Methodists  and  the  Universalists.  The 
"Akron  Plan,"  in  church  ai-chitecture  has 
been  an  important  factor  in  the  former, 
and  the  church  life,  of  which  Buchtel  Col- 
lege is  the  center,  in  the  latter.  The  history 
of  the  Methodist  Church  in  America  will  be 
incomjilete  without  a  record  of  Chautauqua 
and  Lewis  Miller.  Many  ministers  and 
priests  have  won  large  successes  in  their  la- 
bors in  Akron,  and  her  citizens  will  always 
remember  with  earnest  reverence  such  men 
as  Carlos  Smith,  Monroe,  Burton,  Day, 
Young,  Ganter,  Scanlon  and  Mahar.  There 
is  a  roll  of  honor  among  laymen,  also.  The 
leaders  of  the  past  in  the  manufacturing 
world  have  also  been  leaders  in  church  and 
charitable  work.  Take  the  names  of  the 
captains  of  industry  first  above  given ;  there 
is  only  one  of  them  who  ha.s  not  had  a  very 
prominent  part  in  the  work  of  some  Akron 
church.  That  list  might  be  extended  almost 


Akron's  reputation  as  a  manufacturing 
and  business  center  has  attracted  a  host  of 
professional  men.  Most  of  them  have  been 
capable  practitioners  and  have  made  useful 
and  respected  citizens.  Of  the  doctors  who 
have  gone,  many  like  Crosby,  Bowen,  Co- 
burn,  Bartges,  McEbright  and  Jacobs,  not 
only  held  high  positions  in  their  profes-sion, 
but  did  much  for  the  material  advancement 
of  Akron's  various  interests.  At  the  present 
time  all  schools  of  medicine  are  represented 
here  by  exceedingly  accomplished  phy- 

From  its  ranks  of  lawyers  Akron  has  sent 
forth  men  who  have  taken  high  places  in 
public  life,  both  in  the  service  of  the  state 
and  the  nation.  Memory  recalls  readily  the 
names  of  Bierce,  Bliss,  King,  McClure, 
Edgerton,  Spalding,  Sanders,  Cartter,  Alger, 
Wolcott,  McKinney  and  Upson.  The  pre.s- 
ent  junior  senator  from  Ohio  is  a  member 
of  the  Summit  County  Bar.  Very  few  coun- 
ties in  Ohio  are  able  to  bring  forward  better 
lawyers  than  who  make  vip  the  local 
bar.  Business;  both  manufacturing  and 
mercantile,  brought  the  lawyers.  Large  in- 
terests, great  producing  and  distributing,  big 
deals  and  intricate  enterprises  demanded 
competent  hands  for  their  legal  protection 
and  direction.  In  the  early  days  there  were 
great  enterprises  exploited  here,  such  as  the 
canals,  the  Crosby  projects,  etc.  They  were 
directed  by  strong  men,  who  demanded 
strong  men  as  legal  advisers.  The  associa- 
tion of  such  men  attracted  the  ablest  of  the 
young  lawyers  then  commencing  practice. 
The  high  .standard  then  established  ha.s  been 
maintained  until  the  present  day.  The  great 
Akron  companies  entrust  their  legal  matters 
entirely  to  members  of  the  local  bar.  It  is 
a  rare  thing  for  outside  counsel  to  be  called 
into  a  local  On  the  other  hand,  Akron 
lawyers  are  frequently  called  into  other 
counties  of  the  state  for  legal  advice  and 

In  the  last  decade  Akron  has  begun  to  at- 
tract attention   in   a  new  respect.     The  city 



lies  in  the  midst  of  nearly  twenty  small 
lakes,  most  of  them  possessing  great  natural 
beauty.  The  city  itself  is  most  attractively 
located  on  more  hills  than  ancient  Rome 
possessed,  and  with  magnificent  views  down 
and  across  the  Cuyahoga  Valley.  These 
things  have  been  gradually  becoming  known 
and  it  began  to  be  whispered  about  that  there 
was  good  fishing  in  the  Akron  lakes  and  good 
camping  sites  on  their  shores.  Thus  the 
summer  invasion  began.  Great  improve- 
ments have  been  made,  those  at  Silver  Lake 
alone  costing  $100,000.  Summit  Lake  has 
a  beautiful  new  casino  which  will  seat  3,000 
people.  Many  beautiful  cottages  have  been 
built  at  Turkey-Foot  Lake  and  Springfield 
Lake.  During  the  season  the  attractions  of 
Akron  as  a  summer  resort  bring  thousands  of 
people  to  the  city.  Merchants  find  their  trade 
correspondingly  larger  and  there  is  no  dull 
season  known  to  our  mercantile  circles.  The 
local  summers  are  never  exc&ssively  hot. 
There  will  be.  perhaps,  two  or  three  periods  of 
hot  weather  when  the  thermometer  will  reach 
87,  or.  in  extreme  cases,  90  degrees.  These 
periods  are  of  very  short  duration,  seldom  last- 
ing more  than  four  or  five  days,  and  the  rest 
of  the  summer  consists  of  delightful  days, 
with  the  air  clear,  and  the  sky  blue,  and  the 
thermometer  ranging  from  70  to  80  de.grees. 
The  high  altitude  of  the  city,  the  higher  por- 
tions being  nearly  1.100  feet  above  the  sea 
level,  and  the  proximity  to  Lake  Erie  combine 
to  lower  the  temperature  in  .summer  and  to 
make  the  city  a  healthy  and  delightful  place 
in  which  to  live. 

Many  beautiful  residences  and  private  parks 
attest  the  prosperity  of  Akron's  citizens.  All 
the  important  streets  are  paved  with  brick, 
stone  or  a.sphalt.  Beautiful  and  well  kept 
public  parks  are  situated  in  all  parts  of  the 
city.  Here  is  one  of  the  finest  Music  Halls 
in  the  state  and  one  well  adapted  for  large 
conventions,  music  festivals  and  other  im- 
portant public  occasions.  Here,  also,  are 
three  fine  theaters,  one  of  them — -the  beautiful 
Colonial  Theater — presenting  the  best  at- 
tractions to  be  seen  on  the  American  stage. 

The  Y.  M.  C.  A.  has  been  reorganized  and 

is  enjoying  a  new  home,  costing  about  $100,- 
000.  The  Akron  City  Hospital  is  now  com- 
pletely established  in  a  new  six-story  build- 
ing and  making  use  of  an  equipment  that 
cost  $150,000.  It  will  compare  favorably 
with  any  hospital  in  America. 

The  Y.  W.  C.  A.  has  moved  into  a  fine 
new  home  on  High  street,  where  it  possesses 
every  possible  requisite  for  the  successful 
prosecution  of  its  admirable  work.  No 
more  praiseworthv  work  is  being  done  in 
Akron  than  that  of  the  Y.  W.  C.  A. 

Two  beautiful  new  ward  school  buildings 
have  just  been  erected  and  the  High  School 
nearly  doubled  in  capacity  by  a  splendid  new 
building  adjoining  the  old  building  on  the 

The  old  court  house  built  in  1840  has  been 
supplanted  by  a  superb  structure  of  stone 
crowning  the  old  court-house  hill,  and  costing 
about  $300,000.  Many  fine  new  business 
blocks  were  erected  in  1906.  The  additions 
made  to  the  store  of  The  M.  O'Neil  Company 
in  1907  make  it  the  largest  store  in  Ohio  and 
one  of  the  great  department  stores  of  the 
United  States. 

Akron  always  takes  time  to  rejoice  in  its  fire 
department.  It  is  housed  in  seven  modern 
buildings  in  different  parts  of  the  city,  and 
furnished  with  the  latest  appliances  and  equip- 
ment for  extinguishing  fires.  The  pei-sonnel 
of  the  department  is  very  high  and  the  citi- 
zens have  ab-solute  confidence  in  its  efficiency. 

The  city  has  equal  faith  in  its  custodians 
of  the  law.  The  police  force  is  a  capable  one 
and  is  guided  by  trustworthy  hands.  Life  and 
property,  therefore,,  enjoy  here  as  large  a 
measure  of  protection  as  the  best  American 
municipalities  afford. 

The  city  supports  three  enterprising  and 
successful  newspapers.  They  are  clean,  able, 
and  fearlessly  edited,  and  reflect  great  credit 
upon  the  community  which  reads  and  sup- 
ports them. 

Akron's  retail  stores  are  a  satisfaction  to 
her  people.  The  stocks  of  goods  are  as  com- 
plete and  timely  as  those  of  the  best  city 
stores  and  the  prices  are  considerablv  lower 
than  in  most  cities  of  Akron's  size.     The  old 



tendency  to  run  to  Cleveland  to  do  purchas- 
ing is  a  thing  of  the  past.  If  there  ever  was 
any  necessity  for  such  a  course  it  no  longer 
exists.  When  the  public  learned  that  the 
same  quality  of  goods  could  be  purchased  in 
Akron  at  prices  equal  to  the  lowest  anywhere, 
shopping  in  Cleveland  became  a  mere  affecta- 
tion and  accordingly  has  not  been  fashionable 
for  a  considerable  time. 

Akron's  growth  in  population  has  been  at 
the  rate  of  5  per  cent  per  annum  in  late 
years.  Accordingly  the  year  1908  will  find 
nearly  60,000  people  dwelling  within  her 

Such  is  a  rapid  pen-picture  of  Akron  as  it 
exists  in  1907.  In  the  following  pages  will 
be  found  an  accurate  account  of  the  rounding 
of  the  city,  the  purposes  its  founders  had  in 
mind,  its  early  struggles,  its  pioneer  citizens, 
its  growth  in  many  diverse  ways,  its  disasters 
and  misfortunes  and  its  complete  triumph  in 
the  year  of  its  greatest  prosperity,  1907.  The 
reader  will  also  find  reliable  historical  state- 
ments concerning  Summit  County,  its  town- 
ships, its  villages  and  all  the  various  activities 
of  Summit  County  citizens  since  the  begin- 


It  is  inaccurate  to  say  that  the  Ohio  Canal 
made  Akron.  The  city  as  it  stands  today  is 
the  resultant  of  many  causes.  Many  and 
different  influences,  and  various  men  and 
measures,  have  co-operated  toward  the  end 
now  attained.  The  start  was  made  long  be- 
fore the  Ohio  Canal  was  built.  •  Within  the 
present  limits  of  the  city,  settlements  at  two 
different  points  had  been  made,  which  ante- 
date the  canal  by  nearly  two  decades.  In  1807 
the  first  settlement  had  been  made  in  Middle- 
bury.  In  1811  Miner  Spicer  had  started 
"Spicertown."  In  the  same  year  Paul  Wil- 
liams settled  upon  the  lands  immediately 
west  of  the  Spicer  settlement  and  adjoining 
the  land  of  General  Simon  Perkins  on  the 
east.  When  the  canal  was  opened  in  1827 
Middlebury  was  an  important  village.    It  had 

attracted  many  settlers  from  the  East,  prin- 
cipally from  Connecticut,  and  boasted  of  half 
a  dozen  mills  and  factories,  a  dozen  stores, 
three  inns  and  about  five  hundred  inhabitants. 
It  certainly  deserved  a  place  on  the  maps  of 
the  time. 

Let  us  search  that  we  may  find,  if  we  can, 
the  economic  reasons  for  the  existence  of 
Akron.  The  sentence  that  begins  this  chap- 
ter contains  the  idea  that  is  ordinarily  ad- 
vanced as  the  sole  reason  for  the  Akron  of 
today.  The  unthinking  man  repeats:  "The 
canal  made  Akron."  The  wTiter  on  Akron 
history  records:  "Dr.  Eliakim  G.  Crosby 
made  Akron." 

The  truth  is,  no  one  thing  and  no  one  man 
made  Akron,  but  that  all  the  men  who  have 
ever  worked  for  Akron,  from  the  earliest  be- 
ginning until  this  centennial  year  of  1907, 
aided  by  certain  natural  advantages,  "made" 
Akron.  The  term  "men"  is  here  used  in  the 
generic  sense,  and  includes  the  army  of  noble 
women  who  planned,  worked,  and  sacrificed, 
and  made  man's  work  worth  the  while.  All 
the  minds  and  all  the  hands;  all  the  labor 
and  all  the  capital;  all  the  faith  and  all  the 
hope — these  have  been  working  for  one  hun- 
dred years  to  produce  the  results  we  now  be- 

If  the  canal  did  not  make  Akron,  it  was 
the  largest  single  factor  in  the  making.  Where 
so  many  causes  have  been  working  together 
it  is  impossible  to  say  that  the  result  would 
not  have  been  possible  without  any  one  of 
them.  There  is  reason  to  believe,  however, 
that  without  the  early  advantages  of  the  first 
canal  the  great  industries  and  the  teeming 
population  of  the  present  would  not  have  been 

Allusion  ha."  been  made  above  to  certain  ad- 
vantages which  Nature  provided  for  the  future 
citJ^  A  study  of  the  economic  reasons  under- 
lying the  location  of  any  city  vnW  assist  us 
in  determining  what  they  are  in  the  present 

What  induced  the  five  hundred  inhabitants 
of  Middlebury  in  1827  to  locate  there  in  the 
twenty  years  succeeding  its  founding?  Leav- 
ing the  Alleghenies    behind,  the    boundless 



West  was  before  them  and  they  were  free  to 
settle  here  or  there,  as  their  judgment  dic- 
tated? Then  why  Middlebury?  To  one  who 
knows  New  England  and  Middlebury  the  an- 
swer is  not  hard  to  find.  What  turns  the 
mills  at  Lowell,  Lawrence,  Holyoke  and  all 
the  towns  on  the  Merrimac  and  Connecticut 
and  other  rivers  of  New  England?  New 
England's  manufacturing  prestige  is  due  to 
the  overwhelming  advantages  its  unsurpassed 
water-power  gives  it.  It  is  a  power,  cheap 
and  easily  transmitted.  New  England  even 
in  the  early  part  of  the  last  century  was  full 
of  dams  and  sluices  and  waterwheels.  The 
man  from  Massachusetts  and  Connecticut  was 
brought  up  with  a  knowledge  of  these  things. 
They  were  a  familiar  part  of  his  environ- 
ment.   He  knew  water-power  when  he  saw  it. 

The  early  Middlebury  men  were  from 
Massachusetts  and  Connecticut.  It  was  the 
power  in  the  fall  of  "the  river  there  that  at- 
tracted them.  The  early  Middlebury  fac- 
tories, including  the  Cuyahoga  furnace,  a 
saw-mill  and  a  large  grist-mill,  were  all  oper- 
ated by  the  power  derived  from  a  dam  thrown 
across  the  river  at  the  point  where  the  plant 
of  the  Goodyear  Tire  and  Rubber  Company 
now  stands.  Later  other  dams  were  built  and 
the  use  of  the  power  extended.  All  this 
was  done  prior  to  the  building  of  the  Ohio 
canal,  or  even  before  the  preliminary  steps 
were  taken. 

The  Portage,  or  carry,  between  the  Cuya- 
hoga and  the  Tuscarawas  rivers  was  not  of  suf- 
ficient importance  to  cause  any  extensive  set- 
tlement along  its  length  or  to  influence  any 
that  might  be  made  in  its  vicinity.  We,  of 
today,  are  inclined  to  overestimate  its  im- 
portance. There  is  no  reason  to  believe  that 
it  was  ever  extensively  used.  It  was  in  no 
sense  of  the  word  a  great  pioneer  highway, 
such  as  some  of  those  that  brought  about  the 
establishment  of  the  large  trading-posts  of 
the  early  days.  The  latter  were  powerful  fac- 
tors in  founding  settlements  that  grew  into 
cities  later  when  the  sway  of  the  white  man 
began.  Travel  over  the  Portage  Path  was 
little  enough.  The  long  carry  of  nine  or 
ten  miles,  part  of  it  up  and  down  steep  hills. 

was  enough  to  deter  all  travelers,  but  those 
pressed  by  the  greatest  necessity.  War  par- 
ties passed  in  numbers  at  tdmes,  but  trappers 
and  traders  went  by  other  ways.  There  was 
far  greater  travel  over  the  east  and  west  high- 
way, part  of  which  is  now  called  the  Smith 
Road,  and  extensive  settlements  were  made 
at  various  points  along  its  course. 

At  the  southern  end  of  the  Portage  Path, 
however,  there  was  built  up  in  the  years  1806 
and  1825  one  of  the  most  promising  of  all 
the  settlements  in  northern  Ohio.  This 
was  not  because  of  any  advantage  derived 
from  travel  over  the  Path,  but  because  of  the 
fact  that  here  was  the  head  of  navigation  on 
the  Tuscarawas.  The  Indians  and  pioneers 
used  the  waterway  as  far  as  they  could  and 
then  took  various  trails  leading  in  other  di- 
rections. The  river  was  then  of  much  greater 
volume  than  today  and  was  capable  of  sup- 
porting an  extensive  traffic.  Navigation  was 
open  from  New  Portage  to  the  Muskingum 
and  the  Ohio,  and  extensive  trading  sprang 
into  existence  along  these  waterways. 

The  Path,  then,  was  of  little  or  no  bene- 
fit to  the  region  we  know  as  Akron.  Neither 
did  this  immediate  locality  have  any  water- 
power.  It  was  covered  with  thick  forests  of 
oak,  ash,  hickory,  chestnut  and  maple. 
Splendid  springs  issued  from  the  hillsides. 
Game  was  abundant.  But  the  lake  country 
only  a  few  miles  to  the  south  offered  much 
better  hunting-grounds  and  richer  fields  in 
the  fertile  bottom  lands  along  the  creeks. 

Early  in  the  year  1825  a  great  and  sudden 
activity  was  manifested  all  along  the  base  of 
the  high  hill,  which  stretches  north  and 
south  from  the  Cuyahoga  River  at  old  Portage 
to  Summit  Lake,  and  along  the  top  of  which 
runs  the  Portage  Path.  This  narrow  zone  of 
activity  met  the  Path  at  both  these  points, 
and  about  halfway  between  them  it  bent 
away  to  the  east  about  a  mile  and  a  half. 
It  followed  the  base  of  the  hill  closely  and 
lay  in  the  lowest  part  of  the  territory  con- 
tiguous to  these  points. 

This  activity  was  the  work  of  excavation 
for  the  Ohio  Canal.  The  ditching  alone 
would  be  a  work  of  some  magnitude  even  for 



these  days  of  steam-shovels  and  earth-convey- 
ors. The  earth  was  excavated  to  a  depth,  in 
the  center,  of  five  or  six  feet  and  of  a  width 
averaging,  perhaps,  twenty-five  feet.  In  the 
distance  between  the  Summit  Level  and  Old 
Portage  the  greatest  engineering  works  of  the 
whole  project  were  made  necessary.  Be- 
tween these  two  points  there  is  a  rise  of  nearly 
two  hundred  feet.  This  necessitated  a  series 
of  locks  and  twenty-one  of  them  were  built, 
in  massive  style,  of  great  sand-stone  blocks 
and  ponderous  oak  gates.  By  the  side  of  each 
was  built  a  sluice,  or  overflow,  for  the  pas- 
sage of  the. water  when  the  gates  were  closed. 
This  work  brought  into  this  neighborhood  a 
small  army  of  engineers,  contractors,  dig- 
gers, drivers,  stone-masons,  carpenters,  black- 
smiths, and  a  subsidiary  army  to  do  the  com- 
missary work  for  these.  Like  all  camps  of 
the  kind,  this  was  followed  by  the  slab-saloon 
and  the  grocery,  and  almost  in  a  day  a  town 
arose.  It  required  two  years'  time  to  com- 
plete these  works  and  by  the  time  they  were 
finished  the  new  town  numbered  half  as 
many  inhabitants  as  Middlebury,  two  miles 
to  the  east  and  now  in  the  twentieth  year  of 
its  existence. 

Then  commenced  the  great  traffic  over  the 
Ohio  Canal.  If  the  Portage  Path  was  not  a 
highway,  the  canal  certainly  was.  It  is  hard 
to  realize  now  how  important  an  avenue  of 
commerce  this  great  waterway  was  in  the 
early  days  of  Ohio.  It  is  difficult  to  estimate 
accurately  the  great  part  it  played  in  the 
development  of  the  state.  The  danger  to  the 
student  of  these  results  will  be  to  overstate 
them.  The  village  at  the  mouth  of  the  Cuy- 
ahoga had  grown  rapidly.  Cleveland  enjoyed 
an  extensive  commerce  and  the  products  of 
Pittsburgh,  Philadelphia  and  the  East  were 
being  distributed  thence  throughout  the 
West  by  lake  carriage.  Ship-building  in  the 
vicinity  of  Cleveland  became  an  established 
industry.  The  Cuyahoga  at  this  time  was  a 
much  larger  stream  than  it  is  at  present  and 
many  lake  vessels  were  built  as  far  inland  as 
Old  Portage. 

South  of  Akron  were  many  village  com- 
luunitv    of    older    settlement.      The     canal 

opened  an  easy  way  of  communication  with 
these.  It  removed  the  obstacles  in  the 
journey  to  Cleveland.  When  completed  it 
formed  the  bast  method  of  inland  transpoi-ta- 
tion  then  known,  between  Lake  Erie  and  the 
Gulf  of  Mexico.  Under  favorable  conditions 
loaded  boats  could  navigate  nearly  as  fast 
as  a  train  behind  George  Stephenson's 
"Rocket."  Travel  by  packet  on  the  canal  was 
not  looked  upon  as  a  hardship,  but  welcomed 
as  a  great  improvement  over  a  journey  by 
pioneer  roads.  Previous  to  the  opening  of 
the  canail,  the  products  of  the  community, 
which  consisted  mainly  of  flour,  wool,  hides, 
charcoal,  potash,  and  dairy  and  farm  prod- 
ucts were  taken  to  Cleveland  and  Pittsburgh 
by  wagon.  These  were  of  the  prairie-schooner 
type  and  oftentimes  immense  loads  would  be 
hauled  by  eight-horse  teams  hitched  to  them. 
On  the  return  trip  merchandise  of  various 
kinds  was  brought  in.  The  owners  of  these 
wagon  routes  were  important  men  in  the  com- 
munity, and  they  were  often  intrusted  with 
the  execution  of  extensive  commissions.  No 
inconsiderable  part  of  the  buying  and  .-ellmg 
between  Akron  and  the  outside  points  was 
done  through  them.  The  most  prominent 
among  these  early  carriers  were  Patrick 
Christy,  the  grandfather  of  Will  Christy,  the 
electric  railway  magnate,  and  George  Crouse, 
grandfather  of  the  present  Akron  bu.siness- 
man,  George  W.  Crouse,  Jr. 

In  one  respect  Akron  was  the  most  impor- 
tant point  on  the  Ohio  Canal.  Students  of 
economic  causes  have  learned  that  great  nat- 
ural obstacles  to  travel  on  important  high- 
ways are  the  points  most  likely  to  attract  set- 
tlement and  become  a  nucleus  for  future  devel- 
opment into  village  and  cit^^  Thus  a  ford  in 
a  stream,  a  rapid  or  fall  in  a  navigable  river 
necessitating  a  portage,  interrupts  the  jour- 
ney, causes  delay  and  becomes  the  natural 
stopping  place  for  travelers.  At  Akron,  the 
traveler  by  canal  met  the  greatest  obstacle  in 
all  his  journey.  Here  was  a  series  of  twenty- 
one  locks  through  which  his  boat  must  pass 
before  he  could  resume  his  journey.  Four 
hours  at  the  best  would  be  consumed  in  the 
operation   of  locking,   and  delays  were  very 



frequent.  The  traveler  could  walk  the  entire 
distance  between  the  extreme  locks  in  one- 
fourth  the  time  hi^  boat  took  in  going 
through.  Here,  then,  was  a  splendid  site  for 
the  merchant.  Here  was  a  steady  stream  of 
travel  and  commerce  passing,  for  more  than 
eight  months  of  the  year.  Here  that  travel 
must  halt  for  a  large  part  of  the  day.  Thus 
the  way-faring  man  was  forced  into  an  ac- 
quaintance with  Akron ;  thus  the  fame  of 
Akron  was  carried  throughout  Ohio  and  be- 

In  the  boyhood  days  of  the  writer  of  this 
chapter,  that  part  of  the  town  lying  north  of 
Federal  street  and  west  of  Summit  was  known 
as  "Dublin."  This  name  was  given  to  the 
locality  when  the  locks  were  being  built.  As 
remarked  above,  it  took  two  years  to  build 
them  and  a  host  of  laboring  men  were  busy 
in  the  work.  Now,  in  the  twenties  the  great 
tide  of  immigration  from  Italy  and  Germany 
and  the  other  countries  of  the  European  con- 
tinent had  not  started  to  flow  toward  our 
shores.  The  Chinese  coolies  did  not  arrive 
until  the  building  of  the  Union  Pacific  rail- 
way. The  oppression  of  the  peasantry  in 
Ireland,  however,  had  driven  a  horde  of  her 
population  to  seek  easier  conditions.  The 
first  great  immigration  was  from  Ireland.  The 
"Dago"  and  the  "Hunkie"  of  the  twenties 
and  thirties  was  the  Irishman.  "Paddy" 
built  the  railroads  and  made  the  highways 
and  dug  canals.  Thait  is,  he  handled  the 
pick  and  shovel  and  carried  the  hod.  He  was 
the  carrier  of  water  and  the  hewer  of  wood. 
Well,  the  men  from  the  Shamrock  Isle  who 
came  to  Akron  to  work  on  the  canal,  built 
their  cabins  in  the  locality  referred  to  and 
lived  there  during  the  time  they  were  work- 
ing on  the  locks.  Whether  they  named  the 
place  themselves  as  a  tender  tribute  to  the 
"auld  sod,"  which  was  still  the  focus  of  their 
fondest  longings,  or  whether  the  place  was 
facetiously  dubbed  by  the  bluer-blooded  in-, 
habitants  of  Cascade  or  Middlebury,  is  un- 
known and  immaterial.  The  present  genera- 
tion neither  knows  the  name  nor  has  any 
dealings  with  the  ancient  district  of  "Dub- 
lin."    Today  it  might  be  more  appropriately 

called  "Naples,"  for  the  Irish  have  pros- 
pered and  moved  into  better  city  quarters, 
while  the  Italian,  a  late  comer,  has  taken  the 
old  houses  and  become  the  predominating 
influence  in  the  locality.  The  territory  has 
been  conquered  in  succession  by  Ireland, 
Africa  and  Italy. 

How  much  the  canal  did  for  the  new  town 
or  rather  towns, — for  there  were  two  of  them, 
one,  called  Akron,  centering  at  the  corner  of 
Main  and  Exchange  streets  and  the  other 
named  Cascade  and  located  near  the  corner 
of  Market  and  Howard  streets, — is  seen  from 
the  growth  of  population  that  took  place  on 
this  narrow  strip  of  land  along  the  canal  and 
extending  from  Chestnut  to  Beech  streets.  At 
the  end  of  the  first  decade  this  territory  num- 
bered more  than  one  thousand  people.  In 
1840,  or  fifteen  years  after  the  beginning  of 
construction,  the  United  States  census  showed 
a  population  of  1,381.  It  had  left  Middle- 
bury  far  behind.  Practically  the  whole  of 
this  number  had  moved  in  from  other  places. 
Akron  was  already  known  as  one  of  the  most 
promising  towns  in  the  northwest  territory, 
and  this  report  was  attracting  new  settlers  by 
the  hundred,  annually.  Most  of  the  men  em- 
ployed in  building  the  locks  remained  here 
when  the  work  was  completed.  So  did  the 
keepers  of  boarding-houses  and  taverns  and 
the  merchants  who  had  been  supplying  the 
demand  for  groceries,  clothing  and  such  goods 
as  the  presence  of  so  large  a  body  of  labor- 
ing men  made  necessary.  These  constituted 
a  fine  nucleus  for  the  coming  city.  Thus, 
it  was  the  canal,  undoubtedly,  that  gave 
Akron  its  start. 

For  twenty-five  years  the  canal,  too,  was  the 
only  means  of  communication  Akron  had 
with  the  outside  world.  When  her  citizens 
traveled  they  went  by  packet,  between  the 
verdant  banks  of  the  canal.  Their  products 
found  the  outside  market  and  their  merchan- 
dise was  brought  in  to  them  by  boats  plying 
on  that  same  canal.  The  canal  was  as  of 
much  relative  importance  in  Akron  life  of 
the  period  as  it  was  in  Holland.  Venice,  it- 
self, was  not  more  dependent  on,  or  prouder 
of,  her  waterways  than   Akron  before  1852. 



The  masters  of  canal  boats  were  duly  re- 
spected and,  in  the  public  estimation,  occu- 
pied desirable  places. 

On  the  4th  day  of  July,  1852,  the  first 
railway  train  rolled  into  Akron.  It  came  in 
from  Hudson  over  the  Akron  branch  of  the 
Cleveland  and  Pittsburgh  Railroad.  It 
marked  the  end  of  the  old  order  of  things. 
It  closed  an  epoch.  The  steam-propelled  train, 
running  on  level  iron  tracks,  had  worked  a 
revolution  in  the  world  outside.  All  business 
had  to  be  adjusted  to  meet  the  changed  con- 
ditions. The  world  had  moved  on  apace. 
Akron  was  practically  where  the  thirties  had 
left  her.  Communication  by  canal  was  now 
isolation.  The  railway  came  and  growth  be- 
gan anew.  Akron  was  nearing  the  time 
when  she  was  to  strike  her  real  pace.  The 
real  making  of  the  city,  as  we  know  it  today, 
was  still  a  thing  of  the  future.  The  city 
grew  as  a  few  men  prospered.  When  the 
sun  of  prosperity  shone  upon  Ferdinand 
Schumacher,  Arthur  L.  Conger,  John  F.  Sei- 
berling,  Lewis  Miller,  David  E.  Hill,  Henry 
Robinson,  James  B.  Taplin,  J.  D.  Cummins, 
the  Aliens,  the  Howers,  0.  C.  Barber,  and 
one  or  two  others,  then  began  the  era  of  real 
progress.  From  that  time  on,  Akron  has  had 
a  steady  and  even  growth. 

The  gi'owth  has  never  been  phenomenal. 
Its  citizens  have  never  experienced  the  excite- 
ment of  a  "boom."  Real  estate  values  have 
never  taken  a  decided  step  upward.  The  con- 
trary is  true,  that  the  price  of  real  property 
has  lagged  behind.  Of  course,  the  increase 
in  population  and  wealth  has  brought  with  it 
higher  prices  for  land  and  buildings,  but  the 
increase  in  the  latter  has  not  been  commen- 
surate with  the  former.  This  fact  will  serve 
to  indicate  how  gradual,  normal,  and 
healthy  has  been  the  growth  of  Akron.  It 
was  fortunate  for  the  city  that,  when  some 
of  the  industries  founded  by  the  above 
named  men  fell  upon  hard  times  and  gave 
way  under  the  stress  of  untoward  circum- 
stances, others,  started  subsequently,  grew 
amazingly  and  more  than  filled  the  gap.  It 
was  like  the  springing  of  second-growth  trees 
to  replace  the  falling  of  century-old  monarch? 

of  the  forest.  Of  the  above  names,  four  of 
the  men  who  bore  them,  and  who  had 
amassed  great  fortunes  from  their  enterprises, 
went  to  their  graves,  broken  in  fortune. 
Three  of  the  great  businesses  were  closed  up 
forever,  and  their  names  forgotten  in  the  busi- 
ness world.  In  the  joy  of  possessing  the 
greater  industries  that  have  taken  their  places, 
few  make  room  for  the  emotion  of  regret  that 
ordinarily  would  have  attended  the  departure 
of  the  older.  Thus  it  has  happened  that 
Akron  has  been  known  successively  as  "The 
Oatmeal  Town,"  "The  Match  Town,"  "The 
Place  Where  They  Make  Mowers  and  Reapei-s" 
"The  Sewer-pipe  Town,"  and  lastly,  "The 
Rubber  City."  When  the  magnitude  of  The 
Werner  Company  is  considered,  we  can  say 
with  rea.son  that  it  might  well  be  called  "The 
City  of  Graphic  Arts."  The  renown  of  the  lat- 
ter publishing  house  on  the  American  Conti- 
nents would  easily  make  it  the  one  over- 
shadowing feature  of  many  of  Akron's  rival 
cities,  were  they  fortunate  enough  to  possess 

Among  the  economic  reasons  for  the  re- 
markable growth  of  Akron,  an  important 
place  inust  be  given  to  the  extraordinary  ad- 
vantages derived  from  certain  mineral  de- 
posits discovered  in  Summit  County,  early  in 
its  history.  Even  the  most  unreflective  reader 
must  be  aware  of  the  desirability  of  cheap 
fuel  in  a  district  devoted  to  manufacturing. 
Water-power  was  a  good  thing  so  far  as  it 
went;  but  that  was  limited,  not  only  in  the 
amount  of  the  horse-power  it  could  develop, 
but  in  the  kinds  of  manufacturing  which  it 
could  subserve.  Thus,  it  was  unavailable  for 
the  largest  part  of  the  operations  of  the  pot- 
teries and  for  such  work  as  operating  the 
"driers"  of  the  cereal  mills. 

Fortunately,  Nature  was  prodigal  of  her 
gifts  to  the  territory  of  which  Summit  County 
is  a  part.  To  the  south  and  east  of  Akron  lie 
gread  beds  of  bituminous  coal,  some  of  it 
of  superior  quality.  The  "Turkey-foot  Coal" 
is  the  same  as  that  of  the  Massillon  field,  and 
on  combu.stion  is  capable  of  producing  as 
many  heat  imits.  Steady  mining  for  more 
than  half  a  centurv    has  not  exhausted  these 


resources;  it  has  not  even  determined  their 
full  extent.  New  mines  are  opened  from 
time  to  time,  and  the  out-put  continues  to 
furnish  the  major  part  of  the  Akron  supply. 
A  short  haul  of  five,  ten,  or  fifteen  miles 
brings  this  splendid  fuel  iv  the  doors  of 
Akron's  big  factories.  Thus,  this  city  has  an 
advantage  over  her  manufacturing  rivals,  who 
must  add  to  the  cost  of  production  the  ex- 
pense of  transporting  fuel,  sometimes  for  long 

The  "burning"  of  sewer  pipe,  brick  and 
earthenware  requires  large  quantities  of  fuel. 
These  were  among  the  very  earliest  of  the 
city's  industries.  Contemporaneous  were  the 
furnaces  for  reducing  iron  ore  to  metal. 
They,  too,  needed  heat  rather  than  power. 

Coal  was  not  the  only  fuel,  for  magnificent 
forests  covered  the  entire  country,  and  rich 
peat  beds  filled  the  swamps  in  many  localities. 
Long  after  the  coal  is  exhausted  it  will  be 
possible  to  obtain  excellent  fuel  by  resorting 
to  the  peat  deposits  in  Coventry,  Copley  and 
Springfield  townships.  Oil  can  also  be  ob- 
tained by  refining  the  carboniferous  shales 
which  abound  in  various  sections  of  the 

Akron  sewer-pipe  is  the  standard  for  the 
world.  Specifications  often  read:  "Sewer- 
pipe  used  must  be  equal  to  the  best  Akron." 
It  cannot  be  doubted  that  the  superior  quali- 
ties of  the  finished  product  are  due  in  large 
measure  to  the  superexcellence  of  the  raw 
material.  Great  beds  of  fine  clay  extend  over 
the  to^mships  of  Tallmadge,  Springfield, 
Coventry  and  Green,  while  other  townships 
posse,?s  smaller  deposits. 

Reference  has  been  made  in  previous  pages 
of  this  history  to  the  existence  of  iron-fur- 
naces in  Middlebury  and  Akron.  None  exist 
now,  and  have  not  for  many  years.  Only 
the  oldest  inhabitants  -uall  remember  them. 
The  present  generation  in  surprise,  "Well, 
where  in  the  world  did  they  get  the  iron  ore?" 
The  answer,  too,  is  surprising.  It  was  ob- 
tained right  at  home.  The  furnaces  were 
built  here  because  the  ferrous  ores  were  here. 
They  are  still  here,  but  are  the  so-called  "boo;- 
iron."  and  the  process  of  reduction  is  so  ex- 

pensive that  they  cannot  compete  with  the 
richer  ores  mined  in  other  parts  of  the  coun- 
try. Hence,  when  use  was  made  of  the  great 
deposits  in  the  Lake  Superior  district,  the 
Akron  furnaces  went  out  of  business,  and 
now  nothing  remains  of  them  but  the  .slag 
and  cinder  heaps  which  they  left  behind. 

In  Springfield  and  Green  townships  there 
exists  a  four-foot  stratum  of  limestone,  of  fair 
quality.  Limestone,  very  impure,  also  occurs 
scattered  in  other  portions  of  the  county.  Be- 
low Cuyahoga  Falls,  it  was  quarried  in  the 
early  days  of  the  county,  and  burned  for 
water-lime.  It  is  said  that  quantities  of  this 
local  lime  were  u.sed  in  the  masonry  of  the 
Ohio  Canal,  at  the  time  of  its' construction. 

Akron  and  Summit  County  have  had  the 
oil  and  gas  fever  from  time  to  time.  Many 
attempts  have  been  made  in  the  last  forty 
years  to  find  these  minerals,  with  varying 
successs.  Mr.  Ferdinand  Schumacher  drilled 
a  deep  well,  about  twenty-five  years  ago  on 
the  site  of  the  former  Cascade  Mill.  His  de- 
sire was  to  obtain  gas  sufficient  to  provide 
fuel  for  the  operation  of  his  mills.  He  was 
not  successful,  though  gas  in  moderate  quan- 
tities was  obtained.  Somewhat  later  J.  F.  Sei- 
berling  drilled  several  holes  in  Springfield 
Township  near  Brittain,  but  after  drilling 
to  a  great  depth  the  wells  were  abandoned  on 
account  of  the  poor  showing.  In  Bath  and 
Northampton,  surface  oil  has  been  known  to 
collect  in  wells,  and  farmers  have  often  been 
excited  over  the  indications  of  petroleum.  In 
Peninsula,  the  largest  flow  of  gas  ever  found 
in  the  country  comes  from  a  well  drilled 
there,  and  in  the  year  1907  the  flow  was  con- 
tinuing unabated. 

In  1905-1906,  the  most  ambitious  attempt 
to  search  for  oil  that  has  been  made  in  this 
district  was  undertaken.  James  and  Mathew 
Lang  organized  the  Interstate  Oil  Company, 
and  secured  much  capital  in  Youngstown, 
Akron,  and  other  cities,  for  the  purpose  of 
making  a  thorough  test  of  this  locality. 
Their  theory  was  an  ingenious  one,  and  ap- 
peared plausible  enough  to  any  but  e.xpert 
geologists.  In  explaining  the  theory  it  was 
said  that  oil  was  all  about  us.     To  the  east 



and  south  wese  the  Pittsburg,  Pai'lcersburg 
and  Marietta  fields ;  on  the  west  were  the  Lima 
and  Findlay  fields,  while  north  of  us,  some 
oil  had  been  found  in  Canada  and  the  Islands 
of  Lake  Erie.  The  oil  in  all  these  places 
had  been  found  in  the  stratum  of  rock  known 
as  the  Trenton  formation,  and  this  dipped 
from  all  these  points  toward  Akron.  In  other 
words,  Akron  is  built  over  the  center  of  a 
great  basin,  the  bottom 'of  which  is  formed 
of  Trenton  rock.  Therefore,  all  that  was  nec- 
essary in  order  to  reach  the  greatest  supply 
of  petroleum  ever  tapped,  was  to  drill  in  the 
neighborhood  of  Akron  until  the  Trenton 
formation  was  encountered.  Geologists  are  of 
the  opinion  that  this  rock  lies  more  than 
4,000  feet  below  the  surface  of  Summit 
County.  These  parties  overlooked  one 
thing,  which  is  the  weak  point  in  their  the- 
ory: The  pressure  of  so  tremendous  a  mass 
of  the  earth's  crust  would  certainly  force  all 
oil  and  other  liquids  to  ascend  through  the 
geological  faults  or  porous  strata,  like  the 
shales,  to  regions  where  that  pressure  was  not 
so  great.  Is  it  not  worthy  of  belief  that  this 
pressure  has  forced  the  oil  from  the  central 
and  lower  parts  of  the  basin  to  the  rim  of  it, 
and  that  the  surrounding  fields  have  oil  be- 
cause it  has  been  forced  out  of  the  territory 
of  which  Akron  is  the  center?  In  the  years 
last  mentioned,  several  wells  were  drilled  near 
Thomastown,  and  oil  in  paying  quantities 
was  found  far  above  the  Trenton  rock.  Drill- 
ing was  then  stopped,  and  the  oil  has  been 
steadily  pumped  from  these  wells  since,  in 
moderate  quantities.  A  well  is  now  being 
drilled  near  the  State  Mill,  in  Coventry  Town- 
ship, and  is  said  to  be  down  3,000  feet,  with 
no  indications  of  oil.  It  is  extremely  im- 
probable that  Akron  will  ever  enjoy  an  oil 
"boom."  Most  geologists  are  of  the  opinion 
that  oil  and  gas  do  not  exist  in  Summit 
County  in  sufficient  quantities  to  make  a 
search  for  either  very  profitable.  Nature  has 
so  plenteously  enriched  this  region  with  other 
resources  that  no  one  must  be  heard  to  com- 
plain that  one  or  two  gifts  "have  been  with- 


On  the  6th  day  of  December,  1825,  there 
was  duly  recorded  in  the  records  of  Portage 
County,  Ohio,  by  the  recorder  thereof,  a  plat 
of  a  new  village.  It  consisted  of  about  300 
lots  of  land,  and  occupied  the  territory  lying 
between  the  present  i-ailroads,  St.  Bernard's 
Church,  the  Goodrich  Rubber  Plant  and  the 
Perkins  School.  The  prime  mover  in  this 
allotment  was  General  Simon  Perkins,  of 
Warren,  who  owned  considerable  land  in  the 
county,  a  part  of  which  was  included  in  the 
amount  platted.  With  him  was  associated  Mr. 
Paul  Williams,  who  owned  the  land  adjoin- 
ing Gen.  Perkins'  on  the  east.  These  men 
were  the  founders  of  Akron.  The  city  cannot 
appropriately  celebrate  its  first  centennial 
until  1925,  although  1907  completes  the  first 
century  since  the  settlement  of  Middlebury, 
which  is  now  a  portion  of  it. 

The  survey  for  the  Ohio  canal  had  been 
made,  and,  by  studying  tlie  altitudes  of  vari- 
ous places  on  its  length,  it  was  seen  that  the 
site  of  this  new  village  occupied  the  very 
highest  point.  There  is  a  Greek  word,  Akros, 
which  translated  means  "high."  At  the  sug- 
gestion of  a  lawyer  fi-iend.  General  Perkins 
adopted  the  name  "Akron"  as  a  very  appro- 
priate one  for  his  new  town.  She  is  the 
original  Akron.  She  has  been  a  prolific  pa- 
rent, for  new  "Akrons"  are  found  in  New 
York,  Colorado,  Indiana  and  many  other 
states.  The  city  does  not  occupy  the  highest 
land  in  the  state,  as  is  often  erroneously  as- 
serted. The  highest  altitude  in  the  city  is 
about  1,100  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea. 
The  highest  point  in  the  state  is  in  the  town 
of  Ontario,  not  far  from  Mansfield,  where  the 
elevation  reached  is  1,373  feet. 

The  first  building  built  upon  the  new  allot- 
ment occupied  the  corner  where  the  Peoples 
Savings  Bank  is  now  located.  It  was  built 
by  Henry  Clark,  and  was  used  by  him  for 
hotel  purposes.  Soon  a  store  building  was 
built  on  the  lot  diagonally  opposite.  When 
the  work  on  the  canal  began,  and  dwellings 
and  store  buildings  and  shops  and  ware- 
houses sprang  into  existence  as  though  stim- 



moned  by  the  wave  of  a  magician,  there  was 
large  demand  for  the  lots,  and  many  of  them 
were  sold  in  a  few  months.  The  enterprise 
was  a  splendid  success,  and  the  new  town 
started  under  the  happiest  auspices.  A  ship- 
yard was  started  inside  the  town  limits  at 
what  was  afterward  called  the  Lower  Basin, 
and  on  June  27th,  1827,  the  first  canal  boat 
built  in  Akron,  and  the  first  to  regularly 
navigate  the  canal,  and  called  the  "Ohio," 
was  launched. 

So  Akron  grew  until  August  10th,  1833, 
on  which  day  the  territorial  extent  of  the 
city  was  doubled  by  the  filing  of  a  new  plat 
by  which  all  the  lands  lying  north  of  the 
town  as  far  as  the  Little  Cuyahoga  River, 
and  between  what  is  now  th^  railroads  on  the 
east  and  Walnut  and  Oak  Streets  on  the  west, 
were  allotted.  As  in  the  former  plat,  streets, 
parks,  and  alleys  were  provided  for,  and  a 
little  city  was  carefully  laid  out  on  paper. 
This  plat  also  gave  the  name  of  the  town  em- 
braced by  it  as  "Akron."  This  last  allotted 
territory  belonged  mainly  to  Dr.  Eliakim 
Crosby.  He  associated  with  him  Judge  Lei- 
cester King  and  General  Simon  Perkins,  both 
of  Warren.  Dr.  Crosby  had  settled  in  Mid- 
dlebury  in  1820,  coming  thence  from  Can- 
ada, although  he  had  been  born  in  Litch- 
field, Connecticut.  He  embarked  in  various 
ventures  in  Middlebury,  operating  at  times 
the  Cuyahoga  furnaces,  a  lime  kiln,  a  grist 
mill,  saw  mill,  etc.  He  sold  them  all  by 
1831,  and  conceived  a  prospect  larger  than 
any  of  them.  His  plan  was  to  carry  the 
water  of  the  Little  Cuyahoga  River  by  means 
of  a  hydraulic  race,  from  Middlebury  to  a 
point  on  the  Ohio  Canal  near  Lock  Five,  near 
the  foot  of  Mill  Street.  This  would  give  a 
fall  of  water  which  could  be  used  for  power 
purposes  from  Lock  Five  to  the  northern 
limits  of  the  town.  Work  on  the  race  was 
commenced  in  1831,  and  in  the  spring  of 
1833  the  waters  of  the  river  were  flowing 
through  it,  and  giving  the  power  the  en- 
gineer of  the  enterprise,  Colonel  Sebried 
Dodge,  estimated  they  would.  This  is  the 
race  -which  now  Rcms  through  the  Old  Forge, 
around  the  Rocky  Bluff  above  and  just  to  the 

south  of  Fountain  Park,  the  present  fair 
grounds,  and,  crossing  Summit,  Broadway 
and  High  Streets,  is  conveyed  by  a  conduit 
under  the  center  of  Main  Street  and  down 
Mill  Street  from  the  Central  Savings  Bank 
Corner  to  the  "Old  Stone  Mill,"  at  Lock  Five. 
The  mill  was  built  in  the  year  1832-1833 
to  make  use  of  the  new  power.  On  the  maps 
the  new  race  was  called  the  "Cascade  Mill 
Race."  The  old  village  had  been  called 
Akron  for  eight  years  and  the  people  looked 
upon  the  addition  as  another  and  separate 
village.  The  name  of  the  race  they  adopted, 
therefore,  as  the  name  of  the  town,  and  it 
was  known  as  "Cascade"  for  many  years 
thereafter,  both  at  home  and  abroad.  This 
name  was  later  given  to  a  newspaper,  a  hotel, 
and  an  important  store;  all  named  from  the 
town  of  which  they  were  a  part.  When  the 
territory  between  the  old  and  new  village 
became  better  settled  they  were  often  referred 
to  as  North  and  South  Akron,  but  gradually 
the  distinction  was  obliterated.  Today,  by 
"South  Akron"  the  citizen  refers  to  tenitory 
lying  south  of  Thornton  Street,  and  extend- 
ing to  a  point  three  miles  from  the  center 
of  North  Akron. 

The  sixth  Federal  Census  did  not  recognize 
Akron.  It  was  the  census  of  1840.  It  gave 
Cleveland,  6,071 ;  Steubenville,  4,247 ;  Zanes- 
ville,  4,766;  Chillicothe,  3.977.  It  gave  the 
number  of  inhabitants  in  Summit  County  as 
22,560.  In  1850,  the  name  of  Akron  appears 
for  the  first  time,  and  the  town  is  credited 
with  3,266  population.  In  1860  this  had 
grown  to  only  3,477.  The  new  railways  had 
been  in  operation  only  five  or  six  years,  and 
their  influence  was  not  yet  firmly  felt.  The 
older  part  of  the  town  was  exceedingly  jeal- 
ous, in  the  early  days,  of  the  new  upstart 
just  north  of  it.  Although  they  were  both 
founded  by  General  Simon  Perkins,  and  had 
much  in  common,  still,  the  rapid  growth  and 
many  superior  advantages  of  the  northern 
section  was  quite  sufficient  to  disturb  the 
equanimity  of  the  older  community.  The 
former  possessed  the  "Stone  Mill,"  and  it  was 
the  largest  manufactnring  industry  in  any 
of  the  three  towns.     Here,  also,  was  the  new 



"Cascade  House";  the  most  modern  and  best 
of  all  the  hotels  in  the  vicinity.  Here  was 
the  "Cascade  Store,"  occupying  the  south- 
west corner  of  Main  and  Market  Streets, 
founded  by  Jonathan  F.  Fenn  and  Charles 
W.  Howai'd,  and  purchased  in  1835  by  Mr. 
Philander  D.  Hall,  and  many  other  advan- 
tages were  enjoyed  e.xclusively  by  the  new 
village.  Middlebury  was  also  envious  and 
jealous,  and  there  was  a  three-cornered  rivalry 
which  at  times  approached  to  a  feeling  of 
bitterness.  Finally,  the  contest  settled  down 
to  a  conflict  between  the  two  Akrons,  and 
oftentimes  the  business  rivalry  took  the  form 
of  a  contest  of  force.  The  newspapers  of  the 
time  frequently  contained  long  articles  of  the 
most  bitter  recriminations.  The  two  towns 
were  separated  by  a  narrow  strip  of  land,  per- 
haps 600  or  70(3  feet  wide,  extending  from 
Quarry  to  Center  Streets.  This  was  owned 
by  General  Perkins,  and  was  neutral  ground. 
It  was  called  the  "gore,"  whether  because  of 
its  shape,  or  the  amount  of  blood  it  caused 
to  be  spilled,  is  not  known.  This  strip  be- 
longed to  neither  of  the  villages  and,  lying 
exactly  between  them,  was  good  compromise 
ground.  Hence,  when  the  church  congrega- 
tions of  that  day  wished  to  build  a  place  of 
worship,  the  partisans  of  the  two  sections 
fought  each  other  to  a  standstill,  and  then  de- 
cided to  meet  halfway  and  erect  their  temple 
on  the  neutral  ground.  In  order  to  insure  ab- 
solute fairness  in  the  matter,  the  churches 
were  faced  toward  the  west.  In  this  way  the 
original  Methodist,  Baptist  and  Congrega- 
tional churches  were  built.  The  latter  occu- 
pied the  site  of  the  present  Court  House, 
while  the  Baptist  was  built  on  the  corner  of 
Quarry  and  High  Streets.  The  reader  will 
doubtless  reflect  by  this  time  that  the  County 
Court  House,  built  in  1841,  occupies  the  site 
on  this  neutral  ground.  When  the  Baptist 
Church  was  built,  it  was  proposed  to  make 
it  face  toward  the  south.  This  provoked  a 
quarrel  that  foimd  its  way  into  the  newspa- 
pers, and  was  waged  with  much  feeling. 
Many  of  the  members  living  in  North  Akron 
withdrew  their  church  membership;  some  of 
the  contributors  to  the  building  fund,   who 

lived  north  of  the  "gore,"  refused  to  pay 
their  subscriptions,  and  the  church  was  nearly 
rent  in  twain  on  account  of  this  sectional 
warfare.  The  original  Congregational  society 
was  broken  up  and  disbanded,  and  the  Meth- 
odists engaged  in  an  internecine  struggle  that 
caused  each  party  to  accuse  the  other,  when, 
in  1841,  their  church  building  burned  down, 
of  having  set  it  afire.  Judging  from  the  news- 
paper accounts,  the  fire  was  not  incendiary 
at  all. 

But,  the  contest  up  to  the  time  of  the  Post- 
Office  War,  was  mild  by  comparison  with 
what  happened  during  that  memorable  affair, 
and  the  year  or  two  next  succeeding.  Then 
was  reached  the  climax.  Up  until  December, 
1837,  the  post-office  had  been  located  in  South 
Akron.  It  was  established  in  1826,  the  year 
after  the  founding,  by  President  John  Quincy 
Adams.  He  appointed  a  young  lawyer  named 
Wolsey  Wells  as  the  first  postmaster.  Mr. 
Wells  built  a  large  house  on  West  Exchange 
Street,  on  the  corner  of  Water  Street,  and  in 
it  conducted  the  operations  of  the  postal  serv- 
ice and  collected  the  tolls  on  the  Ohio  Canal, 
for  he  was  both  postmaster  and  toll  collector, 
and,  when  he  had  time,  attended  to  the  duties 
of  justice  of  the  peace,  in  addition.  It  prob- 
ably required  the  revenues  from  the  combined 
offices  to  support  the  one  incumbent,  and  even 
then  his  salary  was  doubtless  only  a  modest 

In  1883,  Mr.  WelLs  moved  away  from 
Akron  and  President  Jackson  appointed  Lewis 
Humiston,  who  was  then  keeping  the  Clark 
Tavern,  on  the  corner  of  Main  and  Exchange 
Streets,  as  his  successor  in  the  post-office.  He 
built  a  small  building  in  the  rear  of  the  hotel 
on  the  north  side  of  Exchange  Street,  just 
east  of  Main,  and  established  the  post-office 
in  it.  Early  in  1837  Mr.  Humiston  resigned 
owing  to  his  removal  from  Akron  and  the 
war  was  on. 

There  was  a  large  number  of  applicants 
for  appointment  to  the  vacancy.  The  contest 
finally  settled  down  to  a  struggle  between 
Constant  Bryan  and  Harvey  H.  Johnson. 
They  were  both  lawyers  and  both  residents 
of  the  north  village.     The  former  was  after- 



ward  elected  probate  judge  of  the  county,  and 
was  the  father  of  Major  Frederick  C.  Bryan. 
The  contest  grew  so  acrimonious  that  the  gov- 
ernment threatened  to  abolish  the  office  un- 
less the  community  would  announce  its  deci- 
sion at  an  early  date  and  arrive  at  it  in  a 
peaceable  manner.  The  South  Akron  candi- 
dates then  withdrew  and,  with  their  respective 
adherents,  gave  their  support  to  Mr.  Johnson 
in  return  for  his  promise,  it  was  alleged,  that 
the  site  of  the  post-office  should  remain  in 
South  Akron.  This  action  gave  Johnson  the 
support  of  a  large  majority  of  the  voters  of 
the  two  villages,  and  accordingly  he  received 
the  appointment. 

He  took  possession  of  the  office  in  June, 
1837,  and  all  South  Akron  rejoiced  with  him. 
They  felt  that  they  were  sharers  of  his  good 
fortune.  Had  they  not  retained  one  of  the 
greatest  factors  in  the  upbuilding  of  their 
section  of  the  city?  The  new  postmaster  was 
received  with  open  arms  as  a  new  neighbor. 
They  of  the  North  End  were  inwardly  dis- 
pleased. Mr.  Johnson  was  one  of  them,  but, 
by  maintaining  his  office  in  the  South  End 
he  was  giving  aid  and  comfort  to  the  enemy. 
Their  displeasure  soon  manifested  itself  out- 
wardly and  the  columns  of  the  newspapers 
bore  evidence  of  their  state  of  feeling.  Mr. 
Johnson's  "treason"  was  .strongly  denounced, 
and  every  possible  argument  for  the  removal 
of  the  post-office  to  the  growing  North  Akron 
was  set  forth.  Surely  the  South  Akronites 
could  not  object  to  its  removal  to  the  neutral 
ground,  called  the  "Gore"!  The  churches 
had  compromised  on  this  strip,  and  here  was 
the  logical  and  reasonable  site  for  all  their 
common  activities,  the  location  of  which 
might  be  in  dispute. 

South  Akron  could  see  nothing  to  arbitrate. 
They  could  not  see  that  it  was  "logical"  to  give 
up  so  desirable  an  acquisition  as  the  post- 
office.  For  them,  to  go  to  the  post-office  was 
merely  to  go  around  the  corner  or  across  the 
street,  while  the  north  citizens  must  trudge 
a  mile  or  more  in  snow,  mud  and  burning 
summer  heat  to  get  their  mail  and  buy  their 
.'tamps.  It  is  to  be  feared  that  the  South 
Enders  taunted  them  as  they  pas.«ed  and  im- 

moderately rejoiced  in  their  own  good  for- 
tune.   Human  nature  is  the  same  in  all  ages. 

So  the  summer  and  autumn  passed  and 
South  Akron  had  settled  down  to  the  full 
enjoyment  of  the  post-office  as  their  own  prop- 
erty. The  reader  can  imagine  then,  the  sur- 
prise, the  absolute  consternation,  which  seized 
South  Akron,  one  morning  in  December, 
1837,  when  it  looked  for  its  beloved  posses- 
sion and  could  not  find  it.  It  searched  for 
its  post-office  everywhere  within  its  four  cor- 
ners; it  rubbed  its  eyes  and  searched  again. 
There  was  no  mistaking  the  fact  that  some- 
body had  done  something  with  the  post-office. 
At  length  the  information  was  brought  in 
that  it  had  gone  north  during  the  night.  It 
had  not  even  stopped  on  the  compromise 
ground.  It  was  not  to  be  a  neutral  thing, 
it  was  not  to  be  possessed  in  common  with  the 
enemy.  It  had  gone  over  to  the  enemy. 
It  was  resting  and  operating  smoothly  in  the 
Buckley  Building,  on  the  corner  of  Howard 
and  Mill  streets.  The  North  Enders  were  tak- 
ing but  a  step  or  two  to  reach  it,  while  they 
of  the  South  End  were  trudging  a  mile  in  the 
snow  to  buy  their  stamps,  and  a  weary  mile 
back,  nursing  their  wrath  and  planning  sat- 

If  newspaper  articles  are  a  means  of  satis- 
faction in  such  a  contingency,  they  had  it  in 
full.  "We  can  well  believe  that  the  North 
Enders  enjoyed  the  storm  while  their  cra'^t- 
fallen  rivals  thundered  their  vituperation  and 
insinuation  in  the  local  press.  The  postmaster 
was  denounced  as  a  "traitor"  and  a  "viper." 
The  ugliest  charges,  l)acked  up  by  affidavits, 
were  printed  in  the  newspaper.  Mr.  Johnson 
replied  by  other  articles  and  made  use  of 
many  personalities  calculated  to  drive  his  as- 
sailants to  cover.  Finally  the  editor  of  the 
paper  refused  to  extend  further  the  courtesy 
of  his  columns  for  the  purpose  of  continuing 
the  wordy  war,  and  the  contestants  took  to 
pamphleteering.  Sixteen-page  pamphlets 
were  used  to  give  vent  to  the  feeling  of  out- 
rage on  the  part  of  the  South  .\kron  citizens, 
and  their  leading  men  assisted  in  preparing 
them  and  lent  their  names  to  the  cause.  It 
speaks  well  for  the  self-restraint  of  the  com- 



munity  that  the  warfare  was  confined  to  the 
newspapers  and  that  no  violence  of  any  kind 
waa  done  or  attempted. 

The  injured  feeling  on  the  part  of  the 
South  Enders  soon  passed  away.  The  North 
End,  from  that  time  on,  rapidly  surpassed  it 
in  population,  wealth  and  influence.  Many 
of  the  citizens  of  the  south  village  moved  their 
business  and  residences  to  the  North  End. 
The  spirit  of  partisanship  or  rivalry  soon 
disappeared,  never  to  be  renewed.  The  post- 
office  was  moved  many  times  thereafter  with- 
out a  note  of  protest  from  anybody.  Dr. 
Dana  D.  Evans,  the  successor  of  Mr.  John- 
son, moved  it  twice,  each  time  further  north. 
The  first  move  was  into  the  Stone  Block,  on 
the  east  side  of  Howard  street  near  Market; 
the  second  was  to  the  large  stone  "Good 
Block,"  on  the  corner  of  Market  and  Maiden 

In  1849,  postmaster  Frank  Adams  moved 
it  back  to  the  east  side  of  South  Howard 
street,  where  Remington's  jewelry  store  is  now 
located.  In  1853,  his  successor,  Edward  W. 
Perrin,  moved  it  a  few  doors  further  north  to 
a  room  in  the  Matthews  Block,  where  it  re- 
mained until  July  1st,  1870,  when  the  new 
postmaster,  James  B.  Storer,  just  appointed 
by  President  Grant,  moved  it  south  to  the 
corner  room  in  the  Msisonic  Temple  on  the 
corner  of  Howard  and  Mill  streets.  The  lease 
on  the  room  in  the  Masonic  Temple  expired 
before  the  new  government  building  was 
ready  for  occupancy,  and  the  post-office  took 
temporary  quarters  in  the  old  office  of  The 
American  Cereal  Company,  on  the  south-east 
corner  of  Mill  and  Broadway,  which  had 
been  vacated  when  that  company  moved  its 
general  offices  to  Chicago.  Here  it  remained 
until  the  completion  of  the  government  build- 
ing, on  the  corner  of  Market  and  High 
Streets,  where,  in  all  probability,  it  will  re- 
main so  long  as  Akron  people  will  have  need 
of  postal  services.  The  separate  post-office  of 
Middlebury  has  been  discontinued  and  a 
branch  of  the  Akron  office  installed  in  its 
place,  yet  there  was  no  objection  to  the  move 
on  the  part  of  anyone.  At  the  present  time 
there  is  no  rivalrv  between  anv  of  the  manv 

sections  of  the  city,  but,  everywhere,  the 
visitor  sees  evidence  of  a  new  spirit,  a  uni- 
versal desire  to  pull  together  for  the  good  of 


The  real  history  of  Akron  as  a  municipal 
corporation  commences  on  the  12th  day  of 
March,  1836,  for  it  was  on  that  day  that  the 
legislature  of  the  State  of  Ohio  duly  passed 
a  resolution  granting  to  the  two  villages.  South 
and  North  Akron,  a  town  charter,  in  accord- 
ance with  their  joint  request,  as  contained 
in  a  petition  they  presented  to  the  General 
Assembly  in  1835.  In  addition  to  the  land 
contained  in  the  original  town  plats  of  Gen- 
eral Perkins,  Paul  AVdlliams,  Dr.  Crosby  and 
Leicester  King,  this  act  of  the  legislature 
added  to  the  municipal  territory  more  than 
three  square  miles  just  east  of  and  contiguous 
to  the  said  plats.  The  east  corporate  line 
under  this  grant  of  municipal  rights  extended 
a  trifle  east  of  the  present  Spicer  Street  and 
from  about  Hamilton  Avenue  across  Fir,  Mar- 
ket and  North  Main  and  Howard  Streets  to 
the  Little  Cuyahoga  River. 

The  incoiporating  act  provided  a  complete 
scheme  of  government  for  the  new  munici- 
pality, including  officers,  elections,  forms  of 
taxation,  legislation,  boards  of  education,  etc. 
It  provided  for  the  election  of  a  mayor,  a 
recorder  and  five  trustees.  It  prescribed  that 
the  first  town  election  should  be  held  on  the 
second  Tuesday  in  June,  1836.  The  terri- 
tory out  of  which  Akron  was  formed  wa- 
taken  from  both  Coventry  and  Portage  town- 
ships. For  the  purpose  of  the  first  election, 
the  usual  polling  place  of  Portage  Township 
was  to  be  used — the  old  Clark  Tavern,  on  the 
corner  of  Main  and  Exchange  Street*. 

In  1836,  the  North  End  contained  more 
electors  than  the  South  End,  and,  in  the 
caucuses  of  both  the  Whig  and  Democrat  par- 
ties, it  captured  the  nominations.  In  the 
election  following,  political  lines  were  oblit- 
erated, as  they  always  should  be  in  municipal 
elections,  and  the  results  showed  that  the 
voters  split  on  sectional  lines  of  cleavage  in- 



stecad.  The  Whigs  nominated  Seth  Iredell  for 
mayor.  He  was  a  Quaker  who  had  come 
from  Pennsylvania  about  the  time  of  the 
completion  of  the  canal,  and  had  been  in- 
timately connected  with  the  affairs  of  the 
norlh  town  since  the  beginning.  Their  can- 
didate for  recorder  was  Charles  W.  Howard, 
a  son-in-law  of  Dr.  Crosby's,  who,  of  course, 
was  strongly  identified  with  the  interests  of 
North  Akron.  The  nominees  of  the  Demo- 
crats for  m.ayor  and  recorder  were  Dr.  Elia- 
kim  Crosby  and  Constant  Bryan,  respectively, 
one  the  founder  of  North  Akron  and  the 
other  one  of  its  most  prominent  citizens. 

It  was  rather  poor  politics  to  localize  the 
nominations  in  this  way,  but  the  North  End- 
ers  had  the  power,  and  the  temptation  to 
it  to  the  utmost  was  too  strong  to  be  with- 
stood. The  South  Enders  showed  their  feel- 
ings by  voting  against  the  man  who  was 
most  responsible  for  the  existence  of  the  North 
End,  and  all  others  who  were  intimately  con- 
nected with  him.  The  total  vote  cast  in  the 
ensuing  election  was  one  hundred  and  sixty- 
six,  and  the  strong  interest  in  the  election. 
produced  by  the  warfare  of  the  sections, 
doubtless  drew  out  a  full  vote.  The  votes 
were  soon  counted  and  it  was  ascertained  that 
Mr.  Iredell  had  been  elected  by  a  majority  of 
sixteen,  while  Mr.  Bryan  w-as  elected  by  a 
majority  of  twelve. 

The  vote  was  as  follows: 


Seth  Iredell,  Whig   91 

Elilakim    Crosby,    Democrat 75 


Constant    Bryan,    Democrat 87 

Charles  W.   Howard,  Whig 75 


Erastus    Torrey,    Whig •. 153 

Jededlah   D.   Commins.   Democrat 143 

Noah   M.   Green,   Whig 124 

William   B.   Mitchell,  Democrat 114 

William  E.   Wright,  Whig S8 

By  the  terms  of  the  charter,  all  the  above 
officials  were  to  constitute  the  Town  Council 
and  possess  within  themselves  all  the  execu- 
tive, administrative,  legislative  and  appointive 

functions.  The  charter  provided  for  a  mar- 
shall,  treasurer,  engineer,  solicitor,  all  to  be 
appointed  by  the  Town  Council,  and  for  such 
police  and  fire  officers  as  it  might  deem  ex- 

When  the  council  organized,  it  was  learned 
that  Mr.  Mitchell  had  declined  to  act  as 
trustee  and  Justus  Gale,  a  Whig,  was  chosen 
to  fill  the  vacancy.  After  sei-ving  a  few 
months  Mr.  Commins  also  rasigned  as  trustee 
and  the  council  appointed  William  K.  May 
as  his  successor. 

The  grant  of  municipal  powers  from  the 
state  provided  that  town  officials  should  hold 
office  only  one  year.  These  just  elected  had 
but  got  well  acquainted  with  their  respective 
duties  and  had  settled  down  to  a  reasonable 
enjoyment  of  the  honors  so  hardly  won,  when 
the  time  for  their  exit  from  the  stage  of  pub- 
lie  affairs  arrived.  Whether  they  were  dis- 
satisfied with  their  offices  or  the  people  with 
their  officials,  the  truth  remains  that  not  one 
of  them  remained  in  his  office  for  a  second 
term'.  Akron  has  earned  for  herself  a  repu- 
tation for  fickleness  in  this  r&spect  that  en- 
dures to  the  present  day. 

At  the  second  election,  held  in  1837,  John 
C.  Singleton,  Jr.,  wa.s  elected  mayor,  William 
E.  Wright,  recorder,  and  William  K.  May, 
William  T.  Mather,  Dave  D.  Evans,  Jesse 
Allen  and  Eben  Blodgett,  trustees.  When 
the  new  council  met  it  elected  Moses  Cleve- 
land, marshal,  and  Horace  K.  Smith,  treas- 
urer. The  new  mayor  was  a  young  man  of 
twenty-seven  years.  His  predecessor  was 
nearly  sixty-three.  Mayor  Singleton  came 
of  a  wealthy  family,  living  at  Streetsboro, 
Portage  County.  He  had  graduated  at  Western 
Eeserve  College,  at  Hudson,  with  the  class  of 
1835,  and  was  esteemed  later  as  a  very  bril- 
liant man.  He  made  some  very  unfortunate 
business  ventures  upon  coming  to  Akron  after 
his  graduation,  and  his  inexperience  in  the 
law  prevented  his  securing  many  or  profitable 
clients,  so  he  was  better  known  in  Akron  for 
his  debts  and  his  poverty  than  for  any  especial 
abilities,  at  the  time  of  his  candidacy. 

The  fame  he  won  by  his  first  term  brought 
him  a  re-election  over  such  a  strong  candidate 


as  William  M.  Dodge,  who  was  afterward 
elected  probate  judge  of  the  county. 

In  June,  1839,  General  Lucius  V.  Bierce, 
a  most  remarkable  man  in  many  ways,  was 
elected  as  mayor.  He  had  just  returned  from 
the  ill-fated  "Patriot"  expedition  into  Can- 
ada. In  1838,  it  was  believed  by  many 
American  citizens  that  Canada  was  ready  for 
revolution.  A  Canadian  editor,  William 
Lyon  Mackenzie,  was  the  originator  of  the 
movement.  On  the  American  side,  all  the 
territory  bordering  on  the  Great  Lakes,  be- 
came interested  in  it.  In  the  beginning  it 
took  the  form  of  a  fraternal  order  with  the 
accompanying  ritual,  secrecy,  oaths,  etc. 
"Hunters  Lodges,"  as  they  were  called,  were 
established  in  many  places.  A  prosperous 
lodge  was  formed  in  Akron.  The  object  of 
the  order  was  to  assist  Canada  in  throwing 
off  the  yoke  of  Great  Britain. 

On  the  burning  of  the  filibustering  schooner 
"Caroline"  by  the  Canadian  authorities  in 
December,  1837,  great  excitement  prevailed  in 
Akron  and  public  meetings  were  held  by  all 
the  prominent  citizens  and  resolutions  adopted 
demanding  the  prompt  interference  of  the 
President  of  the  United  States.  General 
Bierce  was  a  brigadier-general  of  Ohio  mili- 
tia. He  had  always  been  a  student  of  mili- 
tary matters  and  had  early  inter&sted  himself 
in  the  State  Guard.  The  Canadian  movement 
found  him  ready  to  begin  hostilities  at  the 
drop  of  a  hat.  A  convention  of  "Patriots" 
was  called  at  Buffalo.  General  Bierce  at- 
tended and  so  impressed  the  other  delegates 
with  his  military  knowledge  that  he  was 
chosen  as  military  commander-in-chief  of  the 
whole  movement.  The  movement  never 
reached  any  serious  proportions.  Judging 
from  its  size,  the  character  of  the  men  be- 
hind it,  and  the  preparations  made  for  carry- 
ing it  out,  it  never  got  beyond  the  stage  of 
boys'  play. 

An  attack  of  two  hundred  men  was  made 
in  Canada  in  the  St.  Lawrence  River  district, 
and  repelled  without  appreciable  difBculty, 
and  the  leader  of  it  hanged.  Mackenzie  was 
driven  from  Canada.  December  4,  1838,  Gen- 
eral Bierce  at  the  head  of  137  men,  made  the 

second  and  last  incursion  into  Canada.  It 
started  from  Detroit  and  got  as  far  as  A\"ind- 
sor,  just  across  the  river.  Fifty  British  -sol- 
diers were  guarding  the  barracks  here.  The 
"Patriot  Army,"  as  the  commander-in-chief 
delighted  to  call  his  squad,  .succeeded  in  set- 
ting fire  to  the  baiTacks  and  also  in  burn- 
iing  a  non-belligerent  little  steamer,  "The 
Thames,"  lying  at  the  wharf.  They  were 
soon  attacked  by  400  Canadian  soldiers,  and, 
of  the  137  who  crossed  the  river,  only  thirty 
returned.  The  rest  were  either  killed  or 
taken  prisoners. 

The  captured  were  transported  to  Van  Die- 
man's  land. 

This  was  the  last  of  the  effort  to  "free" 
Canada.  It  was  a  most  inglorious  affair.  It 
is  difficult  to  see  now  how  anyone  could  pos- 
sibly draw  any  credit  from  it,  except,  perhaps, 
the  Canadian  soldiers  and  the  American  fed- 
eral authorities,  who  promptly  and  energetic- 
ally did  all  they  could  to  break  up  these  fili- 
bustering expeditions  and  lo  maintain  our 
ordinary  status  with  the  British  government 
as  a  power  with  whom  we  were  on  friendly 
terms.  General  Bierce,  it  is  alleged  by  many, 
did  not  acquit  himself  with  extraordinary 
valor.  He  has  been  critici.'^ed  for  being  among 
the  first  to  cross  in  the  little  canoe  to  the 
American  side  after  the  disastrous  sequel. 
Be  that  as  it  may,  he  returned  to  Akron  with 
.splendid  stories  of  his  exploits  and  speedily 
became  a  hero  in  the  eyes  of  his  fellow 
citizens.  It  was  something  to  have  an  Akron 
man  put  in  command  of  the  "combined  Pa- 
triot forces,"  if  they  did  number  only  one 
hundred  and  thirty-seven.  Anyhow,  the  next 
year  General  Bierce  stood  for  mayor  and  was 
triumphantly  elected.  His  military  renown 
stood  him  in  such  good  stead  that  he  was 
elected  mayor  again  in  1841-1844-1849-1867- 
1868,  and  was  made  president  of  the  Board  of 
Education  at  its  first  organization,  in  1847. 
Other  well-known  men  who  have  held  the 
office  of  mayor  are  George  W.  McNeil.  Wil- 
liam T.  Allen,  George  D.  Bates,  Sr.,  James 
]\Iathews  and  Samuel  A.  Lane. 

In  18.^1,  the  people  of  the  State  of  Ohio 
.ndopted   a  new   constitution.      Acting  under 


RESIDENCE  OF  JAMES  11,  A  Nil  )|;K\\  s,  .\KRONI; 






powers  granted  by  it,  the  legislature  made  a 
classification  of  municipalities  according  to 
population.  In  it  Akron  was  classified  as  a 
village  and  henceforth  was  known  as  the  "In- 
corporated Village  of  Akron."  The  popula- 
tion then  was  little  more  than  three  thousand. 

December  14,  1864,  recorder  Henry  W. 
Ingersoll,  acting  under  instructions  from  the 
council,  took  a  local  enumeration  and  found 
the  population  living  within  the  corporate 
limits  of  Akron  to  be  5,066.  According  to 
the  mimicipal  classification  this  entitled 
Akron  to  be  advanced  to  the  grade  of  "city 
of  the  second  class."  On  the  25th  day  of 
Decembei-,  1864,  the  Village  Council  passed 
a  resolution  that  the  necessary  steps  for  ad- 
vancement be  taken  and  petitioned  the  State 
authorities  to  that  end.  This  was  done  on 
the  21st  day  of  January,  1865.  John  Brough 
was  then  Governor  of  Ohio.  On  that  date 
the  "City  of  Akron"  had  its  inception.  Here- 
tofore there  had  been  no  wards  or  precincts. 
Under  the  enabling  act,  the  Council  imme- 
diately met  and  laid  out  the  city  into  three 
wards  and  took  the  steps  for  holding  the 
first  city  election  on  the  first  Monday  in  the 
coming  April.  Hitherto  the  village  elections 
had  been  held  in  June. 

April  3,  1865,  the  first  city  election  was 
held  and  James  Mathews  was  chosen  as  the 
first  mayor  of  the  new  city.  The  first  council, 
elected  at  the  same  time,  was  thus  constituted : 
First  Ward — Charles  W.  Bonstedt,  elected  for 
one  year;  George  W.  Crouse,  elected  for  two 
years.  Second  Ward — John  E.  Bell,  one  year; 
Henry  W.  Howe,  two  years.  Third  Ward — ■ 
J.  Park  Alexander,  one  year;  Lewis  Miller, 
two  years.  This  council  organized  by  elect- 
ing Mr.  Miller  as  president  and  Jeremiah  A. 
Long  as  clerk. 

One  of  the  important  acts  of  this  council 
was  adding  additional  territory  lying  imme- 
diately east  of  the  city.  A  small  strip  lying 
between  the  two  municipalities  of  Akron  and 
Middlebury  was  thickly  settled  and  desired 
the  benefits  of  city  government  and  improve- 
ments. Their  petition  was  acted  upon  favor- 
ably by  the  city  and  the  countv  commission- 
ers, and,  on  September  6,  1865,  the  second 

territorial  addition  was  made  to  Akron.  This 
strip  was  bounded  roughly  as  follows:  On 
the  west  by  the  east  corporation  line  of 
Akron,  running  about  the  present  location 
of  Spicer  and  Fir  streets;  on  the  south  by 
Exchange  Street,  running  on  the  same 
courses  as  it  does  today;  on  the  east  by  the 
west  line  of  the  village  of  Middlebury,  which 
extended  as  far  west  as  the  present  junction 
of  East  Market  Street  and  Buchtel  Avenue. 

Early  in  1870  there  commenced  an  agita- 
tion in  favor  of  the  annexation  of  Middle- 
bury. The  two  municipalities  touched  each 
other  and  to  all  intents  and  purposes  were 
as  one.  In  Akron  the  sentiment  was  unani- 
mous in  favor  of  consolidation  and  in  Middle- 
bury a  strong  feeling  in  that  direction  began 
to  set  in.  At  length,  public  sentiment  there 
ripened  to  such  a  degree  that  the  Middlebury 
Village  Council  passed  an  ordinance  submit- 
ting the  question  of  annexation  to  Akron  to 
a  vote  of  the  village  electors.  This  ordinance 
was  passed  August  24,  1871.  The  Akron 
City  Council  passed  a  similar  ordinance  on 
the  5th  day  of  February,  1872.  It  was 
agreed  and  provided  that  the  question  should 
be  voted  upon  at  the  regular  spring  election 
to  be  held  in  1872. 

It  was  held  on  the  first  Monday  in  April, 
and  the  annexationists  were  triumphant  in 
both  municipalities.  In  Akron  only  .-ix 
votes  were  cast  against  the  project;  in  Mid- 
dlebury only  twenty-six.  The  total  vote  in 
favor  of  annexation  was  1,182,  of  which 
Middlebury  gave  140.  The  Akron  Council 
then  chose,  as  members  of  the  joint  commis- 
sion to  arrange  the  details  of  annexation,  th6 
following  citizens :  William  T.  Allen,  George 
W.  Crouse  and  David  L.  King.  The  Middle^; 
bury  Council  selected  the  following  represent- 
ative Middlebury  men  as  its  commissioners : 
Frank  Adams,  George  F.  Kent  and  Dr.  Men- 
dal  Jewett.         ■     • 

This  joint  commission  met  at  once  and 
quickly  agreed  upon  all  the  terms  incidental 
to  the  process- of  annexation,  such  as  arrang; 
ing  for  equitable  distribution  of  the  publjc 
debts,  taxation,  assessments,  etc.  Their  agree- 
ment   was    incorporated    into    an    ordinance 



which  was  passed  by  the  Akron  Council  on 
April  24,  1872,  and  by  Middlebury  April  19, 
1872.  By  this  Act,  the  city  of  Akron  in- 
creased its  population  about  one-fifth  and 
added  to  its  domains  a  large  extent  of  terri- 
tory which  possessed  great  resources. 

Middlebury  had  been  known  for  its  water- 
power  and  its  clay-beds  especially.  It  also 
brought  into  the  city  a  substantial,  sturdy 
citizenship  which  was  bound  to  make  its  in- 
fluence felt  in  muTiicipal  advancement.  By 
the  ordinance  of  March  9,  1871,  the  Akron 
City  Council  had  redistricted  the  city  and 
created  two  new  wards  in  addition  to  the 
original  three,  rather  they  had  made  five  new 
ones  of  the  original  three,  and,  when  Middle- 
bury was  annexed,  it  was  provided  by  ordi- 
nance of  May  27,  1872,  that  it  should  form 
the  Sixth  AVard  of  the  city.  As  such  it  con- 
tinued until  1900,  when  the  annexation  of 
much  territory  on  the  south,  the  west  and 
the  north,  made  another  redistricting  neces- 
sary. It  then  became  the  Second  Ward  of 
the  city.  In  1904,  the  ward  numbers  were 
changed  again  and  the  old  number  of  Sixth 
was  given  to  the  district  of  Middlebury.  In 
the  year  1907  it  is  known  as  the  "Old  Sixth" 
ward  of  the  city  of  Akron. 

On  October  28th  of  the  same  year  (1872) 
a  small  district  lying  south  of  East  Exchange 
was  made  a  part  of  the  city  of  Akron.  Ten 
years  later,  a  large  district  lying  to  the  north- 
east was  annexed.  This  new  territory  wa's 
in  Tallmadge  and  Portage  townships  and  had 
been  known  for  years  as  "The  Old  Forge." 
It  had  received  the  name  from  the  wrought- 
iron  industry  established  there  in  1817  by 
Asaph  Whittlesey,  of  Tallmadge.  Aaron  Nor- 
ton and  William  Laird,  of  Middlebury.  It  is 
known  today  as  the  "Old  Forge"  district.  The 
ordinance  for  this  annexation  passed  the 
council  of  February  18,  1882,  and  by  coun- 
cil action  taken  on  March  1,  1886,  it  was 
made  a  part  of  the  Sixth  Ward. 

By  an  ordinance  dated  March  15,  1886, 
the  council  took  the  necessary  steps  to  bring 
about  the  annexation  of  part  of  Coventry 
Township,  on  the  south,  and  part  of  Portage 

Township,  on  the  west  and  north.  When  this 
action  was  completed,  the  south  corporation 
line  had  been  extended  to  about  South  Street, 
on  the  south,  and  to  a  line  running  north 
and  south  and  crossing  Beck  and  Byers  Ave- 
nues and  Market  Street,  on  the  west.  By  this 
action  nearly  700  acres  of  land,  well  popu- 
lated, was  added  to  the  city.  These  additions, 
made  during  the  decade,  lent  much  interest 
to  the  census  of  1890,  and  the  citizens 
awaited  impatiently  the  announcement  of  the 
results  of  the  count.  The  total  of  27,601  was 
very  gratifying  and  every  true  Akronian  felt 
that  from  that  time  onward  the  world  would 
be  compelled  to  take  notice  of  the  existence 
of  the  city  of  Akron. 

In  1899-1900,  by  action  of  the  City  Coun- 
cil and  the  county  commissioners,  the  city  of 
Akron  took  additional  territory  from  both 
Coventry  and  Portage  Townships.  The  city 
had  outgrown  its  old  limits.  In  South  Akron 
a  district  extending  beyond  the  railroads,  at 
Falor's  and  Wingerter's  crossings,  was  thickly 
populated.  The  desirable  residence  features 
of  North  Hill  had  attracted  many  new  resi- 
dents there.  On  the  west  both  Perkins  Hill 
and  West  Hill  now  contained  the  costliest 
and  fashionable  residences  in  the  city. 
Many  of  these  had  been  built  outside  the  old 
corporation  line.  This  territory  on  the  south, 
west  and  north  was  all  annexed  to  the  city  at 
this  time.  The  new  city  limits  now  extended 
beyond  Falor's  Crossing  and  Summit  Lake 
on  the  south,  passed  through  the  Count}' 
Farm,  where  the  Tnfirmary  is  located,  and 
intersected  North  Portage  Path,  near  the 
Country  Club,  on  the  west ;  added  a  populous 
district  on  Merriman  road,  and  intersected 
Cuyahoga  Falls  Avenue  on  the  north.  The 
annexation  was  made  in  time  to  have  the 
additional  population  included  in  the  census 
of  1900  as  a  part  of  the  enumeration  for 
Akron.  The  official  count  that  year  showed 
that  Akron  had  a  population  of  42,728.  The 
growth  since  1900  has  been  steady,  and  at 
the  present  time  the  population  is  close  to 




As  early  as  1843  Horace  Greeley  said,  in 
the  Neiv  York  Tribune  after  a  visit  to  Akron : 
"This  place,  with  a  population  of  2,500,  has 
five  woolen  factories,  an  extensive  blast  fur- 
nace, a  machine  shop,  a  card  manufactory, 
nine  dry-goods  stores,  and  about  as  man\ 
other  stores;  two  weekly  newspapers,  four 
lai'ge  flouring  mills,-  a  court  house,  four 
churches  and  two  more  being  erected." 

For  the  purposes  of  this  chapter  Mr.  Gree- 
ley's reference  to  the  dry-goods  stores  is  alone 
of  importance.  Now,  as  then,  the  Akron  mer- 
cantile concerns  devoted  entirely,  or  in  part, 
to  the  sale  of  dry-goods  outnumber  those  deal- 
ing in  any  other  one  line  of  life's  so-called 

Up  to  1825,  the  mercantile  life  of  the 
town — as  was  true  of  all  else  savoring  of  a 
settled  community — was  centered  in  Middle- 
bury,  which  in  the  year  mentioned  had  some 
ten  or  twelve  stores  and  was  the  trading  center 
of  a  considerable  portion  of  northern  Ohio. 

The  canal  was  important  in  Akron's  be- 
ginning. It  brought  the  first  con.siderable 
number  of  customers  for  prospective  mer- 
chants. It  is  recorded  that  soon  after  work 
was  begun  upon  the  canal,  a  man  named 
Benedict  erected  a  two-story  frame  store  at 
the  southwest  corner  of  Main  and  Exchange 
streets.  Mr.  Benedict  was  probably  the  pio- 
neer merchant  of  Akron  proper.  The  busi- 
ness which  he  established  was  continued  for 
many  years  under  the  name  of  the  "Mam- 
moth Store,"  and  carried  such  a  variety  of 
goods  suitable,  of  course,  to  the  multitude  of 
needs  of  a  more  or  less  primitive  population, 
that  it  may  rightly  be  termed  Akron's  first 
department  store. 

Mechanics  and  laborers  poured  into  the 
infant  city.  Manufacturers  located  conven- 
iently near;  farmers  clustered  about  the  out- 
skirts, and  Benedict's  "Mammoth  Store"  soon 
had  many  rival  seekers  for  the  trade  of  the 
active  and  progressive  population  of  Akron 
in  the  twenties. 

In  the  village  of  Cascade,  the  northern  one 
of  the  settlements  out  of  which  modem  Akron 

was  formed,  the  first  store  building  was  one 
erected  by  the  late  Seth  Iredell  in  1832,  at 
the  southwest  corner  of  Market  and  Howard 
streets,  on  the  site  now  occupied  by  Green- 
wood Brothers. 

In  1832  Jonathan  F.  Fenn  and  Charles 
W.  Howard  established  themselves  in  Mr. 
Iredell's  block  with  a  varied  line  of  merchan- 
dise, but  after  three  somewhat  stormy  years 
these  early  and  disappointed  "merchant 
princes"  gave  up  the  struggle.  In  1835  Phil- 
ander D.  Hall  acquired  a  lease  of  the  prop- 
erty and  entered  into  the  conduct  of  the  busi- 
ness founded  by  Messrs.  Fenn  and  Howard. 
He  was  much  more  successful  than  they  had 
been,  and  proceeded,  with  his  brother,  to 
build  a  business  and  a  fortune.  The  business 
was  discontinued  only  on  the  death  of  the 
brothers,  a  few  years  ago.  Such  were  the 
beginnings  of  the  "general  store"  or  "depart- 
ment store"  business  in  Akron.  It  has  grown 
as  Akron  has  grown.  Hundreds  of  mercan- 
tile establishments  founded  and  conducted  on 
a  small  basis  have  made  the  names  of  their 
thrifty  proprietors  household  words  in  the 
localities  where  they  affixed  themselves. 
Many  such  businesses  through  the  judicious 
investment  of  profits,  created  comfortable 

But  good  fortune  in  Akron  has  not  been 
more  nearly  universal  than  elsewhere.  For 
instance,  no  more  pathetic  and  at  the  same 
time  no  more  remarkable  figure  has  been 
identified  with  Akron's  mercantile  life  than 
that  of  the  venerable  Joseph  E.  Wesener,  still 
among  the  living,  though  past  eighty  years 
of  age.  Born  in  Pennsylvania  in  1827,  Mr. 
Wesener  came  to  Akron  from  Canton  in 
1846,  and  as  a  youth  of  twenty  gained  a  prac- 
tical insight  into  mercantile  affairs  by  clerk- 
ing in  Akron  stores  for  four  years.  Then  he 
entered  into  partnership  with  the  late  Allen 
Hubbard.  Two  fires  were  encountered  (but 
survived)  in  a  few  years,  but  Mr.  Wesener 
pushed  on,  sometimes  alone,  and  again  with 
various  partnei-s,  dealing  in  wool,  conducting 
dry-goods  stores,  .speculating  where  legitimate 
opportunity  presented  itself,  and  for  a  third 
of  a  century  continuing  to  do  a  phenomenally 



successful  business  in  Akron.  He  was  at  one 
time  rated  as  Akron's  wealthiest  citizen.  Then 
came  reverses.  One,  venture  after  another 
proved  unsuccessful.  Disaster  after  disaster 
visited  itself  upon  him;  his  properties  were 
swept  away,  and  this  venerable  "captain  of 
industry,"  his  wealth  vanished,  his  fame  en- 
feebled by  the  relentless  wear  of  the  years, 
is  ending  his  days  in  dire  poverty. 

The  following  are  some  of  those  who  have 
had  an  active  part  in  Akron's  commercial  life 
since  1840,  arranged  so  far  as  possible,  in 
chronological  order:  Frank  J.  Kolb,  1840; 
Major  Erhard  Steinbacher,  druggist  and  gro- 
cer, 1851 ;  Jacob  Koch,  clothier,  beginning 
as  a  clerk  for  Koch  &  Levi  in  1854 ;  John 
Cook,  grocer,  1855  (afterward  succeeded  by 
his  sons)  ;  Cornelius  A.  Brouse,  1859 ;  C.  W. 
Bonstedt,  John  B.  Houghton,  John  Wolf, 
1862;  George  C.  Berry,  1866.  Others  who 
have  made  their  names  in  Akron's  mercantile 
affairs  were  Brouse  &  Co.,  O'Neil  &  Dyas 
(now  conducted  by  Michael  O'Neil  as  The 
M.  O'Neil  &  Co.),  who  first  conceived  the 
idea  of  a  modern  department  store  for  Akron, 
an  idea  which  has  been  worked  out  to  huge 
success  under  the  present  management;  Mur- 
ray &  Watt  (later  the  Boston  Store,  which  was 
discontinued  within  the  present  year)  ;  Myers 
&  Polsky  (still  conducted  successfully  by  A. 
Polsky  and  his  two  sons)  ;  Wendel  Mangold, 
Dague  Brothers  (whose  business  was  recently 
purchased  by  the  C.  H.  Yeager  Co.)  ;  Burke 
C.  Herrick,  0.  H.  Remington,  J.  B.  Storer, 
Dwight  A.  Hibbard,  George  J.  Neiberg,  C. 
M.  Hibbard,  William  J.  Frank,  D.H.McBride 
and  E.  C.  McBride,  George  S.  Dales,  Alfred 
M.  Barber,  Levi  Kryder,"C.  M.,  F-  L.  and 
J.  H.  Kryder;  Augustus  Jabaut,  John  C- 
Weber,  William  Gray,  John  Kreuder,  James 
N.  Baldwin.  George  A.  Bisbee,  Charles  W.  F. 
Dick,  David  K.  and  Albert  T.  Paige,  George 
Viall,  Burdette  L.  Dodge.  George  W.  Weeks, 
Albert  T.  Kingsbury,  Louis  Loeb,  Fred 
Kuhlke,  Shepard  B.  Lafferty,  Nicholas  Las- 
karis,  Antonio  Masino.  J.  M.  Laffer,  S.  K. 
Black.  John  D.  Rampanelli.  Henry  A.  Akers, 
Emil  Ganmeter,  Charles  A.  Pouchot,  John 
S.  Herrold,  George  A.  Kempel.  Oliver  A.  Sor- 

rick,  Josiah  J.  Harter,  A.  C.  Rohrbacher,  John 
Gross,  James  T.  Diehm,  William  Durr,  J.  W. 
Little,  R.  M.  Pillmore,  and  a  host  of  others. 

As  will  be  noticed,  many  of  the  names 
which  were  familiar  to  commercial  Akron  a 
generation  or  more  ago  are  familiar  now. 
Business  conditions  have  changed  somewhat, 
it  is  true.  The  city  has  acquired  metropolitan 
qualities,  and  the  people  metropolitan 
requirements.  The  business  details  that  made 
a  concern  popular  and  successful  a  generation 
ago  might  easily  be  shown  to  be  valueless 
now.  And  such  merchants  of  that  other 
Akron  as  are  still  in  business  were  obliged 
to  be  progressive.  And  they  were.  There 
are  many  new  names  in  the  mercantile  roster 
for  1907.  Each  of  them  indicates  the  city's 
added  greatness. 

The  double  line  of  business  houses  which 
formerly  extended  for  a  block  on  Howard 
street  and  for  a  short  distance  on  Market 
street,  has  been  found  too  small  to  do  the 
city's  mercantile  business.  Main  street  has 
been  changed  from  a  rough  and  rubbish- 
strewn  canal  bank  to  a  first  class  business 
thoroughfare  of  which,  in  its  mercantile  as- 
pect, any  city  might  be  proud. 

Haeey  S.  Quine. 



Up  to  the  year  1839,  Akron  had  no  fire 
department  of  any  kind,  the  inhabitants  be- 
ing notified  by  one  calling  to  another  or  in 
the  ringing  of  the  church  bells.  But  in  De- 
cember, 1839,  an  ordinance  was  passed  pro- 
viding for  a  volunteer  fire  department.  From 
this  arose  the  "North  Akron  Fire  Company," 
formed  January  28,  1840,  with  its  twenty- 
six  members.  And  to  the  people,  certificates 
of  membership  were  issued.  February  10, 
1846,  eight  more  were  added  and  the  numeral 
one  was  added,  thus  making  them  No.  1. 
The  equipment  of  this  company  was  gotten 
by  private  subscription,  it  consisting  of  a  ro- 
tary Iiand  engine  costing  $600,  with  the  sub- 
scribers paying  $25.00  each  toward  the  en- 



gine.  This  company  bought  also  for  itself 
fifty  feet  of  hose  and  finally,  in  1841,  was 
ofifered  a  small  building  for  headquarters  on 
Mill  Street. 

"Niagara  Fire  Engine  No.  2"  was  started 
December  20,  1845,  and  its  membership  num- 
bered thirty-seven.  A  hook  and  ladder  com- 
pany w^as  formed  in  1847,  with  the  energetic 
name  of  "Tornado  Fire  Company  No.  3." 
Various  other  companies  were  formed  from 
time  to  time,  but  all  volunteer.  It  was  not 
until  May,  1858,  that  there  was  a  paid  de- 
partment, and  then  it  was  two  dollars  per 
year  for  each  member.  The  Niagara  Com- 
pany was  equipped  with  a  new  engine  pur- 
chased by  the  town,  with  headquarters,  finally, 
in  the  small  brick  building  still  standing  on 
Federal  Street.  The  West  Side  had  its  in- 
dependent company,  called  the  "West  Kill- 
ers." Later  there  was  a  German  hook  and 
ladder  company  called  "Washington  No.  3." 
Still  another  organization  was  known  as  the 
"Mechanics  Hook  and  Ladder  Company." 

At  the  present  time  the  fire  equipment  in 
Akron  is  as  good  as  any  in  the  country.  It 
will  be  recalled  that  one  of  the  fruitfiil  sources 
of  improvement  in  this  line  has  been  the 
steady  increasing  factor  of  fire  insurance. 
Other  things  being  equal,  the  city  with  the 
best  fire  department  obtains  the  lowest  rate. 
To  see  that  fire  rules  are  strictly  observed,  to 
keep  buildings  free  from  inflammable  mate- 
rial, insurance  agents  and  fire  department  co- 
operate. The  estimating  a  rate  on  a  given 
dwelling,  the  construction  and  exposure  are 
considered,  and  for  any  building  used  for 
other  than  residence  purposes  there  is  a  sep- 
arate rate.  Maps  of  every  street  are  made  and, 
in  short,  fire  protection  has  changed  from  a 
matter  of  convenience  and  local  pride  to  a 
purely  business  proposition. 

This  being  true,  it  has  a  marked  reaction  on 
the  fire  department.  Fire  cisterns  are  located 
over  the  business  centers  of  the  city  and  a 
superbly  equipped  and  finely  organized  body 
of  men  is  at  the  se^\^ce  of  the  city.  Civil  sen'- 
ice  rules  prevail  strictly  and  almost  military 
discipline  is  enforced.  Every  night  there  is 
drill  and  so  perfect  is  the  discipline  that  the 

equipment  can  get  away  in  eleven  seconds 
from  the  first  sounding  of  the  alarm.  Each 
man  is  allowed  one  day  off  out  of  five  and 
fourteen  days  vacation  in  a  year. 

Particularly  should  Akron  feel  proud  of 
its  fire  and  police  alarm  system.  In  the  year 
1873  there  was  only  one  box  in  the  city  and 
that  was  located  in  the  engine  house.  But 
about  1880  Engineer  Loomis  began  the  pres- 
ent system.  At  first  it  was  a  key  for  each 
box  with  the  key  at  the  nearest  house.  Now, 
of  course,  the  alarm  is  turned  in  as  soon  as 
the  door  is  thrown  open. 

This  entire  equipment  was  put  in  by  En- 
gineer Loomis  at  a  cost  of  three  thousand  dol- 
lars, whereas,  if  put  in  by  regular  methods,  it 
would  have  cost  twelve  thousand  dollars.  To 
look  after  the  details  of  this  intricate  system, 
the  mechanical  engineer,  an  expert  lineman 
and  three  operators  give  their  entire  time. 

The  engine-houses  in  Akron  are  seven  in 
number.  No.  1  is  the  Central,  where  is  lo- 
cated the  headquarters  of  the  alarm  system. 
Here  also  are  two  separate  and  distinct  compa- 
nies, an  engine  company  and  a  truck  com- 
pany. Here  also,  as  at  all  the  engine-houses, 
may  be  seen  the  fire  district  system.  The  re- 
sult of  this  is  that  in  case  of  a  fire  aff'ecting 
a  certain  district,  the  blaze  L«  attended  to  by 
the  fire  company  in  that  district.  This  leaves 
that  engine-house  without  an  equipment.  To 
meet  this  situation  the  engine  companies 
move  up  according  to  a  regular  schedule. 

Engine-house  No.  2  is  located  in  East 
Akron  and  is  in  charge  of  Captain  Smith.  In 
addition  to  the  gymnasium  and  dining  room 
the  house  has  a  beautiful  fountain  presented 
to  it  by  the  late  D.  E.  Hill.  Probably  of  this 
fire  company  more  than  any  other  is  it  true 
that  there  is  a  distinct  local  pride  in  it.  For 
the  site  of  the  engine-house  is  that  of  the 
town  hall  of  the  historic  town  of  Middlebury, 
and  local  pride  is  still  strong. 

Station  No.  3  is  located  on  the  West  Side. 
Here  is  the  home  of  Assistant  Fire  Chief  Rice 
and  here  is  one  of  the  new  engine-houses. 
Being  in  a  community  of  wealth  many  pleas- 
ant social  features  are  seen  in  connection  with 
the  regular  routine  of  duty. 


Station  No.  4  is  located  in  the  South  End, 
with  Captain  Tryon  at  its  head.  In  addition 
to  the  splendid  equipment  there  is  also  a 
branch  of  the  public  library. 

Station  No.  5  is  another  new  station  on 
Buchtel  avenue.  Here  is  the  official  home  of 
Chief  Mertz,  and  also  one  of  the  finest  sta- 
tions in  the  city. 

Station  No.  6  is  located  on  Wooster  avenue 
and  is  in  command  of  Captain  Dorner.  This 
station  has  a  larger  territory  than  any  other 
house  in  the  city. 

Station  No.  7  is  the  latest  addition  and  is 
on  North  Hill,  with  Captain  N.  P.  Smith  in 
charge.  Here  the  equipment  is  a  combined 
hose  and  chemical  wagon. 


The  police  depai'tment  of  the  county  nat- 
urally centers  about  Akron  and  that  depart- 
ment has  steadily  increased  from  its  first 
marshal.  Marshal  Wright,  to  the  present  com- 
plex organization.  William  Mason  was  the 
last  Marshal  of  Akron,  and  with  the  loss  of 
that  official  succeeded  the  period  of  the  Police 
Chief  with  the  incumbent,  H.  H.  Harri- 
son. He  was  so  appointed  in  1897,  and  under 
him  were  twenty-seven  officers.  In  1900  the 
positions  of  captain  and  lieutenant  were 
created.  At  the  present  time,  in  addition  to 
the  officers,  are  three  detectives,  a  police  sur- 
geon, clerk,  prison-keeper  and  photographer. 

This  last^ — the  photographer — has  the  task 
of  taking  the  pictures  of  all  suspected  crimi- 
nals and  at  present  has  two  hundred  and 

The  police  alarm  system  is  similar  in  oper- 
ation to  that  of  the  fire  department.  Each 
officer  must  ring  np  hourly  when  on  duty. 
And  every  box  is  marked  telephone,  fire,  pa- 
trol, riot,  so  that  his  signal  indicates  the  state 
of  his  beat. 

The  patrol — an  automobile — for  a  long 
time  was  the  only  one  of  its  kind  in  the 
world.  That,  too,  was  built  by  Engineer 
Loomis.  The  old  one  has  just  worn  out  and 
a  new  one  is  to  be  installed  in  a  very  short 

No  history  of  the  police  would  be  complete 
without  a  passing  mention  of  the  riot  of  1900. 
From  that  riot  dates  the  reorganized  police. 
At  that  time  an  emergency  arose  which 
showed  all  too  plainly  the  lack  of  organiza- 
tion and  the  inability  to  meet  the  demands  of 
that  catastrophe.  Since  then,  riot  guns  have 
been  a  part  of  the  regular  equipment  of  the 
police,  riot  calls  have  been  among  their  expec- 
tations, and  there  has  grown  up  the  feeling 
that  the  police  are  a  distinct  and  separate  or- 
ganization somewhat  apart  from  the  good  old 
days  when  Akron  was  a  village. 

The  detective  bureau  in  operation  at  city 
hall  operates  along  metropolitan  lines  and  is 
a  vital  part  of  that  complicated  and  intricate 
machinery  by  which  one  is  detected.  By 
these  men  a  close  watch  is  kept  on  all  strang- 
ers and  there  are  few  new  arrivals  that  are  not 
watched  and  inspected.  Besides  this,  by 
means  of  exchanged  photographs,  measure- 
ments and  other  devices,  fugitives  from  jus- 
tice are  apprehended  and  the  difficulties  of 
escape  are  increased.  Through  the  depart- 
ment very  efficient  work  has  been  done  and 
in  one  case,  at  least,  public  notice  has  been 
taken  of  this  branch.  John  E.  Washer,  for 
a  long  time  prison-keeper,  established  a  record 
ns  an  able  detective,  and  is  now  serving  the 
president  of  the  country  as  a  personal  body- 

Other  prominent  local  characters  connected 
with  the  detective  service  have  been  Edward 
Dunn,  now  on  the  pension  list;  James  Burli- 
son,  an  old-time  detective,  and  our  first  mar- 
shal, and  Captain  "Jack"  Wright. 

At  the  present  time  there  is  established  a 
well  regulated  pension  system  for  both  the 
fire  and  police  department.  The  working 
of  this  branch  of  the  service  as.?ures  the  mem- 
bers of  these  departments  of  an  a.«sured  in- 
come at  the  expiration  of  a  given  length  of 
service.  From  it  results  a  steadv  class  of  men 
watchful  to  maintain  the  credit  of  their  re- 
spective bodies. 

In  times  past  the  bane  of  both  fire  and  po- 
lice departments  has  been  political  influence. 
To  minimize  this  the  legislature  has  placed 
the  members  iinder  civil  service  rules,  and  now 



promotions  are  made  on  the  basis  of  fitness, 
physical  and  mental.  When  a  vacancy  occurs 
a  regulai'  examination  is  held  and  the  candi- 
dates are  mai'ked  as  at  school. 

Besides  this,  both  bodies  of  men  are  placed 
under  the  direction  of  the  Board  of  Public 
Safety,  a  board  appointed  by  the  Mayor  of 
Akron.  The  net  results  of  this  system  are  of 
comparative  freedom  from  "pull."  Still  the 
counter  results  of  an  assured  position  and  the 
difficulty  of  a  trial  involving  incompetency 
are  factors  in  the  other  direction.  It  is  true, 
also,  in  a  measure  that  Akron  gets  as  good  a 
force  as  its  people  demand. 


Outside  of  Akron  the  fire  and  police  de- 
partments exist,  but  in  a  modified  form.  Bar- 
berton  has  a  regular  police  department  and  a 
paid  fire  depai-tment  has  been  recently  organ- 
ized. A  water-works  system  prevails  there, 
and  an  unusual  degree  of  efficiency  is  mani- 
fest in  both  organizations. 

Cuyahoga  Falls  still  relies  on  the  village 
marshal  and  has  the  nucleus  of  an  efficient 
fire  department.  The  other  villages  of  the 
county  rely  for  police  protection  on  their  mar- 
shals and  constables  and  on  volunteer  depart- 
ment. Harry  S.  Quine. 

the  riot  of  1900 the  darkest  night  in 

Akron's  history. 

Wednesday,  the  22d  day  of  August,  in  the 
year  1900,  was  a  day  of  rejoicing  in  America. 
The  wires  under  the  Pacific  had  throbbed 
with  a  message  of  joy  for  all  Christendom. 
Pekin  had  fallen — the  capital  city  of  China. 
The  Imperial  Court  had  departed  in  hasty 
flight  to  the  interior.  The  American  troops 
were  the  heroes  of  the  allied  armies.  They 
had  attacked  and  repulsed  the  Yellow  Horde 
laying  siege  to  the  British  Legation,  where 
the  American  minister  and  his  family  and 
other  good  citizens  had  taken  refuge  when 
the  Boxers  arose.  America  rejoiced  that  her 
sons  and  daughters  had  successfully  escaped 
from  the  perils  of  the  4,000  shells  that  fell 

into  that  legation ;  from  the  famine  and  sick- 
ness of  the  long  siege,  and  especially  from  the 
ferocity  and  torture  and  barbarism  of  the 
legions  of  Chinese  savages.  Akron  is  a  rep- 
resentative American  conmmnity.  Her  peo- 
ple were  just  as  glad  as  any  on  account  of 
the  glory  which  had  come  upon  the  American 

In  the  evening  of  that  day  a  large  part  of 
the  beauty  and  wealth  and  culture  of  the  city 
had  met  on  the  beautiful  grounds  of  the  Per- 
kins homestead  where  a  lawn  party  was  being 
held  for  the  benefit  of  a  splendid  charity. 
Sounds  of  mirth  and  music  filled  the  air  and 
countless  lights  and  colors  made  it  a  brilliant 
scene.  It  is  a  common  sight  in  any  center  of 
culture  and  fashion. 

Out  in  Lakeside  Park  the  beautiful  sum- 
mer night  had  drawn  a  large  company  of 
spectators  to  the  Casino,  and  they  were  en- 
joying to  the  full  the  delights  oif  the  thea- 

But  the  night  in  Akron  had  not  been  given 
over  to  pleasure  alone.  What  strange  con- 
trasts human  living  presents  sometimes !  The 
darkest  night  Akron  had  ever  seen  had  fallen 
with  the  coming  of  dusk  that  night.  The 
perfect  picture  of  Hell,  that  was  to  be  beheld 
before  the  coming  of  dawn  again,  was  then 
in  the  making.  The  Antithesis  of  joy  and 
light  and  love  and  good-will  was  gaining  fol- 
lowers in  other  parts  of  the  city  and  they  were 
preparing  for  the  crowning  of  Hate,  and  Re- 
venge, and  Lust  for  Blood. 

If  little  Christina  Maas  had  not  been  play- 
ing by  the  road-side,  near  the  home  of  her 
parents  on  Perkins  Hill,  on  Monday  evening, 
August  21,  1900,  in  all  probability  Akron 
would  have  been  spared  her  deepest  shame. 
Not  that  the  innocent  child,  in  her  sweet  play, 
was  the  of  what  followed,  but  that  she 
was  destined  to  form  a  link  in  the  chain  of 
circumstances,  without  which  completed  ac- 
tion could  not  be  had.  She  was  the  little,  six- 
vear-old  daughter  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Theodore 
Maas.  As  she  played  by  the  roadside  in  the 
early  evening  with  her  girl  friends,  a  negro 
drove  by.  He  called  to  her.  She  did  not 
fear  him.    He  persuaded  the  older  children  to 



leave  and  promised  little  Christina  a  gift  of 
candy.  He  asked  her  to  get  into  his  buggy 
and  she  responded  in  her  childish  confidence 
and  natural  faith  in  mankind  and  all.  He 
assisted  her  as  she  climbed  in.  He  whipped 
up  the  horse  and  drove  down  the  country 
road.  The  negro  was  Louis  Peck.  He  was  a 
stranger  in  Akron.  He  had  been  here  but  a 
short  time,  having  come  from  Patterson,  New 
Jersey.  His  reputation  there  was  very  bad 
and  the  authorities  wanted  him  there  for  a 
long  list  of  crimes  he  had  committed.  (Since 
coming  to  Akron  he  and  his  wife  had  been 
working  in  a  restaurant.  He  was  about  forty 
years  of  age  and  black  and  unprepossessing. 
After  his  arrest,  he  confessed  freely  all  he 
did  that  evening,  after  he  drove  into  the 
country  and  until  he  left  the  little  girl  crying 
and  injured  by  the  lonely  roadside  with  night 
coming  on. 

He  had  hired  the  horse  and  buggy  from  a 
Main  street  liveryman.  After  driving  back 
into  town  he  abandoned  them  and  they  were 
found  soon  after  by  the  police.  It  was  by 
means  of  the  horse  and  buggy  that  the  offi- 
cers were  enabled  to  learn  the  identity  of  the 
perpetrator  of  this  outrage.  As  soon  as  the 
police  department  was  informed  of  the  crime 
every  policeman  on  duty  was  notified  and  in- 
structed to  be  on  the  lookout  for  such  a  ne- 
gro as  Peck.  Every  place  in  the  city  likely 
to  harbor  him  was  searched  and  the  railway 
tracks  were  watched  with  sharp  sight,  but 
Peck  succeeded  in  escaping  from  the  city. 
He  had  lost  no  time  in  beginning  his  flight. 
Not  a  trace  of  him  could  be  secured.  On 
Tuesday  the  officers  patrolled  the  railway 
tracks,  rather  expecting  that  Peck  was  still 
in  the  city,  in  hiding,  and  would  try  to  make 
his  escape.  A  number  of  them  were  scattered 
along  the  tracks  on  Tuesdav  night. 

Shortly  after  midnight  a  freight  train  rolled 
into  the  Union  depot  from  the  east.  Officer 
Duffy  was  patrolling  the  tracks  in  that  vicin- 
ity and,  as  the  train  pased  him,  standing  in 
the  dark,  a  negro  jumped  from  one  of  the 
cars  almost  into  his  arms  .  Officer  Duffy  ar- 
rested the  man.  It  was  Peck.  He  was  taken 
at  once  in  the  patrol  wagon  to  the  city  prison. 

The  prison-keeper  was  awakened  and  spent 
the  rest  of  the  night  talking  with  Peck  about 
the  crime.  By  adroit  leading  and  skillful 
questioning  Mr.  Washer  succeeded  at  last  in 
getting  Peck  to  make  a  full  confession.  R. 
W.  Wanamaker,  the  prosecuting  attorney, 
was  summoned,  a  stenographer  secured,  and 
Peck's  statement  was  taken    down    verbatim. 

At  9  o'clock  he  was  arraigned  before  the 
mayor,  W.  E.  Young,  in  the  mayor's  court. 
He  pleaded  guilty  to  a  charge  of  rape  and  was 
bound  over  by  the  mayor  to  the  Common 
Pleas  Court  to  await  the  action  of  the  Grand 
Jury  at  the  coming  September  term.  His 
bond  was  placed  at  $5,000,  and  he  was  com- 
mitted to  the  prison  because  of  his  inability 
to  furnish  bail  in  that  amount. 

Greatly  exaggerated  stories  of  his  confes- 
sion and  of  the  criminal  act  were  circulated 
throughout  the  city.  The  appearance  of  the 
evening  papers  (especially  one,  very  im- 
prudently printed  in  red  ink)  and  the  cries 
of  the  newsboys  selling  them,  stirred  up  a 
feeling  of  resentment.  Excitement  was  slow- 
ly kindling.  Many  heedless  remarks  were 
made  by  persons  whose  words  usually  carry 
weight.  An  Akron  professional  gentleman 
was  on  his  way  home  at  5  o'clock  that  bright 
Wednesday  afternoon.  He  stopped  in  a  store 
and  listened  to  a  recital  of  the  outrage  by 
the  merchant.  Said  the  professional  man  in 
the  hearing  of  a  little  company,  "I'll  be  one 
of  a  hundred  to  go  over  and  take  him  out  of 
the  jail  and  hang  him."  Not  a  man  in  the 
company  protested.  No  one  deemed  the  senti- 
ment extravagant  or  the  speech  incendiary. 
There  was  an  echo  in  their  own  breasts.  Every 
man  felt  a  personal  interest  in  having  so 
great  a  wrong  redressed  and  in  having  it  done 
at  once.  Many  such  intemperate  remarks 
were  made  that  afternoon  as  the  story  spread. 

As  earlv  in  the  day  as  noon,  threats  were 
made  to  the  authorities  that  the  negro  would 
be  lynched.  The  executive  departments  of 
the  city  government  heard  the  mutterings  of 
the  coming  storm  all  afternoon.  The  county 
officers  heard  it  also.  None  of  them  can  be 
heard  to  say  now  that  they  were  taken  by  sur- 
prise.    They  were  totally  impreparcd   when 







the  hour  of  trial  came,  but  they  were  not  taken 
unawares.  They  had  full  warning  more  than 
ten  hours  before  the  storm  broke  in  all  its 
fury.  They  paid  this  much  attention  to  the 
threats  and  warnings  they  had  received — they 
ordered  Sheriff  Frank  G.  Kelly  to  take  the 
prisoner  to  Cleveland  during  Wednesday  aft- 
ernoon for  safe  keeping.  Another  colored  man 
named  William  (alias  "Bug")  Howard  had 
been  locked  up  in  the  prison  awaiting  commit- 
ment to  the  county  jail  as  he,  too,  had  been 
bound  over  to  the  Common  Pleas  Court  on  a 
charge  of  shooting  a  white  man  in  the  leg. 
It  was  deemed  best  to  take  Howard  along,  as 
a  mob  might  easily  mistake  the  identity  of 
the  negro  they  sought,  or  might  be  so  incensed 
at  the  whole  black  race,  that  they  would  not 
hesitate  to  hang  another  than  the  one  sought. 
These  two  black  men  were  soon  secure  behind 
the  gray  walls  of  the  Cleveland  prison.  The 
Akron  authorities  were  congratulating  them- 
selves on  so  successful  an  issue  of  their  wise 
planSi  When  a  mob  appeared  they  would 
laugh  at  them  and  enjoy  their  discomfiture 
when  told  the  quarry  had  flown.  They  know 
more  about  mobs  and  mob  nature  now. 

Crow'ds  began  to  collect  at  the  intersection 
of  Main  and  Howard  streets  a  short  time  aft?r 
6  o'clock.  Knots  of  men  stood  about  the 
prison  talking  over  the  affair.  Some  were 
already  discussing  the  advisability  of  trying 
to  make  an  example  of  the  prisoner.  Consid- 
erable sentiment  in  favor  of  such  action  had 
been  aroused  during  the  day  in  several  of  the 
big  city  factories.  Some  of  these  men  were 
present  and  made  up  their  minds  that,  if  an 
opportunity  offered,  they  would  make  good 
what  they  had  said  they  would  do. 

As  it  began  to  grow  dark  and  to  become 
difficult  to  distinguish  objects  across  the 
street,  the  crowd,  much  augmented,  closed  in 
about  the  old  brick  building  which  Akron 
people  had  known  for  many  years  as  "The 
City  Building."  They  began  to  call  for  Peck 
and  to  hoot  and  jeer  the  police  officers  who 
were  within.  The  chief  of  police  had  become 
alarmed  and  had  summoned  everv  available 
man  for  duty  at  headquarters. 

Much  parleying  took  place  between  city  of- 

ficials and  the  members  of  the  crowd.  They 
tried  to  push  into  the  building  through  the 
Main  street  doors,  but  the  officers  prevented 
them.  There  was  still  much  daylight  remain- 
ing when  the  first  attack  on  the  building  was 
made.  A  shower  of  stones  and  bricks  broke 
the  windows  and  bombarded  the  stout  doors. 
Then  a  ladder  was  brought  out  and  quickly 
manned.  This  was  used  as  a  battering-ram  on 
the  north  doors,  which  lead  into  the  Mayor's 
Court.  The  stones  and  bricks  continued  to 
fly.  The  doors  were  rapidly  giving  way  be- 
neath the  repeated  blows  of  the  improvised 
ram.  Then  one  of  the  front  windows  was 
raised  and  a  policeman  emptied  his  revolver 
over  the  heads  of  the  assailing  party.  This 
was  a  foolish  move.  There  was  no  ammuni- 
tion in  the  city  building  beside  what  was  al- 
ready in  the  chambers  of  the  policemen's  re- 
volvers and  part  of  a  box  which  was  in  pos- 
session of  the  prison-keeper.  The  scarcity  of 
ammunition  was  a  cause  of  much  alarm  to 
the  policemen  in  the  building.  They  had  sent 
outside  to  secure  more,  but  were  unsuccess- 

Across  the  street  were  a  large  number  of 
.spectators  w^atching  the  efforts  of  the  men  in 
their  attack  upon  the  building.  Among  them 
were  a  few  carriages  and  buggies.  In  the  one 
of  the  latter  sat  John  M.  Da\'idson,  with  his 
wife  and  four-year-old  daughter,  Rhoda. 
They  had  been  out  looking  at  some  work  Mr. 
Davidson  had  taken  the  contract  for  and  were 
returning  home  by  the  way  of  Main  street. 
They  had  started  to  go  up  the  Quarry  street 
hill  and  were  told  that  the  Fire  Department 
was  coming  down.  They  turned  back  on  to 
Main  Street  and  other  buggies  crowded 
around  them  so  that  they  were  forced  to  re- 

Mrs.  Davidson  was  looking  at  the  policeman 
in  the  window.  She  saw  him  shoot  his  re- 
volver directly  at  them.  She  heard  bullets 
fly  about  their  heads.  Her  little  daughter 
said,  "Oh,  mamma,"  and  her  head  fell  for- 
ward on  her  mother's  knee  with  the  blood 
flowang  from  a  mortal  wound  in  her  head. 
Glen  Wade,  a  boy  of  ten  years,  was  also  stand- 
ing among  the  spectators  on  the  opposite  side 


of  Main  street  and  he  received  one  of  the  bul- 
lets fi"oni  this  same  policeman's  reckless — yes, 
criminal  shooting.  He  was  instantly  killed. 
Hundreds  of  shots  were  fired  afterward,  and 
charges  and  charges  of  dynamite  exploded, 
and  two  large  buildings  were  burned  to  the 
ground,  yet  these  two  innocent  children  were 
the  only  persons  who  lost  their  lives  by  reason 
of  the  riot.  The  injuries  received  by  other 
parties  that  night  were  mostly  of  a  minor 

The  party  within  the  walls  was  increased 
by  this  time  so  that  it  consisted  of  Mayor 
Young,  the  four  city  commissioners,  Chief  of 
Police  HarrLson  and  seven  or  eight  police- 

A  hurried  conference  was  held  and  it  was 
decided  to  allow  the  crowd  to  appoint  a  com- 
mittee to  enter  and  inspect  the  jail  to  make 
sure  that  Peck  was  not  in  it.  The  mob 
selected  a  comimittee  of  six,  headed  by  a  mem- 
ber of  the  City  Council,  who  was  one  of  the  and  most  strenuous  of  all  the  seekers 
for  the  blood  of  this  negro. 

When  the  doors  were  opened  to  admit  the 
committee,  the  crowd  poured  in  after  them. 
It  was  impossible  to  stem  that  impetuous  rush. 
They  filled  the  building  and  searched  every 
nook  and  corner  of  it.  The  cells  of  the 
prison  were  opened,  but  the  mob  found  no 
negro  within  the  building.  Even  Mr.  Wash- 
er's private  apartments  were  invaded  and  the 
garments  of  himself  and  wife  torn  from  the 
closets  where  they  hung,  to  see  if  any  one 
was  concealed  by  them.  Their  cellar  was  ran- 
sacked, and  every  spot  which  could  possibly 
contain  or  shelter  a  man  was  searched.  The 
disappointment  of  the  mob  was  plain.  Some 
one  shouted  that  Peck  was  in  the  county  jail. 
The  entire  crowd  started  for  the  jail.  Deputy- 
Sheriff  Simon  Stone  was  on  duty.  Sheriff 
Kelly  was  absent  for  some  unexplained 
cause.  His  continued  absence  through  all  the 
stirring  events  of  that  night  and  until  the 
hour  of  danger  had  passed  caused  much  com- 

The  deputy  sheriff  met  the  mob  in  front  of 
the  old  brick  jail,  which  stood  on  the  east  side 
of  Broadway,  opposite  the  Court  House,  and 

which  was  torn  down  on  the  completion  of 
the  new  jail.  Standing  on  the  old  stone  steps 
at  the  front  entrance,  he  made  them  a  short 
address,  telling  them  that  Peck  had  been 
taken  to  Cleveland  that  afternoon  and  that 
he  had  never  been  brought  to  the  county  jail. 
He  offered  to  allow  a  committee  chosen  by 
themselves  to  make  a  search.  This  was  done 
and  the  same  committee  searched  the  jail 
thoroughly  and  reported  that  no  negro  could 
be  found.  The  crowd  moved  over  to  the  old 
Court  House,  battered  in  the  wooden  doors, 
and  trooped  into  every  room  in  the  building 
except  the  office  of  the  treasurer. 

Here  the  heavy  iron  doors  resisted  their  ef- 
forts to  make  an  entrance  and  caused  them  to 
desist  in  their  purpose. 

They  hastened  back  to  the  City  Building 
and  filled  the  space  in  front  of  it.  They  were 
still  shouting  and  calling  for  Peck,  and  oc- 
casionally a  stone  or  a  brick  would  fly  through 
the  windows  on  both  the  Main  street  and  Via- 
duct sides  of  the  building.  When  the  mayor 
appeared  at  a  window  in  the  rooms  of  the 
board  of  health  and  motioned  for  silence,  the 
crowd  listened  to  him  with  comparatively  good 
attention.  He  told  them  that  Sheriff  Kelley 
had  taken  Peck  to  Cleveland  that  afternoon 
and  that  there  was  no  use  hunting  longer  for 
him.  Some  one  insisting  that  this  was  not  so, 
the  mayor  offered  to  bet  $20  that  Peck  was 
not  in  Akron.  He  urged  them  to  disperse 
and  let  the  law  take  its  course  in  bringing 
Peck  to  a  full  punishment  for  his  crime. 

Of  course,  this  did  not  satisfy  them.  It  was 
a  mistake  to  suppose  that  it  would.  They 
were  not  there  for  oratory.  They  had  come 
on  a  serious  business.  They  sought  ven- 
geance. Nothing  but  blood  would  satisfy 
them.  It  was  a  maddened,  blood-thirsty  pack 
of  wolves,  and  to  advise,  and  to  temporize,  and 
to  try  to  compromise  with  such  was  entirely 
unreasonable  and  a  waste  of  efi'ort.  It  was 
the  temporizing  policy  of  the  authorities  up  to 
this  time  which  had  helped  bring  the  mob 
up  to  its  present  pitch.  The  attack  was  re- 
newed with  increased  vigor.  It  was  no  longer 
a  crowd  of  men  confronting  the  officers ;  it  was 
a  furious  mob.    Many  of  them  carried  pistols 




-.  «!llfllllllli    ^-     ^ 



in  their  hands  and  a  few  shots  were  fired  ait 
the  building.  Occasionally  a  policeman 
would  come  to  the  window  and  discharge  five 
or  six  shots  toward  the  sidewalk. 

Prison-keeper  Washer  had  been  spending 
the  evening  with  Mrs.  Washer  and  friends  at 
one  of  the  summer  resorts  south  of  Akron.  He 
had  gone  out  of  town  on  the  earnest  solicita- 
tion of  the  chief  of  police,  who  explained  to 
him  that,  if  a  mob  did  form,  it  would  make 
the  story  more  credible  if  it  could  be  said  that 
the  prison-keeper  was  out  of  town  with  the 
prisoner.  When  the  fish  supper  was  con- 
cluded, Mr.  Washer  tried  to  reach  the  city 
building  by  telephone,  but  was  unable  to  do 
so.  He  became  apprehensive  that  all  was  not 
right  and  started  for  Akron  about  8  o'clock. 
He  drove  into  the  mob  at  Main  street  about  9 
o'clock  and  they  dragged  him  and  Mrs. 
Washer  from  the  buggy.  They  shoved  two 
revolvers  into  Mr.  Washer's  face,  boring  the 
barrels  into  his  flesh,  saying  they  wanted 
Peck  and  meant  to  have  him.  One  man,  in 
a.  perfectly  fiendish  condition  of  mind,  kept 
scratching  AVasher's  face  shrieking,  "It's 
blood  we  want,  blood,  blood,  blood."  He  suc- 
ceeded in  drawing  some  of  Mr.  Washer's. 
Mrs.  Washer  finally  succeeded  in  reaching 
their  apartments  at  the  rear  of  the  building, 
with  a  large  part  of  her  clothing  torn  from 
her  body.  Mr.  Washer  tried  to  make  a  speech 
to  the  mob.  The  noise  and  tumult  was  so 
great  he  could  not  make  himself  heard,  ex- 
cept to  a  few  immediately  surrounding  him. 
He  saw  a  man  with  a  brick  in  his  hand  work- 
ing his  way  up  to  the  front.  A  minute  later 
and  this  brick  struck  the  speaker  on  the  side 
of  the  head  and  he  dropped  senseless  to  the 
street.  The  blow  nearly  fractured  his  skull 
and  he  suffered  from  the  wound  it  made  for 
several  years  afterward. 

After  Mr.  Washer  had  been  carried  into  the 
drug  store  on  the  corner,  and  the  police  had 
fired  a  few  more  desultory  shots  from  the 
building,  the  crowd  withdrew.  The  larger 
part  of  them  strangelv  disappeared  and  an 
ominous  quiet  reigned  in  the  neighborhood 
from  about  9:30  o'clock  until  about  11.  A 
few  spectators  stood  on  the  opposite  side  of 

the  street;  another  knot  or  two  were  scattered 
at  different  street  corners.  The  electric  lights 
were  all  burning  brightly  and  the  street  cars 
were  running  as  usual.  But  for  the  broken 
panes  in  the  building,  the  stones  and  bricks 
on  the  sidewalk,  and  the  ladder  lying  where 
the  mob  had  left  it,  no  indications  that  trou- 
ble had  happened  were  present.  The  city 
commissioners  took  advantage  of  this  lull  to 
leave  the  building  by  the  rear  entrance  and 
made  a  successful  escape  down  the  railway 
spur.  The  mayor  also  took  his  departure  and 
went  direct  to  his  home  on  Perkins  street.  The 
Chief  of  Police,  with  seven  or  eight  police- 
men, remained.  About  11  o'clock  the  crowd 
began  to  collect  again,  and  the  spectators  were 
not  long  in  finding  out  where  its  members 
had  been  in  the  interim.  An  electric  arc 
lamp  hung  about  half  way  between  the  City 
Building  and  the  Beacon-Journal  office  and 
flooded  the  vicinity  with  light. 

The  spectators  saw  a  couple  of  men  cross 
the  sidewalk  with  bundles  in  their  arms  and 
enter  the  south  door,  leading  to  the  stairway 
to  the  second  floor.  In  a  few  minutes  after 
they  returned,  a  fearful  explosion  shook  the 
neighborhood,  and  brought  a  cloud  of  dust 
into  Main  street.  The  concussion  was  terrific, 
but  little  apparent  damage  was  done.  The 
walls  still  stood  just  as  before.  The  dynamite 
for  this  and  the  other  explosives  which  fol- 
lowed had  been  stolen  from  the  Middlebury 
clay  banks  and  from  the  chests  of  contractors 
doing  work  on  the  Erie  Railway. 

A  peddler  had  been  arrested  that  AVednes- 
day  morning  for  peddling  without  a  license 
and  released  on  bail.  He  drove  an  old  white 
horse  in  a  spring  wagon.  He  volunteered  to 
haul  the  dynamite  to  the  City  Building,  and 
the  mob  gladly  accepted  his  services.  The 
cessation  of  hostilities  was  due  to  this  cause 
and  a  further  desire  on  the  part  of  several 
to  go  home  and  get  arms. 

The  last  of  the  cars  carrying  home  the 
throng  of  pleasure-seekers  from  the  Casino  at 
Lakeside  Park  had  passed,  and  empty  cars 
were  on  their  way  back  to  the  South  Akron 
bams.  Perhaps  a  thoiisand  men  were  in  Main 
Street,  from  Church  to  Howard  Streets.   Four 



or  five  thousand  more  stretched  from  these 
points  down  to  Mill  and  up  to  Center  and 
covered  the  bluff  on  High  Street.  The  active 
members  of  the  mob  numbered  not  more  than 
two  or  three  hundred,  including  active  sym- 
pathizers. The  rest  were  mere  onlookers — 
some  a  prey  to  a  morbid  curiosity;  others  fas- 
cinated by  the  spectacle  of  terror  enacted  be- 
fore them. 

After  the  first  explosion,  a  few  men  started 
to  lower  the  electric  lamp  that  was  lighting 
the  scene.  They  let  it  fall  the  last  six  feet 
upon  the  brick  pavement,  and  the  place  was 
dark  enough  for  the  vilest  purpose.  Up  to 
this  time,  at  intervals,  a  policeman  in  the 
City  Building  would  approach  the  window 
and  fire  five  or  six  shots  in  rapid  succession 
into  the  sidewalk,  directly  under  the  window. 
It  was  easy  to  see  that  the  shots  were  directed 
into  the  ground  and  it  was  not  possible  that 
even  the  most  foolish  in  the  crowd  could  be 
fooled  by  the  action,  yet  this  silly  performance 
was  repeated  many  times.  Then  followed 
dynamite  explosions,  one  after  another,  each 
sounding  like  the  discharge  of  a  mighty  can- 
non. These  reports  should  have  awakened 
the  entire  city.  The  policemen  had  stealthily 
taken  their  departure  out  of  the  rear  door 
and  crept  off  in  the  darkness.  Some  of  them 
hid  in  the  lumber  yard  in  the  rear  of  Merrill's 
pottery ;  others  in  box-cars  in  the  rear  of  the 
American  Cereal  Company's  big  mill.  Their 
demoralization  could  have  not  been  greater. 
Each  man  was  looking  out  for  himself,  and 
no  one  else.  The  city  property  was  left  to 
the  mercy  of  the  relentless  mob. 

Soon  a  little  blaze  of  a  match  was  seen 
burning  at  the  northeast  corner  of  Columbia 
Hall,  the  large  rambling  frame  building  next 
south  of  the  City  Building.  It  had  been 
erected  as  a  roller  skating  rink  during  the 
days  of  the  first  roller  craze  and  had  been  used 
subsequently  as  an  armory  for  militia  and  an 
assembly  hall  for  concerts  and  bazars,  etc. 
The  little  match  kindled  a  pile  of  paper  and 
dry  wood  and  soon  a  bright  fire  was  burn- 
ing alongside  the  front  of  the  hall.  The 
building  was  .so  dry  and  of  such  favorable  con- 
struction  that  ten  minutes  had  not  elapsed 

until  it  was  in  flames  at  every  point.  It  made 
a  magnificent  spectacle.  Great  tongues  of 
flame  leaped  high  above  a  seething  mass  of 
fire,  and  the  sparks  ascended  in  showers.  On 
the  front  side  of  the  hall  was  a  tower  with  a 
flag-staff.  An  American  flag  waved  nobly  in 
the  breeze  made  by  the  ascending  heat  cur- 
rents. The  lesson  of  that  waving  emblem  of 
freedom  was  lost  on  that  demoniacal  assem- 
blage. The  fire  reigned  with  unrestrained 
fury.  Not  a  drop  of  water  fell  into  its  midst. 
Violent  hands  were  laid  on  every  one  who  had 
the  courage  to  attempt  to  subdue  it. 

About  midnight  a  part  of  the  crowd  had 
marched  down  the  middle  of  Main  street  to 
the  Standard  Hardware  Company,  located  on 
the  ^vest  side  of  South  Main  Street  about 
halfway  between  Market  and  Mill  Streets. 
They  made  entrance  into  the  store  by  break- 
ing a  plate-glass  window.  A  few  entered  and 
passed  out  guns,  revolvers,  rifles,  knives  and 
ammunition,  until  the  store  was  despoiled  of 
its  entire  stock  of  such  goods.  Over  one  hun- 
dred arms  of  various  descriptions  were  stolen 
by  the  mob  in  this  raid.  Hidden  behind  tele- 
phone poles  and  in  dark  corners  of  buildings, 
they  kept  up  a  perfect  fusillade  upon  the  city 
building,  while  Columbia  Hall  was  burning. 
The  firemen  in  the  central  station,  only  a 
stone's  throw  east  of  the  City  Building,  had 
on  the  first  appearance  of  the  blaze,  sounded 
an  alarm  of  fire  and  carried  a  line  of  hose 
down  Church  Street.  The  fire-bell  had  been 
rung  earlier  in  the  evening,  with  a  response 
on  the  part  of  No.  1  company,  merely  as  a 
ruse  to  attract  attention  of  the  mob  from  the 
City  Building. 

Three  firemen  from  Company  No.  1  stood 
out  in  the  middle  of  Main  Street,  holding  the 
nozzle  of  the  line  of  hose.  The  water  shot 
through  it  for  only  a  few  seconds.  The  riot- 
ers had  cut  the  hose  in  many  places,  and, 
while  the  three  firemen  stood  in  the  street 
alone,  a  perfect  hail  of  bullets  and  shot  were 
fired  at  them.  One  of  them  fell  and  another 
promptly  stepped  forward  and  took  his  place 
at  the  nozzle  while  others  came  out  and  re- 
moved their  fallen  comrade.  It  was  the  finest 
exhibition   of  heroism   ever  seen   in   Akron. 



That  little  band  stood  out  there  until  the 
walls  fell  in,  waiting  for  the  water  to  come 
through  that  hose,  and  laying  new  lines  to 
replace  the  damaged.  Cowards  were  firing 
at  them  from  behind  walls  and  telephone 
poles,  yet  they  went  about  the  performance  of 
their  duty  as  calmly  as  though  it  were  an  or- 
dinary attack  upon  their  customary  foe,  the 
Fire  Demon. 

It  was  a  superb  exhibition  of  manly  cour- 
age. Many  a  man  who  felt  the  flame  of  faith 
in  human  nature  die  out  that  night,  found  it 
rekindled  after  beholding  the  deeds  of  those 
heroic  firemen. 

The  alarm  had  called  out  other  companift*. 
In  responding,  one  of  them  sent  a 
south  on  Main  from  Mill  Street.  As  they 
neared  the  Wilcox  Block,  a  couple  of  ruffian* 
called  upon  them  to  halt  and  presented  guns 
from  behind  telephone  poles.  They  paid  no 
attention  to  the  command  and  both  guns  were 
discharged  point  blank  at  them.  How  they 
ever  escaped  alive  remains  a  marvel  to  those 
who  witnessed  the  scene.  They  drove  on,  fol- 
lowed by  bullets  and  shot,  and  only  desisted  in 
their  efforts  to  quench  that  fire  when  borne 
down  by  overwhelming  numbers. 

Shortly  after  the  tower,  with  its  staff  and 
M'aving  flag,  had  fallen  into  the  flaming  pit, 
the  fire  broke  out  in  the  City  Building. 
Whether  it  communicated  from  the  conflagra- 
tion south  of  it  or  was  set  afresh  is  not  known. 
The  more  probable  view  is  that  the  rioters 
hastened  the  destruction  by  setting  the  build- 
ing afire  directly.  In  an  incredibly  short  time 
fire  was  bursting  from  every  window  in  the 
building.  The  dynamite  explosions  had 
wrecked  the  floors  and  partitions,  doors  and 
windows  had  been  demolished  by  the  battering 
and  storm  of  shot,  and  the  flames  made  quick 
work  of  the  resulting  debris.  Both  buildings 
were  soon  enveloped  in  flames  and  the  con- 
flagration was  at  its  height.  All  the  splendor 
of  the  scene  when  Columbia  Hall  first  burst 
into  flames  was  doubled.  The  street  was  as 
light  as  day.  The  heat  drove  all  but  the  fire- 
men back  into  the  shadows.  They  stood  their 
gro\ind,  be.side  their  useless  hose  and  appara- 
tus.    The  mob  would  not  permit  a  drop  of 

water  to  be  thrown  upon  the  fire  and,  like  a 
tremendous  furnace,  it  seethed  and  rolled  and 
roared — an  awful  spectacle  to  the  thousands 
who  covered  hill-sides  and  house-tops,  at  a  safe 
distance  from  the  bullets  of  the  rioters.  The 
gleam  from  the  fire  lighted  up  their  faces,  still 
diabolical  with  hate  and  blood-lust,  as  they 
peered  from  behind  their  barriers  of  defence. 
The  frenzy  possessing  them  had  been  stilled 
by  the  tremendous  power  shown  by  the  nat- 
ural element  Fire.  Even  their  disordered 
minds  could  perceive  the  magnitude  of  the  in- 
fluences they  had  called  into  operation.  Even 
they  stood  thrilled  by  the  raging  and  tumult 
of  elemental  power.  Occasionally  a  malignant 
jeer,  a  demoniacal  howl  of  delight,  or  a  shot, 
broke  the  spell  and  recalled  the  thoughtful 
spectators  to  the  dread  reality  of  the  scene. 

The  minutes  passed  unheeded,  but  prob- 
ably an  hour  passed,  with  the  great  fire  hold- 
ing the  center  of  the  stage — the  one  great 
spectacle  that  centered  the  interest  and  gaze  of 
all.  Then  the  walLs  of  the  City  Building  fell, 
and  the  flames  gradually  shrunk  within  the 
pit  of  the  white  heat.  In  the  east,  pale  streaks 
along  the  horizon  indicated  the  coming  of 
another  day.  The  somber  gray  mellowed 
into  gold  and  the  first  gleam  of  dawn  mingled 
with  the  reddened  glow  from  the  ruins.  The 
outlines  of  objects  became  more  distinct.  It 
was  a  signal  from  the  powers  of  darkness  to 
slink  away.  As  the  Sun-God  scatters  the 
forces  of  Night;  as  Death  dwindles  into  in- 
significance before  the  truth  of  the  resurrec- 
tion; so  the  slaves  of  the  Demon  of  Anarchy 
slunk  away  into  their  places  of  hiding,  from 
their  revel  of  blood  and  fire,  before  the  mes- 
senger on  the  hilltops,  who  heralded  the 
coming  of  the  source  of  light — typical  of  or- 
der, law  and  right. 

By  4  o'clock  all  of  the  thousands  who 
thronged  the  sti-eets  had  gone  and  the  scene 
was  almost  deserted.  It  was  safe  enough  now 
for  those  policemen  who  were  in  hiding  to 
come  forth  and  go  to  their  homes,  and  they 

At  7  o'clock  the  first  of  the  militia  arrived. 
It  was  Company  C  of  the  Eighth  regiment, 
from  Canton.     It  was  known  as  "The  Presi- 



dent's  Own."  Never  were  the  boys  in  blue  re- 
ceived with  more  profound  gratitude.  The 
feelings  of  Akron  citizens  were  too  deep  for 
cheers  or  a  demonstration.  Nevertheless,  deep 
in  their  hearts  they  welcomed  the  soldier 
boys.  What  a  relief  to  see  those  swinging 
battalions  and  to  know  that  they  represented 
the  majesty  of  the  law!  What  a  comfort  in 
those  grim  rifles,  those  well-filled  ammunition 
boxes  and  the  keen  sight  of  those  sworn  foes 
to  disorder!  For  the  thoughtful  citizen  had 
been  much  disturbed.  He  had  seen  his  en- 
tire city  surrendered  to  the  will  of  a  riotous 
mob.  There  was  absolutely  nothing  to  re- 
strain that  mob  from  doing  anything  it 
pleased  with  the  property  and  the  lives  of  all 
the  citizens  of  Akron.  Not  a  dollar,  not  a 
life  was  safe  in  Akron  that  night.  Had  the 
notion  been  taken,  every  store  and  every  home 
might  have  been  pillaged  and  looted.  The 
leaders  of  that  mob  might  have  easily  per- 
suaded it  to  assist  in  working  out  revenge  for 
private  grievances  by  murder  and  arson.  They 
were  drunk  with  power  to  which  they  were 
unaccustomed,  and  reveled  in  the  use  of  it. 
For  instance,  just  as  the  City  Building  burst 
into  flames  a  number  broke  in  the  doors  of 
the  little  building  alongside  and  ran  out  the 
electric  police  patrol  automobile.  As  many 
as  it  would  hold  climbed  into  it;  others  clung 
to  the  steps  and  climbed  upon  the  top.  Then, 
it  was  started  amid  the  cheering  of  the  mob 
and  run  about  the  downtown  streets,  with  its 
occupants  singing  and  yelling,  \intil  they  tired 
of  the  sport  and  ended  the  wild  orgy  by  send- 
ing it  full  speed  into  the  canal. 

It  was  like  a  scene  from  the  wildest  period 
of  the  French  Revolution.  One  must  go  to 
the  orgies  of  that  carnival  of  disorder  to  find 
a  parallel,  unless,  indeed  it  .shall  be  found  in 
the  conceptions  of  certain  great  minds  con- 
cerning the  Inferno.  It  was  the  very  apothe- 
sis  of  evil. 

In  the  meantime  something  was  being 
done  in  an  attempt  to  stop  the  tide.  There 
were  a  few  citizens  aware  of  what  was  hap- 
pening, who  were  not  spellbound  by  the  aw- 
ful seenas  nor  frightened  into  supine  sub- 
servience by  the  exhibition  of  the  power  of 

the  mob.  Some  of  them  sought  the  sheriff. 
For  reasons  known  to  himself,  and  guessed  at 
by  others,  he  could  not  be  found.  Akron  had 
two  full  companies  of  militia  and  .some  other 
organizations  of  a  semi-military  character 
who  carry  rifles  and  look  real  brave  on  parade 
days.  The  captains  of  these  companies  were 
appealed  to.  The  reply  was,  "You  must  see 
the  Governor."  An  attempt  to  asemble  the 
companies  resulted  in  getting  only  three  or 
four  men  at  the  annories;  the  rest  were  min- 
gled with  the  crowd  watching  the  fire.  As  be- 
fore stated,  the  city  authorities,  from  the  high- 
est to  the  last-appointed  policeman,  were  com- 
pletely demoralized.  Finally  Governor  Nash 
was  reached  by  telephone  and  he  promised  to 
send  a  regiment  of  militia,  if  requested  by  the 
sheriff  of  the  county  or  the  mayor  of  the 
city.  Probate  Judge  George  M.  Anderson, 
accompanied  by  a  few  citizens,  then  took  a 
cab  to  search  for  the  mayor.  They  found 
him  at  home  and  persuaded  him  to  ask  the 
Governor  for  help. 

The  Fourth  regiment  of  the  Ohio  National 
Guard  was  in  camp  at  Minerva  Park,  near 
Columbus.  They  had  arrived  there  only  a 
day  or  two  before  for  their  anual  encamp- 
ment, as  required  by  law.  They  were  under 
the  command  of  Colonel  J.  D.  Potter,  who 
is  a  son  of  General  Potter,  of  the  United 
States  Armj'.  They  received  their  orders  at 
1 :45  o'clock  A.  M.  At  2 :45  the  entire  nine 
companies  were  entrained  and  on  their  way 
to  Akron.  A  special  train  on  the  Cleveland, 
Akron  &  Columbus  Railway  brought  them 
into  Akron  at  9  o'clock  on  the  morning  of 
the  23d.  They  immediately  marched  down- 
town and  joined  Company  C  of  the  Eighth 
Regiment  in  guarding  the  city.  Colonel 
Adams  of  the  Governor's  staff  arrived  and 
took  charge  of  all  the  military  forces  in  the 
city,  including  the  local  companies,  which 
were  never  called  from  their  armories  dur- 
ing the  disturbed  period.  The  streets  near 
the  ruins  were  roped  off.  and  none  was  al- 
lowed to  approach  them.  The  downtown 
street  assumed  a  maxtial  appearance. 
Armed  sentries  paced  everywhere  and  compa- 
nies were  marching  back  and  forth  to  mess 



and  temporary  barracks  at  all  hours.  At 
noon,  after  a  consultation  of  officials  and  citi- 
zens, the  mayor  issued  a  proclamation  closing 
all  the  saloons  in  the  city  until  further  no- 
tice. The  revulsion  of  feeling  against  the 
rioters  was  so  strong  that  the  saloon-keepers 
were  very  willing  to  assist,  as  much  as  pos- 
sible, in  the  general  effort  to  restore  law  and 
order.  The  proclamation  was  generally  re- 
spected. Closing  the  saloons  undoubtedly 
was  a  great  factor  in  the  bringing  back  of 
peace  and  quiet  to  the  city. 

In  the  afternoon  of  the  23d  a  meeting  of  all 
the  city  officials  and  a  few  prominent  citizen-' 
was  called  at  the  Hotel  Buchtel.  Chief  of 
Police  Harrison  could  not  be  found  anywhere. 
It  was  reported  that  he  was  seen  about  4 
o'clock  in  the  morning  driving  out  of  the 
city.  John  Durkin  had  been  appointed  by  the 
city  commissioners  as  acting  Chief  of  Police. 
\A^ith  the  city  officials,  there  assembled  at  the 
Hotel  Buchtel  Judge  U.  L.  Marvin,  Prosecu- 
tor R.  M.  Wanamaker.  Judge  G.  M.  Ander- 
son, Fire  Chief  Frank  Manderbach,  Colonel 
Potter,  Colonel  Adams  and  others.  At  this 
meeting  the  situation  was  thoroughly  dis- 
cussed and  the  city  government  reorganized. 
It  was  understood  the  city  was  not  under  mar- 
tial law.  but  that  the  city  authorities  were  in 
power  and  the  military  arm  of  the  govern- 
ment was  there,  not  to  supplant,  but  to  assist 
them.  Barracks  were  arranged  for  the  mili- 
tia and  they  were  quartered  at  the  old  Mar- 
ket House  Hall,  at  the  Court  House  and  in  a 
North  Main  Street  livery  barn.  Business 
was  practically  suspended  in  the  downtown 
stores  and  offices  all  day  of  the  23d.  The  riot 
was  the  one  theme  of  conversation  every- 
where. A  constant  stream  of  people  kept 
moving  all  day  long  about  the  ruins  of  Co- 
lumbia Hall  and  the  City  Building.  No 
crowds  were  allowed  to  congregate.  The  sol- 
diers kept  everyone  moving;  a  good  example 
for  the  police,  don't  you  think?  These  latter 
moved  about  town  in  companies  of  two  and 
three.  When  night  came  many  people  were 
apprehensive  that  more  trouble  would  take 
place.  Many  rumors  had  been  heard  during 
the  dav  that  another  attack  would  be  made. 

Many  persons  remained  down  street  rather  ex- 
pecting excitement  of  some  sort,  but  they 
were  disappointed,  and  the  soldiers  had  no 
other  duty  than  the  weary  work  of  sentry 

On  Friday  business  was  resumed  and  the 
marching  of  the  soldiers  was  the  only  inci- 
dent different  from  the  ordinary  routine  of 
Akron  affairs.  In  the  middle  of  the  after- 
noon those  in  charge  of  things  startled  the 
whole  community  by  an  act  of  exceeding  dar- 
ing. It  was  successful  and  can  be  called  dar- 
ing; if  it  had  failed,  it  would  have  been 
termed  foolhardy  .  This  coup  de'etat  was  no 
less  a  feat  than  bringing  the  rapist  Peck  back 
to  Akron  for  trial.  It  happened  in  this 
way : 

A  meeting  of  the  officials  was  held  Friday 
morning  to  determine  the  course  to  pursue  in 
regard  to  Peck.  The  crime  was  committed 
in  Summit  County  and  he  would  have  to  be 
brought  back  here  for  arraignment.  Why 
was  it  not  better  to  bring  him  back  while  the 
militia  were  here  to  protect  him  and  prevent 
additional  rioting?  The  stay  of  the  soldiers 
must,  of  necessity,  be  brief,  hence,  the  sooner 
action  was  taken,  the  better.  The  very  au- 
dacity of  the  thing,  too,  would  aid  in  its  suc- 
cessful prosecution.  The  people  would  be 
far  from  expecting  any  move  of  this  kind 
and  the  rioters  would  not  be  prepared  to  take 
advantage  of  their  opportunity.  John  E. 
Washer,  the  prison-keeper,  was  still  weak  from 
the  effect  of  the  blow  on  his  head,  but  it  was 
decided  that  he  was  the  best  man  to  go  to 
Cleveland  for  Peck,  who  was  .still  confined  in 
the  Cuyahoga  County  jail.  Dr.  A.  K.  Fouser 
was  engaged  to  accompany  Mr.  Washer  and 
give  him  such  medical  attention  as  he  might 
require.  Driving  to  a  Valley  train  in  a  cab. 
they  succeeded  in  getting  out  of  toTvn  unob- 

In  Cleveland  they  were  not  so  fortunate. 
Thej'  had  been  in  the  jail  but  a  few  moments 
when  the  news  spread  fast  that  they  had  come 
for  Peck  and,  when  they  were  ready  to  de- 
part, a  large  crowd  surrounded  the  carriage 
in  front  of  the  jail  and  filled  the  street.  It 
was  a  crowd  disposed  to  make  trouble,  too. 



What  was  to  be  done?  The  afternoon  was 
passing  and  whatever  was  to  be  done  must  be 
decided  upon  quickly.  A  special  train  on  the 
Baltimore  &  Ohio  Railroad  had  been  engaged 
by  the  Summit  County  authorities  and  was 
waiting  at  the  station  to  take  the  party  to 
Howard  Street,  without  any  stops.  Colonel 
Potter  had  detailed  a  company  of  soldiers  to 
meet  the  train  upon  ite  arrival.  Sheriff 
Bai-ry  was  to  telephone  from  Cleveland  as 
soon  as  the  party  started.  Judge  David  J.  Nye 
had  been  called  over  from  Elyria  to  hold  a 
special  session  of  Common  Pleas  Court.  A 
special  Grand  Jury  had  been  empaneled  at  2 
o'clock  that  afternoon.  One  witness  had  been 
heard  and  a  true  bill  found  against  Lewis 
Peck.  It  was  understood  that  he  would  plead 
guilty  to  the  indictment.  He  would  then  be 
taken  to  Columbus  on  the  afternoon  train  and 
the  cause  of  the  riot  would  be  safely  out  of 
the  jurisdiction.  These  were  the  plans  and 
they  were  carefully  laid.  But  in  the  crowd 
outside  the  Cleveland  jail,  and  constantly 
growing  larger  and  more  restless,  was  an  ob- 
stacle not  considered  by  the  plotters.  What 
was  to  be  done?  So  much  time  had  been  lost 
that  it  was  nearly  time  for  the  Columbus  train 
to  start — the  one  upon  which  it  was  planned 
to  carry  Peck  to  the  penitentiary.  Washer 
and  Barry  got  their  heads  together  and 
planned  a  neat  trick  upon  the  crowd.  They 
telephoned  for  another  closed  carriage  to  be 
driven  to  the  rear  door  of  the  jail.  Washer, 
Fouser  and  the  prisoner,  the  latter  manacled 
to  Washer,  were  all  ready  to  enter  so  soon  as 
it  drove  up.  As  it  appeared  in  sight.  Sheriff 
Barry  went  to  the  front  door  and  thus  engaged 
the  attention  of  the  crowd,  which  pressed  JFor- 
ward,  expecting  the  prisoner  next.  Giving 
his  party  time  to  enter  their  carriage,  he  re- 
entered the  jail,  as  if  he  had  forgotten  some- 
thing, and  joined  them.  The  horses  were 
whipped  up  and  a  wild  race  started  for  the 
Union  depot  to  catch  the  Columbus  train. 
The  Baltimore  &  Ohio  special  was  left  stand- 
ing at  the  Water  street  depot. 

.\  few  who  had  obsei*ved  the  ruse  gave  an 
alarm  and  the  crowd  started  after  the  carriage. 
Most  gave  up  the  chase  after  running  a  block, 

but  a  few  newspaper  reporters  reached  the 
station  nearly  as  quick  a.s  the  officials,  one  or 
two  hanging  onto  the  carriage,  which  they  h  d 
overtaken.  They  rushed  by  the  ticket'  in- 
spector at  the  gates  and  the  party  was  soon 
safe  within  the  railway  car.  The  newspaper 
men  followed  and  the  whole  party  were  scarce- 
ly seated  when  the  train  pulled  out.  Sheriff 
Barry  ordered  the  conductor  to  lock  the  doors 
of  the  car  and  this  was  done.  As  the  train 
neared  Euclid  Avenue,  the  reporters  prepared 
notes  to  be  thrown  out  and  carried  to  their 
papers.  The  windows  were  all  put  down  and, 
upon  Washer's  threat  to  shoot  the  man  who 
touched  a  window,  no  effort  was  made  to 
throw  out  notes  at  Euclid  station.  Sheriff 
Barry  left  the  train  there  and  Mr.  Washer  and 
Dr.  Fouser  proceeded  alone,  with  the  cringing 
negro  on  his  knees,  on  the  floor  between  them, 
imploring  Washer  to  shoot  him.  The  news- 
paper men  were  carried  along,  although  some 
of  them  had  no  money  to  pay  their  fares. 

Sheriff  Barry  telephoned  the  change  of 
plans  from  Cleveland  and  a  carriage  was  wait- 
ing at  the  Union  depot  in  Akron.  There  was 
no  crowd  at  the  station  and  no  guard  but  two 
soldiei-s  and  one  policeman,  who  were  on  duty 
there.  Arrangements  had  been  made  to  ho'd 
the  train  for  thirty  minutes  at  the  station.  It 
arrived  at  3 :20.  The  employees  of  the  Tap- 
lin  Rice  &  Co.  saw  Peck  taken  into  the  Court 
House  and  swai-med  out  into  the  street.  In 
the  court  room  the  judge  was  waiting  and 
all  the  other  requisites  of  a  criminal  action  at 
law  were  ready.  The  judge  cleared  the  room 
of  soldiers,  ordered  Washer  to  put  up  his  pis- 
tol and  remove  the  manacles  from  the  pri.s- 
oner.  Peck  waived  the  reading  of  the  indict- 
ment. Upon  being  asked  whether  he  wished 
to  plead  guilty'  or  not  guilty  to  the  charge  of 
rape  he  replied,  '"Guilty."  Thereupon  the 
court  inquired  if  he  had  anything  to  say  be- 
fore sentence  should  be  pronounced  upon  him. 
His  answer  was  no.  The  court  then  imposed 
a  sentence  of  life  imprisonment  in  the  peni- 
tentiary at  Columbus,  the  first  thirty  days  of 
which  were  to  be  passed  in  solitary  confine- 
ment.    Pock  wa.?  visibly  frightened  through- 



out  the  whole  proceedings.  He  was  again 
manacled,  trembling  like  a  leaf.  A  guard  of 
twenty  militiamen  surrounded  him  and  Sher- 
iff Kelley  as  they  started  for  the  train.  In 
the  meantime  the  conductor  of  the  train  had 
been  ordered  by  telephone  to  bring  hi^  train 
up  to  Center  Street.  As  the  little  party  moved 
out  into  Broadway  toward  Center  the  crowd 
of  workingmen  surged  about  and  tried  to  seize 
Peck.  The  soldiers  fixed  bayonets  and  met 
the  new  rioters  with  .sharp  steel.  They  de- 
sisted their  attempts  only  when  the  pris3ner 
was  safely  within  the  train.  The  sheriff  was 
waiting  for  it  as  it  di'ew  up.  It  did  not  come 
to  a  full  stop,  but  the  prisoner  was  hustled 
aboard,  the  sheriff'  followed,  and  Peck  wa.s  on 
his  way  to  the  only  .spot  that  will  again  know 
him  on  earth.  He  was  arraigned,  pleaded 
guilty,  was  sentenced,  and  on  his  way  to 
prison  all  within  twenty  minutes.  Just  four 
days  after  his  crime  was  committed  he  had 
commenced  to  serve  his  sentence.  Justice  can 
move  quickly  when  it  has  to. 

These  things  happened  on  Friday,  August 
24,  1900.  Justice  in  this  case  was  fully  done. 
It  was  not  overdone  as  some  very  interested 
parties  would  have  you  believe.  Peck  richly 
deserved  his  sentence.  No  more  heinous 
crime  was  ever  committed  in  Summit  County. 
It  was  revolting  and  repulsive  in  the  extreme. 
The  public  has  neVer  learned  the  details  and 
it  never  will,  for  they  are  too  loathsome  to 
publish.  Unspeakable  cruelty  was  practiced 
by  that  black  ravisher  upon  that  innocent  lit- 
tle baby.  Not  only  that,  but  Peck's  record 
was  a  bad  one  before  coming  to  Akron.  The 
New  York  Tribune  printed  a  list  of  the  crimes 
for  which  he  was  wanted  at  Patterson,  New 
Jersey.  It  is  far  better  for  him  and  for  so- 
ciety that  he  be  denied  his  liberty  until  Death 
shall  free  him,  and  his  shrivelled  soul  shall 
pass  on  for  the  sentence  of  the  Great  Judge. 
No  maudlin  sentimentality  should  be  allowed 
to  interfere  with  the  complete  execution  of 
this  just  sentence.  The  pleas  of  lawyers  en- 
gaged by  his  friends  to  obtain  his  release  are 
mercenary  and  should  fall  upon  deaf  ears. 


With  Louis  Peck  safely  in  the  penitentiary, 
the  members  of  the  military  forces  began  to 
think  of  discharge  from  the  irksome  duties 
which  had  been  unexpectedly  imposed  upon 
them.  The  Fourth  Regiment  had  lost  a  large 
part  of  the  benefit  of  their  annual  encamp- 
ment and  they  longed  to  return  to  Minerva 
Park.  Colonels  Adams  and  Potter  desired  to 
leave  Akron  with  their  commands  on  Friday 
night.  The  city  authorities  were  apprehensive 
of  trouble  to  come  on  Saturday  night.  The 
mayor  urged  the  colonels  to  remain  until 
Monday  morning.  Saturday  brought  with  it 
a  half-holiday  and  most  of  the  shops  and  fac- 
tories paid  their  men  on  that  day.  Hence,  it 
was  thought  that  if  new  trouble  were  to  arise 
it  was  most  probable  that  it  would  come  Sat- 
urday night.  The  militia  officei"s  reluctantly 
complied  with  the  wishes  of  the  mayor.  Sat- 
urday and  Sunday  pas.9ed  without  extraordi- 
nary incident.  If  anything,  the  city  was 
more  orderly  than  usual. 

On  Saturday  afternoon  the  mayor  held  the 
first  session  of  Police  Court  since  AVednesday 
morning.  By  consent  of  the  county  officials, 
it  was  held  in  the  Court  House.  The  city 
government  was  without  a  home  of  any  kind. 
On  Mondaj^,  August  27,  at  an  early  hour  in 
the  morning,  the  military  companies  took 
their  departure  and  the  city  was  left  to  take 
care  of  itself.  The  city  commissioners  had 
leased  for  one  year  the  substantial  stone  of- 
fice building  of  the  American  Cereal  Com- 
pany, on  the  cornel"  of  Mill  and  Broadway. 
This  had  been  abandoned  by  the  company 
when  its  principal  offices  had  been  moved  to 
Chicago.  The  postoffice  department  of  the 
federal  government  had  occupied  it  for  a 
while  as  the  .site  of  the  Akron  postoffice  while 
the  government  building  was  being  com- 
pleted. It  had  been  vacant  several  years  and 
was  the  only  available  location  for  the  pur- 
poses of  the  city.  The  Board  of  City  Commis- 
.sioners  met  here  on  Monday  morning  and 
tran.sacted  their  first  real  business  subsequent 
to  the  riot.  Their  first  biisiness  was  to  act 
upon  the  request  of  Chief  of  Police  H.  H. 



Harrison  for  a  leave  of  absence  for  ten  days. 
It  was  granted  and  lie  left  for  Chicago  to  at- 
tend the  annual  reunion  of  the  Grand  Array 
of  the  Republic,  of  which  he  is  a  member. 
The  coroner,  E.  0.  Leberman  announced  that 
he  would  hold  his  inquest  over  the  victims  of 
the  shooting  during  the  latter  part  of  the  week, 
as  evidence  was  rapidly  being  secured.  The 
public  authorities,  both  city  and  county,  had 
already  taken  steps  to  bring  about  the  arrest 
of  all  parties  who  had  been  active  in  the  law- 
less proceedings  of  Wednesday  night.  De- 
tectives from  Cleveland  and  Pittsburg  were  on 
the  scene  by  Thursday  and  were  fast  securing 
evidence  against  the  guilty  ones.  By  Tues- 
day, the  28th,  the  authorities  began  to  suffer 
from  a  perfect  deluge  of  anonymous  letters, 
threatening  them  all  with  death  if  any  ar- 
rests were  made.  They  paid  no  attention  to 
these  threats,  but  persevered  in  the  task  of  run- 
ning down  the  criminals.  Many  of  the  riot- 
ers were  strangers  in  the  city  and  many  others 
had  left  upon  learning  that  they  were  likely 
to  be  brought  to  justice.  Hence,  the  work 
was  very  difficult.  Finally  a  special  grand  jury 
was  impaneled  amd  J.  Park  Alexander  was 
made  foreman  of  it.  The  county  prosecutor, 
who  had  been  indefatigable  in  the  work,  laid 
before  it  the  evidence  he  had  secured.  Tiiie 
bills  were  returned  against  forty-one  men  and 
boys  who  had  been  the  leaders  of  the  mob. 
Soon  the  county  jail  was  filled  with  the  ac- 
cused persons.  Officer  John  E.  Washer  ar- 
rested one  man,  Vernand  Kempf,  down  in 
Tennessee,  and  brought  him  safely  back  to 
Akron.  Upon  his  trial  for  shooting  wnth  in- 
tent to  kill,  he  was  found  guilty  and  sen- 
tenced to  imprisonment  in  the  penitentiary 
for  eighteen  months.  The  other  cases  were 
disposed  of  as  follows: 

State  of  Ohio  vs.  William  Hunt,  George 
Brodt  and  James  McNaughton — Gharo;e,  riot- 
ing. Hunt  retracts  his  plea  of  not  guilty  and 
enters  plea  of  guilty,  and  is  sentenced  to  pay 
a  fine  of  $25  and  costs.  Defendant  McNaugh- 
ton plead  guilty;  sentence,  $20  and  costs. 

State  of  Ohio  vs.  Harry  Earle,  Jr.,  Claude 
Bender,  .4ndrew  Morgan.  Andrew  Wilburn — 
Charge,    rioting.     Defendant    Bender    pleads 

guilty,  sentenced  to  workhouse  for  thirty 
days  and  pay  $10  fine  and  costs.  Nolle  entered 
as  to  all  the  defendants  except  Bender. 

State  of  Ohio  vs.  Walter  Wingerter,  Ar- 
thur Sprague,  Prank  Sickles,  William  Henry 
— Charge,  burglary  and  larceny.  Wingerter 
sentenced  to  the  reformatory.  Same  as  to  de- 
fendants Sickles  and  Henry. 

State  of  Ohio  vs.  Frank  Bisson — Shooting 
with  intent  to  kill  or  wound.  Sentenced  to 
Boys'  Industrial  School. 

State  of  Ohio  vs.  Howard  McClelland. 
Shooting  with  intent  to  kill  or  wound.  Sen- 
tenced to  penitentiaiy  for  one  year. 

State  of  Ohio  vs.  John  Rhoden.  Shooting 
with  intent  to  kill  or  wound.  Sentenced  to 
penitentiary  for  one  year. 

State  of  Ohio  vs.  Charles  Timmerman, 
David  Spellman,  Frank  Wheeler,  Joseph 
Higy — Charge,  rioting.  Defendant  Wheeler 
plead  guilty;  sentence,  thirty  days  in  jail  and 
pay  the  co.ste.  Defendant  Spellman,  $25  and 
costs.    Dismissed  as  to  Higy, 

State  of  Ohio  vs.  Walter  Wingerter,  Frank 
Sickles  and  William  Crile — Charge,  rioting. 
Defendant  Crile  .sentenced  to  pay  $20  and 

State  of  Ohio  vs.  Arthur  Sprague,  Norma/n 
Breckenridge  and  Edward  Eppley — Charge, 
rioting.  Brockenridge,  thirty  days  in  jail  and 
$25  fine  and  costs.  Sprague  the  same.  Ep- 
pley, no  trial. 

State  of  Ohio  vs.  Sandy  Coppard,  William 
Henry  and  Edward  Henry — Charge,  rioting. 
All  sentenced  to  thirty  days  in  jail  and  $25 
fine  and  costs. 

State  of  Ohio  vs.  William  Averill,  Andrew 
B.  Halter  and  Frank  BLsson — Charge,  rioting. 
Halter  and  Averill  fined  $50  and  costs.  Bis- 
son dropped  from  the  docket. 

State  of  Ohio  vs.  Charles  Timmerman — 
Charge,  breaking  into  prison  and  attacking 
officer  for  the  purpose  of  lynching.  Sen- 
tenced to  penitentiary  for  one  year. 

State  of  Ohio  vs.  Edward  Ej^pley,  Harry 
Earle,  Jr.,  and  Oliver  Morgan — Charge,  un- 
lawful pos«es.sion  and  use  of  dynamite.  All 
sentenced  to  refonnators-  and  to  pay  costs. 

State  of  Ohio  vs.  William  Averill — Charge, 


shooting,  with  intent  to  kill  or  wound.    Sen- 
tenced to  reformatory. 

State  of  Ohio  v.s.  Vernando  Kempf — Charge, 
shooting  with  intent  to  kill  or  wound.  Sen- 
tenced to  penitentiary  for  eighteen  months. 

State  of  Ohio  vs.  Charles  Fink  and  David 
Snyder — Charge,  rioting.  Defendant  Fink 
pleads  guilty;  sentence,  thirty  days  in  jail. 
$25  and  costs.  Defendant  Snyder  plead 
guilty ;  sentenced  to  pay  $20  and  costs. 

State  of  Ohio  vs.  Frank  Viall,  Lovell  Nigh 
and  August  Simmonette — Charge,  rioting. 
Nigh  sentenced  thirty  days  in  jail,  $25  and 
costs.  Simmonette,  thirty  days  in  jail,  $25 
and  costs.  A^iall,  $50  and  costs  and  thirty 
days  in  jail. 

Thus  it  will  be  seen  there  were  thirty  con- 
victions in  the  cases  resulting  from  the  riot. 
When  one  reflects  upon  the  amount  of  work 
necessary  to  prepare  for  and  conduct  one  im- 
portant criminal  action  at  law,  he  will  read- 
ily appreciate  the  titanic  labor  performed  by 
the  public  authorities.  Able  counsel  had 
been  secured  to  defend  each  of  the  accused 
men,  and  the  trials  were  hotly  contested.  The 
result  reflects  every  credit  upon  R.  M.  Wana- 
maker,  the  prosecuting  attorney.  It  is  hardly 
possible  to  bestow  too  much  praise  upon  the 
energy  and  skill  he  devoted  to  his  work  in 
bringing  retribution  upon  those  guilty  of 
causing  so  much  shame  to  the  fair  city  of 

There  was  one  glaring  miscarriage  of  jus- 
tice. The  public  felt  keenly  that  the  mem- 
ber of  the  city  council,  of  whom  mention  was 
made  in  the  last  chapter,  and  who  was  one  of 
the  leaders  of  the  mob,  should  have  been  pun- 
ished for  his  misdeeds  that  night.  He  es- 
caped free.  It  was  also  regretted  by  many 
that  the  court,  in  passing  sentence  upon  those 
convicted,  did  not  impose  heavier  sentences, 
because  of  the  heinousne.?s  of  the  offenses. 
There  is  this  to  be  said  in  extenuation,  that 
for  many  of  them,  it  was  a  first  offense ;  that 
the  excitement  of  the  moment  carried  some 
of  them  off  their  feet;  that  some  up  to  this 
time  had  borne  good  reputations  in  the  com- 
munity; that  some  had  families  dependent 
upon  them  for  support,  and  that    the    sen- 

tences, such  as  they  were,  would  be  a  suffi- 
cient deterrent  from  future  violation  of  law. 

Thus  justice  emerged  triumphant,  as  she 
always  will.  Law  and  Order  were  fully  re- 
stored and  affairs  moved  along  in  orderly  pro- 
cession. The  citizens  began  to  take  an  ac- 
count of  their  losses.  The  City  Building  was 
but  a  heap  of  bricks,  stones  and  twisted  iron. 
Columbia  Hall,  one  of  the  chief  meeting- 
places  of  the  city,  was  the  same.  The  build- 
ings on  the  opposite  side  of  Main  Street  had 
been  damaged  by  flames  and  the  violence  of 
the  mob.  One  of  the  stores  there  had  been 
looted.  The  stores  south  of  Columbia  Hall 
had  been  damaged  by  fire  and  smoke.  The 
Standard  Hardware  Company  had  lost  its  en- 
tire stock  of  fire-arms.  For  all  this  loss  not 
one  cent  of  fire  insurance  could  be  collected. 
Several  cases  brought  to  collect  insurance 
dragged  their  weary  lengths  through  the 
various  counts  for  several  years  afterward, 
but  it  was  uniformly  decided  that  the  com- 
panies were  not  liable  for  loss  occa.sioned  by 
the  mob.  The  loss  in  money  was  about  a 
quarter  of  a  million  dollars.  A  whole  regi- 
ment of  soldiers  was  quartered  for  nearly  a 
week.  The  city  and  county  had  large  bills 
to  pay  for  detective  service  and  the  expense 
of  the  trials.  Many  citizens  received  serious 
injuries  from  bullets  and  flying  missiles  of  all 
kinds.  Among  them  the  newspapers  men- 
tioned the  following:  Fred  Vorwerk,  W.  H. 
Dussel,  Park  Stair,  Arthur  E.  Sprague,  John 
Ahren,  E.  Chemelitzki,  Albert  Grant,  Frank 
Sours,  E.  Shelby  and  Albert  Stevens,  of  the 
citizens;  L.  Manch&ster,  W.  Roepke,  Minor 
Fritz,  John  Denious,  A.  Eberle  and  David 
Phillips,  of  the  firemen,  and  John  E.  Washer, 
Alva  Greenlese,  John  King  and  Edward 
Dunn,  of  the  police  force. 

Although  seven  years  have  passed  since  that 
momentous  time,  the  city  is  still  occupying 
the  old  office  of  the  American  Cereal  Com- 
pany as  a  City  Hall.  Three  different  adminis- 
trations have  conducted  the  city's  affairs 
within  its  walls.  They  are  still  called  "tem- 
porary quarters,"  but  there  is  no  prospect  of 
anything  more  permanent  for  years  to  come. 
The   city  is  so  busy  building  viaducts   and 



paving  streets  and  expending  so  much  money 
for  such  purposes  and  the  present  quarters  are 
so  well  adapted  for  the  present  needs  that  it 
is  probable  that  Akron  will  have  no  City  Hall 
of  her  own  for  many  years  to  come.  In  spite 
of  some  objections  on  the  part  of  some  offi- 
cials, it  must  be  admitted  that  the  present 
building  makes  a  very  good  housing  for  the 
conduct  of  municipal  affairs,  and  that  the 
rent  is  not  unreasonable  for  such  a  structure. 
The  City  Council  has  a  room  large  enough 
for  it.=!  deliberations ;  the  Mayor's  Court  is  well 
provided  for;  the  Boai-d  of  Health,  the  Audi- 
tor, the  Solicitor  and  the  Police  Department, 
all  have  separate  and  commodious  apart- 

The  main  damage  caused  by  the  riot  was 
that  done  to  the  hitherto  fair  reputation  of 
the  city.  In  the  heart  of  the  cultured  West- 
ern Reserve  of  Ohio,  it  was  not  thought  pos- 
sible that  such  an  outbreak  of  lawlessness 
could  occur.  The  other  cities  of  the  Western 
Reserve  blushed  for  us.  The  great  state  of 
Ohio  was  ashamed  of  us.  We  had  brought 
discredit  upon  the  great  state  of  which  we 
are  so  proud.  Our  shame  went  abroad 
throughout  the  land — throughout  the  worH. 
The  great  newspapers  sent  special  correspond- 
ents to  Akron  and  covered  their  front  pages 
with  great,  black  headlines  to  publish  to  the 
world  our  disgrace.  As  an  example,  the  Pitts- 
b\irgh  Dispatch  of  August  24,  1900.  bore 
across  the  entire  front  page  in  .startling  type, 
this  inscription :  "National  Guard  Preserves 
Order  in  Shamed  Akron."    This  shame,  this 

disgrace,  this  damage  to  a  splendid  reputa- 
tion, was  our  greatest  loss. 

If  the  cause  of  it  all  can  be  said  to  belong 
to  those  who  might  have  averted  it,  then 
there  is  no  difficulty  in  putting  the  blame 
where  it  belongs — at  the  door  of  incompetent 
public  officials.  The  errors  of  judgment  on 
their  part  were  so  numerous  that  it  will  not 
be  possible  to  mention  them  here.  Even  when 
the  riot  was  at  its  height,  a  dozen  determined 
policemen  could  have  put  the  entire  mob  to 
rout.  Many  times  that  night  it  happened, 
that  some  one  would  cry,  "The  Police  are 
Coming  Out,"  and  the  entire  crowd  would 
take  to  their  heels  and  scatter  in  all  direc- 
tions. It  is  to  be  feared  that  downright  cow- 
ardice, as  well  as  lack  of  judgment,  was  one 
of  the  prominent  characteristics  of  those  now 

From  the  black  picture  let  us  turn  to  a 
bright  one.  Letters  of  shining  gold  should 
be  used  to  tell  of  the  deeds  of  Akron's  fire- 
men who  played  so  noble  a  part  in  that 
night's  doings.  From  its  very  beginning, 
Akron's  fire  department  has  never  been  found 
wanting  in  any  emergency,  but  on  this  occa- 
sion, it  covered  itself  with  everlasting  glory. 
The  prison-keeper  and  a  few  of  the  police- 
men proved  also  that  night  that  they  were 
brave  men.  These,  with  the  county  prose- 
cutor, and  the  members  of  the  Grand  and 
Petit  juries  who  dealt  with  the  riot  cases,  are 
they  who  emerged  with  credit  from  the  Riot 
of  1900. 



Settlement  and  Organization  of  the  Townships — Settlement  and  Founding  of  the  Towns 
Sketches  of  Barberton,  Cuyahoga  Falls,    Hudson,   Tallmadge,  Peninsula,  Etc. 

Summit  County  possesses  some  of  the  most 
beautiful  scenery  in  Ohio.  There  is  not  an 
uninteresting  township  in  the  whole  county. 
Each  has  some  special  charm  to  prove  that 
Nature  has  been  most  lavish  of  her  gifts. 
The  valley  of  the  Cuyahoga  divides  the  upper 
half  of  the  county,  while  the  southern  half 
is  diversified  by  a  chain  of  beautiful  lakes. 
Everywhere  there  is  variety;  monotonous  ex- 
panses of  level  ground  are  nowhere  to  be 
seen.  Near  the  head  of  the  Cuyalioga  A^al- 
ley  are  the  famed  Northampton  Hills  which 
offer  vistas  of  hill  country  that  remind  the 
beholder  of  New  England.  Here,  on  a 
smaller  scale,  are  the  qualities  which  have 
made  the  Berkshires  famous  for  their  beauty. 
The  Lake  Country  has  its  eminences,  also, 
rising  two  or  three  hundred  feet  almost  from 
the  water's  edge.  The  lakes,  nestling  amid 
these  green  hills,  make  a  picture  which  is 
worthy  the  long  journey  which  many  travel- 
ers make  to  see  it.  From  these  high  points, 
the  land  stretches  away  to  the  east  and  west 
in  long  rolls  and  billows.  It  is  not  a  matter 
of  wonder  that  Medina  and  Portage  and  Stark 
counties  objected  so  strenuously  to  being  de- 
prived of  the  townships  which  were  taken 
from  them  to  form  the  new  county  of  Sum- 
mit. By  that  process  they  lost  the  fairest 
portion  of  their  domain. 


Of  the  early  settlers  of  Bath  Township 
there  are  two  families  which  stand  out  pre- 
eminent— the  Hfxles  and  the  Hammonds. 
The  influence  of  the  Hale  family  during  the 
years  subsequent  has  been  stronger  and  wider 
felt  than  that  of  perhaps  any  other  family  in 
the  county.  It  has  been  of  incalculable  bene- 
fit, exerted,  as  it  always  has  been,  in  behalf 
of  high  thinking  and  clean  living.  The  fact 
that  for  a  long  time  this  region  was  called 
"Hammondsburgh"  shows  the  prominent 
part  Jason  Hamimond  played  in  the  perform- 
ance of  its  early  affairs.  The  hamlet  of 
Hammond's  Corners  still  bears  the  name  of 
this  first  settler.  The  first  real  settlement  of 
the  township  was  made  in  1810.  During  the 
summer  of  that  year,  Jonathan  Hale  and  Ja- 
son Hammond,  both  Connecticut  men,  came 
to  Ohio  to  settle  upon  the  land  they  had  re- 
cently purchased.  They  were  obliged  to  dis- 
possess other  white  men  whom  they  found 
living  upon  their  land  without  color  of  title. 
A  survey  of  the  township  had  been  made  in 
1805,  and  the  name  "Wheatfield"  given  to  it 
by  Rial  McArthur,  the  surveyor,  probably  be-  his  eyes  had  been  gladdened  that  day 
by  a  .sight  of  a  waving  field  of  that  grain. 
It  is  a  pity  the  name  did  not  survive.  Fine 
fields  of  wheat  may  be  seen  on  all  hands,  to- 
day, in  season,  and  it  is  one  of   the   success- 



ful  crops  of  the  township,  while  the  name  of 
Bath  is  of  no  significance,  locally,  whatever. 
It  is  said  the  name  was  given  to  the  town- 
ship in  joke.  It  is  now  firmly  affixed  and 
"Bath"  this  township  will  ever  be.  Bath  was 
organized  as  a  township  in  1818,  and  Jona- 
than Hale  was  made  the  first  trustee;  Jason 
Hammond,  supervisor;  Henry  Hutson,  jus- 
tice of  the  peace,  and  Eleazer  Rice,  consta- 
ble. Bath  sent  nearly  one  hundred  men  into 
the  Union  Arrny  during  the  Civil  War  and 
many  of  her  citizens  have  occupied  promi- 
nent places  in  the  county  and  State.  Among 
them'  may  be  mentioned  Gen.  A.  C.  Voris. 
Peter  Voris,  R.  0.  Hammond,  J.  Park  Alex- 
ander, Sumner  Nash,  C.  0.  Hale,  Jared  Bar- 
ker and  0.  W.  Hale.  The  principal  plac&s 
in  the  township  are  Botzura,  a  station  on  the 
Cleveland  and  Terminal  Valley  branch  of 
the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad;  Montrose 
(formerly  called  Latta's  Corners  and  some- 
times Ellis'  Corners)  ;  Hammond's  Corners 
and  Ghent.  At  the  picturesque  village  last 
mentioned  there  are  extensive  saw-mills,  grist- 
mills, a  general  store,  etc.  P.  A.  Ganyard 
is  the  township  clerk  in  1907,  and  William 
Davis  and  C.  S".  Parsons  are  justices  of  the 


Boston  Township  contains  three  villages — 
Peninsula,  Boston  Mills  and  Everett.  The 
earliest  settlers  were  also  from  Connecticut. 
In  1805,  the  purchasers  of  the  holdings  of 
the  Connecticut  Land  Company  sent  many 
surveying  corps  into  Summit  County  for  the 
purpose  of  alloting  the  lands.  In  this  year 
Alfred  Wolcott,  Jamas  Stanford.  John  Teale 
and  Samuel  Ewart  came  into  Boston  Town- 
ship for  the  purpose  of  making  a  survey.  In 
1806,  Wolcott  and  Stanford  both  purcha.sed 
land  surveyed  by  them  the  summer  previous 
and  located  upon  it  at  once.  Tlioy  thus  be- 
came the  first  settlers  in  the  town.ship.  The 
Wolcott  family  afterward  became  very  promi- 
nent and  influential.  The  town.ship  wa.?  or- 
ganized in  1811,  as  a  part  of  Portage  County. 

its  firet  officers  were  Timothy  Bishop,  Andrew 
Johnson  and  Aai'on  Miller,  trustees;  William 
Beers,  clerk;  Launcelot  May,  treasurer;  Al- 
fred Wolcott  and  Moses  Cunningham,  jus- 
tices of  the  peace,  and  James  Jordan,  consta- 
ble. More  than  140  men  of  Boston  township 
fought  for  the  Union  in  the  war  of  1861-65, 
the  most  distinguished  of  whom  was  Colonel 
Arthur  L.  Conger.  On  July  4,  1889,  Colonel 
and  Mrs.  Conger  presented  to  Boston  Town- 
.ship the  fine  soldiers'  monument  which  stands 
in  the  village  of  Peninsula  at  its  western  bor- 
der. Peninsula  has  an  extensive  flour-mill 
and,  in  the  southern  part  of  the  village,  a 
large  stone-quaiTy  of  a  fine-gi'ained,  white 
.sand-stone,  from  which  mill-stones  are  made. 
Boston  has  saw-mills  and  the  great  paper- 
mills  of  the  Akron-Cleveland  Paper  Bag 
Company,  the  power  for  which  is  partly  se- 
cured from  a  large  dam  thrown  across  the 
Cuyahoga  River.  Colonel  A.  L.  Conger  aaid 
Hon.  S.  P.  Wolcott  are  the  Boston  citizens 
who  have  earned  for  themselves  the  greatest 
fame.  At  the  present  time  Charles  Peterson 
is  clerk  and  E.  B.  Conger  and  N.  B.  Wise  are 
justices  of  the  peace. 


Copky  Township  came  to  us  from  Medina 
County  when  our  county  was  created  in  1840. 
It  is  well  watered  by  Pigeon  Creek,  Wolf 
Creek  and  Chocolog  Creek,  besides  having 
within  its  confines  AMiite  Pond,  Black  Pond 
and  Chocolog  Pond.  Formerly  a  great  swamp 
called  Copley  Swamp  occupied  a  large  part 
of  it,  but  by  judicious  draining  it  has  been 
reduced  to  an  insignificant  area.  It  Ls  now 
one  vast  garden — the  old  peat  and  muck  beds 
furnishing  the  best  kind  of  soil  for  raising 
celery,  onions,  etc.  In  early  times  it  was  the 
great  game  preserve  of  the  whole  region. 
Copley  was  first  settled  in  1814  by  Jonah 
Turner,  who  came  from  Pennsylvania.  Six 
additional  families  arrived  during  the  next 
five  years.  ■  It  was  set  apart  as  a  township  of 
Medina  County  in  1819,  and  was  named 
Greenfield  at  first  by  Garner  Green,  who  origi- 



nally  owned  a  large  part  of  ite  territory.  He 
afterwards  changed  the  name  to  Copley,  the 
maiden  name  of  his  wife.  When  the  North- 
ern Ohio  Railroad  was  built,  in  1891,  it  gave 
Copley  an  outlet,  and  was  the  means  of  start- 
ing a  new  hamlet — Fairlawn,  which  now 
boasts  a  mill,  general  store,  smithy,  etc.  Cop- 
ley sent  nearly  150  men  into  the  Union 
Army.  Homer  G.  Long  is  now  township 
clerk  and  C.  C.  Frederick  is  justice  of  the 


Coventry  Township  lies  to  the  north  of 
Franklin  and  Green  and  just  outside  of  the 
City  of  Akron.  It  is  also  the  southern  line 
of  the  Western  Reserve.  Its  physical  fea- 
tures are  unusual  in  that  it  is  dotted  by  nu- 
merous lakes  and  in  early  days  was  traversed 
by  a  considerable  stream,  the  Tuscarawas.  In 
addition  to  this,  about  1840,  the  Reservoir 
was  built,  composed  partly  of  natural  and 
partly  artificial  bodies  of  water.  Long  Lake 
is  the  largest  of  these  natural  bodies  of 
water.  The  Indian  seem  to  have  made 
this  their  headquarters  and  naturally  so,  for 
New  Portage  was  at  the  head  of  the  Indian 
Trail.  These  Indians  were  Delawares  and  the 
most  importajit  of  their  chiefs  was  Ilopocan 
or  Captain  Pipe.  He  called  .  himself,  "Ho- 
pocan,  King  of  New  Portage."  The  finst  white 
settler  of  the  township  was  Daniel  Haines, 
who  can^e  from  Pennsylvania  about  the  year 
1806.  After  him,  in  1811,  came  the  Aliens, 
from  New  York  State,  forebears  of  the^  Al- 
iens, who  live  there  today.  The  town.ship 
grew  at  an  ama^iing  pace  and  a  great  future 
seemed  before  it.  The  Tuscarawas  was  then 
an  immense  stream  capable  of  floating  -large 
boats,  and  many  a  boatload  went  from 
Coventry  to  New  Orleans.  A  glass  factory 
started  and  for  some  time  many  articles  of 
value  and  profit  were  turned  out.  A  distillery 
was  started  by  Adam  Falor.  Saw-mills  and 
grist-mills  started  up.  A  lawyer  by  the  name 
of  Van  Humphreys  settled  there  and  the 
"State  of  Coventry"  began  to  be.     The  now 

well  known  "State  Mill"  arose  in  this  fashion: 
At  the  time  of  the  construction  of  the  Reser- 
voir it  was  neces-sary  to  destroy  the  mill 
formerly  there,  and  to  replace  it  the 
State  built  a  large  mill  at  that  point. 
For  a  long  time  it  was  the  center  of 
the  mill  business  of  that  district,  and  of  late 
\ears  has  become  valuable,  chiefly  as  a  sum- 
mer resort.  With  the  advent  of  the  canal 
the  township  continued  to  flourish  and  for  a 
time  seemed  to  rival  Middlebury.  However, 
its  prospects  died  down  and  it  settled  down 
to  the  regular  way  of  a  town.ship.  Still  it  is 
to  be  remembered  that  with  the  last  increase 
of  territory  to  Akron,  a  large  part  of  Coventry 
was  annexed  to  the  city,  and  the  old  city- 
spirit  of  Coventry  survives  possibly  in  another 

The  township  organization  occurred  in 
1808.  and  at  that  time  Coventry  was  a  part 
of  Springfield  and  they  were  a  part  of 
Portage  County,  till  the  organization  of  Sum- 
mit in  1840.  At  the  present  time  the  taxable 
property  in  the  township  is  valued  at  about 
$1,300,000.  With  the  rapid  growth  of  the 
city  south,  and  the  addition  of  Barberton  and 
Kenmore,  it  seems  that  it  will  be  only  a  short 
time  till  the  township  will  disappear  within 
municipal  lines.  Among  the  prominent 
families  in  the  township  have  been  the 
Brewsters  and  the  Falors.  From  Coventry 
township  also  came  John  R.  Buchtel,  the 
founder  of  Buchtel  College,  and  William 
Buchtel,  who  represented  Summit  County  in 
the  State  legislature  from  1901-3.  The  pres- 
ent representative,  Howard  C.  Spicer.  is  also 
from  Coventry  township.  B.  T.  Davis  and  H. 
E.  Shook  are  the  present  justices  of  the  peace 
for  the  township. 

The  village  of  Cuyahoga  Falls  was 
founded  in  1825  by  Elkanah  Richardson. 
Among  the  earliest  settlers  were  Joshua  Stow 
and  William  Wetmore.  In  1815  a  saw-mill 
was  in  operation  near  Gaylord's  Grove,  oper- 
ated by  power  derived  from  a  dam  across  the 
river  at  that  point.  The  name  Cuyahoga 
Falls  was  adopted  in  accordance  with  a  sug- 
gestion from  the  postoflfice  department.     The 



tirni  ol'  Stow  and  Wetniore  built  several  mills, 
dams  and  business  buildings  in  the  new  vil- 
lage, and  by  1830  the  town  took  on  am  im- 
portant aspect.  In  that  year  they  built  a 
large  paper  mill,  an  industry  that  is  still  car-' 
ried  on  profitably.  They  were  a?.sisted  in  the 
paper  business  by  John  Rumrill,  who  had 
learned  the  art  in  the  New  England  paper 
mills.  About  1825  Henry  Newberry  came 
from  Connecticut  and  built  more  dams,  a 
saw-mill,  linseed  oil-imill  and  a  paper-mill. 
He  was  a  graduate  of  Yale  and  was  one  of  the 
most  prominent  of  the  early  settlers.  March 
5,  1851,  the  citizens  of  Cuyahoga  Falls  organ- 
ized a  township  of  the  same  name  and  co- 
extensive with  the  territory  of  the  village. 
The  government  of  tlie  village  was  then  given 
over  to  the  township  officers  who  were  elected 
at  that  time  as  follows:  Horace  A.  Miller, 
Henry  Newberry,  Jr.,  and  Porter  G.  Somers, 
trustees;  Lucious  Bradley,  treasurer;  Grant  P. 
Turner,  clerk ;  William  H.  Taylor,  assessor, 
and  W.  J.  Wilson  and  W.  W.  Luca.'S,  con- 
stables. This  arrangement  failed  to  give  sat- 
isfaction and  on  .June  3,  1868,  the  village  gov- 
ernment was  reorganized.  On  September  1, 
1868,  the  first  election  was  hel-d  and  William 
A.  Hanford  was  elected  mayor;  Henry  C. 
Lockwood,  treasurer;  Porter  G.  Somers,  re- 
corder; T.  F.  Heath,  Charles  Hunt,  W.  M. 
Griswold,  John  Hinde  and  L.  W.  Loomis, 
trastees.  In  1841  the  Board  of  Commi.s.sioners, 
to  locate  the  county  seat  decided  upon  Cuya- 
hoga Falls,  but  the  legislature  interfered  the 
year  following,  and,  leaving  the  question  to  a 
popular  vote,  it  was  located  at  Akron.  It 
cannot  be  said  that  Cuyahoga  Falls  was  at 
any  time  the  county  seat,  in  spite  of  the  acts 
of  the  commission. 

Cuyahoga  Falls'  schools  have  always  been 
among  the  best  in  the  county.  The  village 
obtained  its  reputation  as  an  educational  cen- 
ter very  early  in  its  exi.stence.  In  1834  a  pri- 
vate school  wfiis  opened  by  J.  H.  Reynolds. 
In  1836  a  school  for  girls  was  opened  by 
Sarah  Carpenter.  Later  schools  were  con- 
ducted bv  Frances  C.  Barron  nnd  Eliza 
Deaver.  In  1837,  the  Cuvahoga  Fnlls  Insti- 
tute was  opened  for  pupils  by  Rev.   Roswcll 

Brooks  and  Charles  Clark.  The  present  brick 
High  School  building  was  built  in  1871.  The 
High  School  was  organized  in  1855,  H.  F. 
Taylor  being  the  first  principal.  Among  his 
successors  have  been  such  famous  men  as  Ed- 
ward R.  Sill,  Vergil  P.  Kline  and  William  I. 
Chamberlain.  In  1833,  "The  Ohio  Review," 
Cuyahoga  Falls'  first  newspaper,  was  started 
by  Horace  Canfield  and  Timothy  Spencer.  It 
ran  about  one  year.  It  was  followed  in  close 
succession  by  the  "Renovator,"  "The  Young 
Buzzard,"  "The  Telescope,"  "The  American 
Eagle,"  and  "The  True  American."  The  last 
mentioned  stopped  about  1843.  In  1870  "The 
Cuyahoga  Falls  Reporter"  was  founded  by  E. 
0.  Knox  and,  by  good  business  management, 
has  succeeded  in  continuing  publication  until 
the  present  time.  In  1881  "The  Weekly 
Journal"  was  started,  but  did  not  last  more 
than  a  year. 

The  village  sent  nearly  200  men  into  the 
Union  Army  during  the  Civil  War.  In  1859 
"The  Union  Fair  ^\s.sociation"  was  fonned 
and  fitted  iip  fair  grounds  at  the  north  end 
of  the  village.  Not  being  a  success  financially, 
the  association  was  wound  up  in  1861.  Cuya- 
hoga Falls  has  had  her  share  of  prominent 
citizens,  among  whom  can  be  named  Edward 
Rowland  Sill,  one  of  America's  very  best 
poets,  and  whose  fame  has  just  begun  to  grow. 
Elisha  N.  Sill,  Samuel  W.  McClure, '  Henry 
McKinney,  George  Paul  and  Charles  R. 

Cuyahoga  Falls  now  has  the  following 
churches:  Church  of  Christ,  Rev.  W.  L. 
Denslow,  pastor:  First  Congregational,  Rev. 
A.  E.  Woodruff,  pa.stor;  Methodi4  Episcopal. 
Rev.  W.  J.  Wilson,  pa.stor;  St.  John's  Epis- 
copal; St.  Joseph's  Roman  Catholic,  Rev.  J. 
A.  Nolan,  pa.stor,  and  the  Welsh  Congrega- 
tional. The  principal  industries  now  are 
The  Walsh  Paper  Company,  C.  M.  Walsh, 
president ;  T.  A.  Murphy,  vice-president  and 
general  manager;  E.  A.  Prior,  secretary,  and 
F.  T.  Moloney,  treasurer.  They  have  a  very 
large  factorv  on  River  Street.  On  Portage 
Street  are  the  Pearl  Flour  Mills,  operated  by 
the  Walsh  Milling  Company,  of  which  Cor- 
nelius ]M.  A^'  is  president.     The  large  fac- 








tory  of  the  Falls  Rivet  and  Machine  Company 
is  located  on  the  railroad  at  Portage  Street. 
Edwin  Seedhouse  is  president  and  C.  H. 
Wells,  treasurer.  They  make  rivets,  bolts  and 
power  transmission  machinery.  The  Acme 
Wire  Company  has  officers  as  follows :  W.  C. 
Hall,  president;  S.  H.  Miller,  vice-president; 
L.  D.  Brown,  treasurer;  E.  A.  Henry,  general 
manager.  Falls  Hollow  Staybolt  Company, 
C.  M.  Walsh,  president;  The  Falls  Lumber 
Company,  G.  R.  James,  secretary  and  treas- 
urer; The  Keller  Brick  Company,  Frederick 
W.  Keller,  president ;  W.  F.  Keller,  secretary 
and  president;  Tift  and  Vogan,  consisting  of 
Smith  D.  Tift  and  Fremont  D.  A^ogan ;  Tur- 
ner, Vaughn  and  Taylor,  of  which  Calvin  W. 
Vaughn  is  general  manager;  Isaac  N.  Reid, 
who  'makes  carriages  and  does  a  general 
smithy  businass;  the  Fair  Oaks  Villa  is  a  sani- 
tarium for  mental  and  nervous  diseases,  con- 
ducted successfully  by  Drs.  W.  A.  Searl  and 
H.  I.  Cozad.  The  Cuyahoga  Falls  Savings 
Bank  was  organized  September  2,  1904,  upon 
the  failure  of  the  Akron  Savings  Bank,  which 
had  conducted  a  Cuyahoga  Falls  branch.  It 
has  a  capital  of  $50,000  and  is  ably  managed 
by  following  officers:  President,  C.  M.  Walsh; 
vice-president,  W.  R.  Lodge ;  vice-president, 
Edwin  Seedhouse;  treasurer  and  cashier,  F. 
T.  Moloney;  secretary,  E.  A.  Prior.  The 
Falls  Savings  and  Loan  A.«sociation  is  ably 
conducted  by  L.  W.  Loomis,  president;  E.  A. 
Prior,  secretary;  Dr.  W.  A.  Searl,  treasurer, 
and  C.  T.  Grant,  attorney.  Bauman  and  Orth 
(Edward  H.  Bauman  and  Frank  W.  Orth) 
are  the  present  proprietors  of  the  Cuyahoga 
Falls  Reporter.  The  Central  Union  Tele- 
phone Company  and  the  Akron  Peoples'  Tele- 
phone Company  both  have  exchanges  here. 
The  population  of  Cuyahoga  Falls  is  now 
about  4,000.  In  1907  its  officials  are:  Mayor, 
C.  A.  Davis;  clerk,  C.  D.  Crumb;  treasurer, 
Theodore  Heath;  marshal,  I.  Goldwood.  The 
mayor  and  clerk  are  Democrats,  the  other 
two  Rejiubliciuis. 


Tallmadge  was  founded  in  1806  by  David 
Bacon,   mini.ster,    missionarv    and    colonizer. 

His  experiences  in  the  wilderness  and  the  dif- 
ficulties he  had  to  contend  with  in  establish- 
ing his  little  colony  are  typical,  and  for  that 
reason  are  here  set  forth  in  full  according  to 
the  excellent  narrative  of  his  .son,  Dr.  Leonard 
Bacon,  as  published  in  Howe's  Historical  Col- 
lections (Ohio).  It  may  readily  be  believed 
that  the  labors  and  dangers  incident  to  the 
settlement  of  Tallmadge  were  no  greater  than 
those  attending  the  settlement  of  the  other 
townships  of  the  county. 

Rev.  David  Bacon,  the  founder  of  Tall- 
madge, was  born  in  Woodstock,  Connecticut, 
in  1771,  and  died  in  Hartford  in  1817  at  the 
early  age  of  forty-six  years,  worn  out  by  ex- 
cessive labors,  privations  and  mental  suffer- 
ings, largely  consequent  upon  his  financial 
failure  with  his  colony.  He  was  the  first  mis- 
sionary sent  to  the  Western  Indians  from  Con- 
necticut. His  means  were  pitifully  inade- 
quate, but  with  a  stout  heart,  reliant  upon 
God,  he  .started,  August  8,  1800,  from  Hart- 
ford, afoot  and  alone  through  the  wilderness, 
with  no  outfit  but  what  he  could  carry  on  his 
back.  At  Buffalo  Creek,  now  the  site  of  the 
city  of  Buffalo,  he  took  vessel  for  Detroit, 
which  he  reached  September  11,  thirty-four 
days  after  leaving  Hart-ford,  and  was  hospit- 
ably received  by  Major  Hunt,  commandant 
of  the  United  States  garrison  there.  After  a 
preliminaiy  survey  he  returned  to  Connecti- 
cut, and  on  the  25th  of  December  was  mar- 
ried at  Lebanon  to  Alice  Parks,  then  under 
eighteen  years  of  age ;  a  week  later,  on  the  last 
day  of  the  year  of  the  last  century,  De- 
cember 31,  1800,  he  was  ordained  regularly 
to  the  specific  work  of  a  missionarj'  to  the 
heathen,  the  first  ever  sent  out  from  Con- 

On  the  11th  of  February,  1801,  with  his 
young  wife,  he  started  for  Detroit,  going 
through  the  -n-dlderness  of  New  York  and  Can- 
ada by  sleigh,  and  arrived  there  Saturday, 
May  9.  The  bride,  before  she  got  out  of  Con- 
necticut, had  a  new  and  painful  experience. 
They  stopped  at  a  noisy  countrj"-  tavern  at 
Canaan.  There  was  a  large  company  alto- 
gether, some  drinking,  .some  talking  and  some 



swearing,  and  this  they  found  was  common 
at  all  the  public-houses. 

Detroit  at  this  time  was  the  great  empo- 
rium of  the  fur  trade.  Some  of  the  Indian 
traders  were  men  of  great  wealth  for  those 
days  and  of  highly  cultivated  minds.  Many 
of  them  were  educated  in  England  and  Scot- 
land at  the  universities,  a  class  today  in  Brit- 
ian  termed  "university  men."  They  gen- 
erally spent  the  winter  there,  and  in  the 
spring  returned  with  new  goods  brought  by 
vessels  through  the  lakes.  The  only  Ameri- 
cans in  the  place  were  the  officers  and  soldiers 
of  the  garrison,  consisting  of  an  infantry  reg- 
iment and  an  artillery  company,  the  officers 
of  which  treated  Mr.  Bacon  and  family  with 
kindnees  and  respect.  The  inhabitants  were 
English,  Scotch,  Irish  and  French,  all  of 
whom  hated  the  Yankees.  The  town  was  en- 
closed by  cedar  pickets  about  twelve  feet  high 
and  six  inches  in  diameter,  and  so  close  to- 
gether one  could  not  see  through. 

At  each  side  were  strong  gates  which  were 
closed  together  and  .guarded,  and  no  Indians 
were  allowed  to  come  in  after  sundown  or  to 
remain  over  night. 

Upon  his  arrival  in  Detroit  the  missionary 
society  paid  him  in  all  four  hundred  dollars; 
then,  until  September,  1808,  he  did  not  get 
a  cent.  He  began  his  support  by  teaching 
school,  at  first  with  some  success,  but  he  was 
a  Yankee,  and  the  four  Catholic  priests  used 
their  influence  in  opposition.  His  young 
wife  assisted  him.  They  studied  the  Indian 
langiiage,  but  made  slow  progress,  and  their 
prospect  for  usefulness  in  Detroit  seemed  wan- 

On  the  19th  of  Febniary,  1802,  hi^  first 
child  was  born  at  Detroit. — the  afterwards  emi- 
nent Dr.  Leonard  Bacon.  In  the  May  fol- 
lowing he  went  down  into  the  Maumee  coun- 
try with  a  view  to  establishing  a  mission 
among  the  Indians.  The  Indians  were 
ly  drunk,  and  he  was  an  unwilling  witness  to 
their  drunken  orgies.  Little  Otter,  their  chief, 
received  him  courteously,  called  a  council  of 
the  tribe,  and  then,  to  his  talk  through  an  in- 
terpreter, gave  him  their  decision  that  they 
would  not  have  him.     Tt  was  to  this  efi'ect: 

Your  religion  is  very  good,  but  only 
for  white  people;  it  will  not  do  for  In- 
dians.     When    the  Great    Spirit    made 
white  people  he  put   them    on    another 
island,  gave  them  farms,  tools  to  work 
with,   horses,   horned   cattle    and    sheep 
and  hogs   for  them,   that    they    might 
get  their  living  in  that  way  and  he  taught 
them  to  read,  and  gave  them  their  reli- 
gion in  a  book.     But  when  he  made  In- 
dians he  made  them  wild,  and  put  them 
on   this  island   in  the  woods,  and  gave 
them  the  wild  game  that  they  might  live 
by  hunting.     We  formerly  had  a  reli- 
gion very  much  like  yours,  but  we  found 
it  would  not  do  for  us,  and  we  have  dis- 
covered a  much  better  way. 
Seeing  he  could  not  succeed  he  returned  to 
Detroit.    He  had  been  with  them  several  days 
and  twice  narrowly  escaped  assassination  from 
the  intoxicated  ones.     His  son,  Leonard,  in 
his  memoirs  of  his  father,  published  in  the 
Congregational  Quarterly  for  1876,  and  from 
which  this  article  is  derived,  wrote : 

"Something  more  than  ordinary  courage 
was  neces-sary  in  the  presence  of  so  many 
drunken  and  half-dninken  Indians,  any  one 
of  whom  might  suddenly  shoot  or  tomahawk 
the  mLssionary  at  the  slightest  provocation  or 
at  none."  The  two  instances  mentioned  by 
him  in  which  he  was  enabled  to  baffle  the 
malice  of  savages  ready  to  murder  him  remind 
me  of  another  in,stance. 

"It  was  while  my  parents  were  living  at 
Detroit,  and  when  I  was  an  infant  of  less  than 
four  months,  two  Indians  came  as  if  for  a 
friendly  visit;  one  of  them,  a  tall  and  stal- 
wart, young  man,  the  other  shorter  and 
older.  As  they  entered  my  father  met  them, 
gave  his  hand  to  the  old  man,  and  was  just 
extending  it  to  the  other,  when  my  mother, 
quick  to  discern  the  danger,  exclaimed,  'See! 
He  has  a  knife.'  At  the  word  my  father  saw 
that,  while  the  Indian's  right  hand  was  ready 
to  salute,  a  gleaming  knife  in  his  left  hand 
was  partly  concealed  under  his  blanket. 

"An  Indian  intending  to  a.ssassinate  waits 
until  his  intended  victim  is  looking  away 
from  him  and  then  strikes.    Mv  father's  keen 



6ye  was  fixed  upon  the  murderer,  and  watched 
him  eye  to  eye.  The  Indian  found  himself 
strangely  diseoncert.ed.  In  vain  did  the  old 
man  talk  to  my  father  in  angry  and  chiding 
tones — -that  keen,  black  eye  was  watching  the 
would-be  assassin.  The  time  seemed  long. 
My  mother  took  the  baby  (himself)  from  the 
birch-bark  cradle,  and  was  going  to  call  for 
help,  but  when  she  reached  the  door,  she 
dared  not  leave  her  husband.  At  last  the  old 
man  became  weary  of  chiding;  the  young 
man  had  given  up  his  purpose  for  a  time  and 
they  retired." 

Failing  on  the  Maumee,  Mr.  Bacon  soon 
after  sailed  with  his  little  family  to  Mackinaw. 
This  was  at  the  beginning  of  summer,  1802 
Mackinaw  was  then  one  of  the  remotest  out- 
posts of  the  fur  trade  and  garrisoned  by  a 
company  of  United  States  troops.  His  object 
was  to  establish  a  mission  at  Abrecroche, 
about  twenty  miles  distant,  a  large  settlement 
of  Chippewa  Indians,  but  they  were  no  less 
determined  than  those  on  the  Maumee  that 
no  missionary  should  live  in  their  villages. 
Like  those,  also,  they  were  a  large  part  of  the 
time  drunk  from  whiskey,  supplied  in 
abundance  by  the  fur  traders  in  exchange  for 
the  proceeds  of  their  hunting  excursions. 
They  had  at  one  time  no  less  than  900  gallon 
kegs  on  hand. 

His  work  was  obstructed  from  the  impos- 
sibility of  finding  an  interpreter,  so  he  took 
into  his  family  an  Indian  lad,  through  whom 
to  learn  the  language — his  name  was  Singe- 
nog.  He  remained  at  Mackinaw  about  two 
years,  but  the  Indians  would  never  allow  him 
to  go  among  them.  Like  the  Indians  gen- 
erally, they  regarded  ministers  as  another 
sort  of  conjurors,  with  power  to  bring  sickness 
and  disease  vipon  them'. 

At  one  time  early  in  October  the  second 
year,  1803,  Singenog,  the  young  Indian,  per- 
suaded his  uncle,  Pondega  Kawwan.  a  head 
chief,  and  two  other  Chippewa  dignitaries,  to 
vi.»it  the  missionar\r,  and  presenting  him  a 
string  of  wampum,  Pondega  Kawwan  made  a 
ver^'  non-committal,  dignified  speech,  to  the 
effect  that  there  was  no  u.^e  of  his  .going 
among  them,  that  the  Great  Spirit  did  not 

put  them  on  the  ground  to  learn  such  things 
as  the  white  people  taught.  If  it  were  not 
for  rmn  they  might  listen,  "but,"  concluded 
he,  "Rum  is  our  Master."  And  later  he  said 
to  Singenog,  "Our  father  is  a  great  man  and 
knows  a  great  deal ;  and  if  we  were  to  know  so 
much,  perhaps  the  Great  Spirit  would  not  let 
us  live." 

After  a  residence  at  Mackinaw  of  about  two 
years  and  all  prospects  of  success  hopeless,  the 
!iii.ssionary  society  ordered  him  to  New  Con- 
necticut, there  to  itinerate  as  a  missionary  and 
to  improve  himself  in  the  Indian  language, 
etc.  Ahout  the  l.^t  of  August,  1804,  with  h-s 
wife  and  two  children,  the  youngest  an  infant, 
he  sailed  for  Detroit.  From  hence  they  pro- 
ceeded in  an  open  canoe,  following  the  wind- 
ings of  the  shore,  rowing  by  day  and  sleep- 
ing on  land  by  night,  till  having  performed  a 
journey  of  near  200  miles,  they  reached,  about 
tlie  middle  of  October,  Cleveland,  then  a  mere 
hamlet  on  the  lake  shore. 

Leaving  his  family  at  Hudson,  he  went  on 
to  Hartford  to  report  to  the  society.  He  went 
;ilmost  entirely  on  foot  a  distance  of  about  600 
miles,  which  he  wearily  trudged  much  of  the 
way  through  the  mnd,  slush  and  snow  of  win- 
ter. An  arrangement  was  made  by  which  he 
could  act  half  the  time  as  pastor  at  Hudson, 
and  the  other  half  as  a  missionary  to  the 
various  settlements  on  the  Reserve.  On  his 
return  a  little  experience  satisfied  him  that 
more  could  be  done  than  in  any  other  way  for 
the  establishment  of  Christian  institutions  on 
the  Reserve,  by  the  old  Puritan  mode  of 
colonizing,  by  founding  a  religious  colony 
strong  enough  and  compact  enough  to  main- 
tain schools  and  public  worship. 

An  ordinarv  township,  with  its  scattered 
settlements  and  roads  at  option,  with  no  com- 
mon central  point,  cannot  well  grow  into  a 
town.  The  unity  of  a  town  as  a  body  politic 
depends  very  much  on  fixing  a  common  cen- 
ter to  which  every  homestead  shall  be  obvious- 
ly related.  In  no  other  rural  town,  perhaps, 
is  that  so  well  provided  for  as  in  Tallmadge. 
"Public  spirit,  local  pride,"  writes  Dr. 
Bacon,  "friendly  intercourse,  general  culture 
and  good  taste,  and  a  certain  moral  and  re- 



ligious  steadfastness  are  among  the  character- 
istics by  which  Tallniadge  is  almost  pro- 
verbially distinguished  throughout  the  Re- 
serve. No  observing  stranger  can  pass  through 
the  town  without  seeing  that  it  was  planned 
by  a  sagacious  and  far-seeing  mind. 
"It  was  fit  that  he  who  had  planned  the  set- 
tlement, and  who  had  identified  with  it  all 
his  hopes  for  use-fuln&ss  for  the  remainder  of 
his  life,  and  all  his  hopes  of  a  competence  for 
his  family,  should  be  the  first  settler  in  the 
township.  He  did  not  wait  for  hardier  ad- 
venturers to  encounter  the  first  hardships  and 
to  break  the  loneliness  of  the  woods.  Select- 
ing a  temporary  location  near  an  old  Indian 
trail,  a  few  rods  from  the  southern  boundary 
of  the  township,  he  built  the  first  log  cabin, 
and  there  placed  his  family. 

"I  well  remember  the  pleasant  day  in  July, 
1807,  when  that  family  made  its  removal 
from  the  center  of  Hudson  to  a  new  log-house 
in  a  township  that  had  no  name  and  no  hu- 
man habitation.  The  father  and  mother — 
poor  in  this  world's  goods,  but  rich  in  faith 
and  in  the  treasure  of  God's  promises;  rich 
in  their  well-tried  mutual  affection ;  rich  in 
their  expectation  of  usefulness  and  of  the 
comfort  and  competence  which  they  hoped  to 
achieve  by  their  enterprise;  rich  in  the 
parental  joy  with  which  they  looked  upon 
the  three  little  ones  that  were  carried  in  their 
arms  or  nestled  among  their  scanty  house- 
hold goods  in  the  slow-mo\'ing  wagon — were 
familiar  with  whatever  there  is  in  hardship 
and  peril  or  disappointment,  to  try  the  cour- 
age of  the  noblest  manhood  or  the  immortal 
strength  of  a  true  woman's  love.  The  little 
ones  were  the  natives  of  the  wilderness — ^the 
youngest  a  delicate  nur.?ling  of  six  months, 
the  others  bom  in  a  remoter  and  more  savage  These  five,  with  a  hired  man,  were  the 

"I  remember  the  setting  out,  the  halt  before 
the  door  of  an  aged  friend  to  say  farewell, 
the  fording  of  the  Ciiyahoga,  the  day's  jour- 
ney of  somewhat  less  than  thirteen  miles 
along  a  road  that  had  been  cut  (not  made) 
through  the  dense  forest,  the  little  cleared 
spot  where  the  journey  ended,  the  new  log- 

house,  with  what  seemed  to  me  a  stately  hill 
behind  it,  and  with  a  limpid  rivulet  winding 
near  the  door.  That  night,  when  the  first 
family  worship  was  ofi'ered  in  that  cabin,  the 
prayer  of  the  two  worshipers,  for  themselves 
and  their  children,  and  for  the  work  which 
they  had  that  day  begun,  was  like  the  prayer 
that  went  up  of  old  from  the  deck  of  the  May- 
flower, or  from  beneath  the  wintry  sky  of 
Plymouth.  One  month  later  a  German  fam- 
ily came  within  the  limits  of  the  town ;  but 
it  was  not  until  the  next  February  that  a  sec- 
ond family  came,  a  New  England  family, 
whose  mother  tongue  was  English.  AVell  I  do 
remember  the  solitude  of  that  first  winter,  and 
how  beautiful  the  change  was  when  spring 
at  last  began  to  hang  its  garlands  on  the 

"The  next  thing  in  carrying  out  the  plan 
to  which  Mr.  Bacon  had  devoted  himself  was 
to  bring  in,  from  whatever  quarter,  such 
families  as  would  enter  into  his  views  and 
would  co-operate  with  him  for  the  early  and 
permanent  establishment  of  Christian  order. 
It  was  at  the  expense  of  many  a  slow  and 
weary  journey  to  older  settlements  that  he 
succeeded  in  bringing  together  the  families 
who,  in  the  spring  and  .summer  of  1808,  be- 
gan to  call  the  new  town  their  home.  His 
repeated  absences  from  the  home  are  fresh  in 
my  memory,  and  so  is  the  joy  with  which  we 
greeted  the  arrival  of  one  family  after  an- 
other coming  to  relieve  our  loneliness:  nor 
least  among  the  merhories  of  that  time  is  the 
remembrance  of  my  mother's  fear  when  left 
alone  with  her  three  little  children.  She  had 
not  ceased  to  fear  the  Indians,  and  .sometimes 
a  straggling  savage,  or  a  little  company  of 
them,  came  by  our  door  on  the  old  portage 
path,  calling,  perhaps,  to  try  our  hospitality, 
and  with  signs  or  broken  English  phrases  ask- 
ing for  whiskey.  She  could  not  feel  that  to 
'pull  in  the  latch  string'  was  a  stifflcient  ex- 
chision  of  such  visitors,  and  in  my  mind's 
eye  I  seem  now  to  see  her  frail  form  tugging 
at  a  heav\'  chest,  with  which  to  barricade  the 
door  before  she  dared  to  .sleep.  It  was,  in- 
deed, a  relief  and  joy  to  feel  at  last  that  we 
had  neighbors,  and  that  our  town  was  begin- 



ning  to  be  inhabited.  At  the  end  of  the  sec- 
ond year  from  the  commencement  of  the  sur- 
vey, there  were,  perhaps,  twelve  families,  and 
the  town  received  its  name,  Tallmadge." 

Slowly  the  settlement  of  the  town  proceeded 
from  1807  to  1810.  Emigration  from  Con- 
necticut had  about  ceased,  owing  to  the  stag- 
nation of  business  froni  European  wars,  and 
the  embargo  and  other  non-intercourse  acts 
of  Jefferson's  administration.  Mr.  Bacon 
could  not  pay  for  the  land  he  had  purchased. 
He  went  East  to  trj^  to  make  new  satisfactory 
arrangements  with  the  proprietors,  leaving 
behind  his  wife  and  five  little  children.  The 
proprietors  were  imnmovable.  Some  of  his 
parishioners  felt  hard  towards  him  because, 
having  made  payments,  he  could  not  perfect 
their  titles.  With  difficulty  he  obtained  the 
means  to  return  for  hi^^  familv. 

In  May,  1812,  he  left  Tallmadge,  and  all 
"that  was  realized  after  five  years  of  arduous 
labor  was  poverty,  the  alienation  of  some  old 
friends,  the  depression  that  follows  a  fatal  de- 
feat, and  the  dishonor  that  falls  on  one  who 
cannot  pay  his  debts."  He  lingered  on  a  few 
years,  supporting  his  family  by  traveling  and 
selling  the  "Scott's  Family  Bible"  and  other 
religious  works,  from  house  to  house,  and  oc- 
casional preaching.  He  bore  his  misfortunes 
with  Christian  resignation,  struggled  on  a 
few  years  with  broken  spirits  and  broken  con- 
stitution, and  died  at  Hartford,  August  17, 
1817.  "My  mother,"  said  Dr.  Bacon,  "stand- 
ing over  him  with  her  youngest,  an  infant  in 
her  arms,  said  to  him :  'Look  on  your  babe 
before  you  die.'  He  looked  up  and  said,  with 
distinct  and  audible  utterance:  'The  blessing 
of  the  God  of  Abraham,  of  Isaac,  and  of  Jacob, 
rest  upon  thee.'  Just  before  dawn  he  breathed 
his  la«t.  Now  he  knows  more  than  all  of 
us,  said  the  doctor;  while  my  mother,  bathing 
the  dead  face  with  her  tears,  and  warming  it 
with  kisses,  exclaimed:  'Let  my  last  end  be 
like  his.'  " 

There  is  little  doubt  that  Rev.  David  Bacon 
was  the  first  white  person  who  made  his  home 
in  this  township.  Other  early  settlers  were 
George  Boosinger,  .Justin  E.  Frink,  Ephraim 
Clark,  .Jonathan    Sprague,    Titus    Chapman, 

William  NeaJ,  Elizur  Wright,  Moses  Brad- 
ford, Salmon  Sackett,  John  Caruthers,  Reu- 
ben Upson,  John  Wright  and  Luther  Cham- 
berlain. The  township  was  named  in  honor 
of  one  of  its  early  proprietors,  Benjamin  Tall- 
madge, of  Litchfield,  Connecticut.  Nearly 
all  the  original  settlers  were  from  Connecti- 
cut. It  was  organized  as  a  separate  township 
in  November,  1812.  Elizur  Wright  was 
elected  clerk  and  Nathaniel  Chapman,  justice 
of  the  peace.  Tallmadge  has  from  the  very 
earliest  days  brought  a  very  strong  religious 
and  educational  influence  to  bear  upon  the 
surrounding  communities.  The  average  of 
culture  is  higher  here  than  in  any  other  com- 
munity in  this  vicinity — perhaps  in  Ohio. 
The  purpose  of  its  founder  was  religious.  The 
Congregational  Church  was  organized  here  in 
1809.  In  1810,  a  school-house  was  opened 
and  Lucy  Foster,  who  married  Alpha  Wright 
the  next  year,  was  its  first  teacher.  In  1816 
"Tallmadge  Academy"  was  incorporated  and 
opened  to  students.  Among  its  teachers, 
Simeon  Woodruff  and  Elizur  Wright  were 
the  earliest,  while  later  came  Sidney  Edger- 
ton.  About  1835  Ephraim  T.  Sturtevant 
opened  a  private  school  and  taught  it  suc- 
cessfully for  several  years.  Tallmadge  estab- 
lished the  first  public  library  in  Summit 
County,  opening  it  in  1813,  and  continuing 
and  increasing  it  until  the  present  writing. 
The  Congregational  Church  edifice  was  built 
in  1822,  and  Ls  a  fine  specimen  of  the  New 
England  church  architecifure  of  the  period. 
With  very  few  changes,  it  has  continued  to 
serve  the  society  until  now..  In  1825  the 
Methodist  established  a  church  organization, 
and  in  1832  erected  a  church  building.  In 
1874  they  built  the  present  structure  near  the 
public  square.  Coal  and  potters'  clay  are  ex- 
tensively mined  in  the  township.  In  the 
early  '40's  several  veins  of  iron  ore  were  dis- 
covered and  a  furnace  erected  to  smelt  them. 
The  attempt  was  unsuccessful  and  the  enter- 
prise ultimately  abandoned.  Some  manufac- 
turing has  been  successfully  conducted, 
notably,  carriage  manufacturing,  begun  in 
1827  by  Amos  Avery  and  William  C.  Oviatt. 
In  1836  thov  took  in    Isaac    Robinson.     In 



1841  Ira  P.  Sperry  organized  the  firm  of 
Oviaitt  &  Sperry  and  later  took  in  Samuel  J. 
Eitchie.  L.  V.  Bierce  and  J.  E.  Baldwin  also 
manufactured  cairiages  for  many  year.?.  In 
1868  Alfred  Sperry,  Charles  Tryon  and  Ben- 
jamin D.  Wright  began  the  manufacture  of 
sewer-pipe,  Henry  M.  Camp  later  succeeding 
Mr.  Tryon.  In  1871  Samuel  J.  Ritchie  and 
Ira  P.  and  Willis  Sperry  bought  them  out  and 
continued  the  business  with  success  until  the 
fire  of  1878.  In  1881  Ira  P.  and  George  P. 
Sperry  rebuilt  the  w^orks.  The  apple-butter 
factory  of  John  A.  Caruthers  should  also  be 
noticed.  Tallmadge  gave  her  full  quota  of 
men  to  preserve  the  Union  during  the  rebel- 
lion of  1861.  Tallmadge  claims  two  of  the 
greatest  names  in  Summit  County  history  in 
Sidney  Edgerton  and  William  H.  Upson. 


The  original  proprietors  of  Hudson  town- 
ship were  Stephen  Baldwin,  Da\nd  Hudson, 
Birdsey  Norton,  Nathaniel  Norton,  Benjamin 
Oviatt  and  Theodore  Parmalee.  It  consisted 
of  16,000  acres,  and,  in  the  distribution  of  the 
lands  of  the  Connecticut  Land  Company,  it 
was  sold  to  the  above  mentioned  proprietors 
at  32  cents  per  acre.  In  1799  David  Hudson 
organized  a  party  of  eleven  persons  for  the 
purpose  of  inspecting  the  new  purchase.  They 
started  overland  from  Litchfield,  Connecticut, 
and,  with  their  wagons,  oxen  and  cows,  made 
a  very  respectable  looking  caravan.  They 
were  nearly  two  months  in  making  the  jour- 
ney, reaching  the  present  township  about  the 
latter  part  of  June.  The  summer  was  spent 
in  surveying;  erecting  a  bark  hut  and  a  more 
substantial  log-house;  clearing  land  of  timber; 
planting  and  sowing  crops,  and  platting  the 
village,  now  called  Hudson,  after  its  founder. 
Early  in  October  the  survey  of  the  township 
was  completed  and  David  Hudson,  with  his 
son  Ira  and  the  two  surveyors,  started  back  to 
Connecticut,  leaving  the  remainder  of  the 
party  as  a  nucleus  of  the  future  settlement. 

By  offering  bounties  of  land  and  other  in- 
dticements,  Mr.  Hivdson  succeeded  in  getting 
together  twenty-eight  colonists  who  agreed  to 

return  with  him  into  the  wilderness  and  as- 
sist in  the  pioneer  work  of  settling  the  new 
township.  In  this  party  were  Heman  Oviatt, 
Joel  and  Allen  Gaylord,  Joseph  and  George 
Darrow,  Moses  Thompson,  Samuel  Bishop 
and  others.  After  enduring  the  usual  perils 
and  deprivations  incident  to  pioneer  journey.-;, 
they  arrived  safely  in  Hudson  in  May,  1800. 
Their  first  act  was  a  public  meeting  to  con- 
duct services  of  thanksgiving  for  their  safe 
journey  and  deliverance  from  the  perils  of 
the  way  in  the  wilderness.  On  October  28, 
1800,  there  was  born  to  David  Hudson  and 
his  wife,  Anna  (Norton)  Hudson,  a  daughter, 
whom  they  named  Anner  Mary  Hudson.  She 
was  born  in  Hudson  and  was  the  first  white 
child  born  in  what  is  now  Summit  County. 

Early  in  1802  the  county  commis-sioners 
of  Trumbull  County,  of  which  this  locality 
was  then  a  part,  organized  Hudson  township 
and  arranged  for  the  first  election  in  April, 
1802.  There  were  elected  at  that  time.  He- 
man  Oviatt,  Ebenezer  Sheldon  and  Abraham 
Thompson,  tmstees;  Thadeus  Laeey,  clerk; 
Rufus  Edwards,  Ebenezer  Lester  and  Aaron 
Norton,  constables,  etc.,  etc. 

On  September  4,  1802,  the  first  church  or- 
ganization in  what  is  now  Summit  County 
was  made  by  David  Hudson,  with  twelve  of 
his  fellow-colonists,  who  were  members  of 
Congregational  Churches  back  in  Connecti- 
cut. The  first  church  thus  established  was  a 
Congregational  Church,  and,  from  that  day  to 
this,  not  a  single  Sabbath  has  passed  T\'ithout 
public  worship  being  held  by  the  Congrega- 
tional Church  of  Hudson.  In  1820  the  so- 
ciety completed  a  fine  church  edifice  on  the 
site  of  the  present  Town  Hall,  which  was  used 
continuou.ely  until  the  splendid  brick  church 
on  Aurora  Street,  next  to  the  "Pentagon,"  was 
built  in  1865.  This  has  proved  sufficient  for 
the  needs  of  the  Congregational  Society  until 
the  present  day. 

In  1828  Moses  Draper,  Daniel  Gaylord  and 
Perley  Mansur  organized  a  Methodist  Epis- 
copal Church,  the  history  of  which  is  not  a 
record  of  unvarving  success. 

The  Protestant  Episcopal  Church  was  or- 
ganized in  1842  bv  Frederick  Brown,  Anson 



Brewster,  Henry  O'Brien,  Arthur  Sadler  and 
others.  It  is  called  the  "Parish  of  Christ 
Church,  of  Hudson,  Ohio."  Its  membership 
has  never  been  large  and,  at  time.s,  the  organ- 
ization has  been  maintained  with  difficulty. 

St.  Mary's  Catholic  Church  was  built  in 
1858  and  has  been  maintained  in  connection 
with  the  church  of  that  denomination  in 
Cuyahoga  Falls. 

In  1890  an  organization  of  the  Disciples 
of  Christ  was  effected  and  Rev.  F.  H.  Moore 
was  installed  as  its  pastor. 

From  the  very  beginning  Hudson  led  the 
intellectual  life  of  the  AVestern  Reserve.  What 
the  influence  of  Western  Reserve  College  has 
been  has  been  told  elsewhere  in  this  work  by 
Dr.  Findley.  The  spirit  of  which  that  insti- 
tution is  a  product  manifested  itself  the  year 
after  the  founding  of  the  first  settleiuent. 
George  Pease,  of  Enfield,  Connecticut,  estab- 
lished the  first  school  in  a  log-house,  about 
where  the  present  Town  Hall  stands.  The 
growth  of  the  schools  kept  pace  with  that  of 
the  population.  In  1868  the  fine  brick  High 
School  building  was  erected.  In  addition  to 
the  public  schools  many  private  schools  have 
been  conducted  at  various  times.  The  first 
was  the  Nutting  School  for  young  ladies,  es- 
tablished in  1827.  Then  followed  the  Hud- 
son Academy  for  boys  and  girls  in  1834; 
Hudson  Female  Seminary  in  1845;  the  Gro.s- 
venor  Seminary  and  the  Phelps  "Seminary 
for  Ladies,"  established  a  few  years  later ;  the 
J.  W.  Smith  school  in  1853 ;  the  Emily  Met- 
calf  school  in  1860,  and  the  Hudson  Acad- 
emy, revived  in  1874  by  Rev.  H.  B.  Hos- 

In  the  decade  of  the  '50's  Hudson  was  bad- 
ly smitten  with  the  railroad  fever.  There 
was  scarcely  one  of  her  citizens  of  means  who 
did  not  invest  everv-  penny  he  could  possibly 
raise  in  one  or  more  of  the  railroad  enter- 
prises undertaken  at  that  time.  Profe.ssor 
Henry  N.  Day.  of  Western  Reserve  College, 
seems  to  have  been  the  moving  spirit  in  all 
these  schemes.  The  investors  lost  every  cent 
they  put  in  and  the  depreciation  in  Hudson 
business  has  been  constant  since  that  time. 
The  town  never  rallied  from  the  great  finan- 

cial losses  brought  about  by  the  failures  of 
these  railroad  projects.  The  Cleveland  and 
Pittsburgh  Railroad  was  completed  from 
Cleveland  to  Hudson  in  1852.  The  "Akron 
Branch"  was  built  soon  after.  These  were 
successful  and  improved  business  conditions 
in  Hudson  so  much  that  when  subsequent 
projects  were  broached  no  difficulty  was  en- 
countered in  getting  the  support  of  every  Hud- 
son citizen.  In  1852  Prof.  Day  and  his  asso- 
ciates "promoted"  "the  Clinton  Line  Rail- 
road." which  was  to  be  part  of  a  great  trans- 
continental railroad.  In  1853  the  same  par- 
ties organized  a  bankruptcy  club,  the  mem- 
bers of  which  were  allowed  to  contribute  to 
"the  Clinton  Line  Extension,"  to  run  from 
Hudson  to  Tiffin.  In  the  .same  year  Hudson 
citizens  were  asked  to  contribute  toward  de- 
fraying the  expenses  of  another  dream,  iri- 
descent and  alluring,  called  the  "Hudson  and 
Painesville  Railroad,"  designed  as  an  exten- 
sion of  the  "Akron  Branch  Railroad."  The 
work  on  all  these  railroads  was  started  and 
carried  on  to  various  extents.  Much  of  the 
old  grading,  fills  and  culverts  may  yet  be 
seen  in  the  woods  and  pastures  near  Hudson. 
At  least  one  of  the  roads  was  nearly  half  com- 
pleted, when,  in  1856,  the  bubble  burst.  The 
dream  was  over,  but  the  lapse  from  conscious- 
ness had  cost  the  village  every  available  nickel 
in  it.  These  roads  remain  today  just  as  they 
were  left  when  work  stopped  in  1856.  As  a 
promoter.  Prof.  Day  was  a  very  great  failure. 
Besides  his  railroad  enterprises,  which  ended 
in  disaster,  might  be  mentioned  his  "Penta- 
gon" scheme  and  his  book-publishing  com- 
pany, both  of  which  were  wound  up  by  as- 

It  is  a  pleasure  to  turn  from  these  business 
failures  to  some  other  enterprises  which  were 
built  upon  a  more  substantial  ba=is  and  thus 
became  successes.  The  conspicuous  is 
the  immense  business  built  up  by  S.  Straight 
&  Co.,  established  in  1867.  '  Their  busi- 
ness was  the  manufacture  of  butter  and  cheese 
and  at  one  time  they  operated  fourteen  fac- 
tories. In  1870  E.  A.  0.sborne  erected  his 
butter-tub  and  cheese-box  factory.  Other 
mills   were   those  of  Era.«tus   Crov,   built  in 



1878;  E.  B.  Shields,  1890;  E.  J.  Tobdell;  the 
Oviatt  Manufacturing  Company,  in  1878,  and 
the  G.  H.  Grimm  Manufacturing  Company. 
Hudson's  mercantile  status  is  better  today, 
perhaps,  than  at  any  time  in  the  past.  The 
great  fire  of  a  few  years  ago,  which  wiped 
out  the  entire  western  portion  of  the  business 
part  of  town,  has  been  the  means  of  bring- 
ing about  a  great  change  for  the  better.  Fine 
brick  blocks  have  taken  the  place  of  the  an- 
tiquated frame  buildings  in  which  business 
was  formerly  done  and  merchants  have  filled 
these  modern  rooms  with  larger  stocks  of 
finer  goods.  The  Cleveland  Bank  failure, 
which  brought  so  much  loss  upon  Hudson 
merchants,  through  its  Hudson  branch,  has 
been  largely  forgotten.  After  the  fire  above 
mentioned,  Hudson  possessed  but  one  hotel, 
"The  Delta,"  located  near  the  depot,  the  old 
"Mansion  House,"  located  on  the  west  side  of 
Main  Street,  having  been  destroyed  in  that 
conflagration.  In  1907  a  fine,  new  hotel  was 
opened  up  in  the  old  Beebe  Mansion,  on  the 
north  side  of  the  square,  and  called  the  "Park 
Hotel."  Among  the  prominent  merchants  of 
the  past  and  present  should  be  mentioned 
Charles  H.  Buss,  Edwin  S.  Bentley,  John 
Whedon,  George  V.  Miller,  Dennis  J.  Joyce, 
R.  H.  Grimm,  Seba.stian  Miller,  James  A. 
Jacobs,  Henry  Wehner,  John  G.  Mead,  C.  A. 
Campbell,  C.  H.  Farwell,  J.  N.  Farrar,  P.  N. 
Shively,  J.  L.  Doncaster,  W.  M.  Beebe, 
Charles  Kilbourn  and  others. 

Hudson  village  was  incorporated  April  1, 
1837.  At  the  first  election,  held  that  year, 
Heman  Oviatt  was  chosen  mayor;  Lyman  W. 
Hall,  recorder;  Frederick  Baldwin]  Harvey 
Baldwin,  John  B.  Clark,  Jesse  Dickinson  and 
Daniel  C.  Gaylord,  trustees. 

Hudson  M'as  one  of  the  centers  of  anti-slav- 
ery sentiment  in  Ohio.  Like  Oberlin  and 
Tallmadge,  her  citizens  took  an  open  and 
active  part  in  attacking  the  great  evil  and 
arousing  public  opinion  against  it.  Many 
fugitive  slaves  found  an  asykmi  here.  When 
the  Civil  War  broke  out  Hudson  did  her  full 
duty  and  furnished  more  than  one  hundred 
and  fifty  men  for  the  Union  Armv.     Todav, 

nowhere  in  the  county  is  Memorial  Day  more 
reverently  celebrated. 

Hudson  Township  has  given  us  Judge  S.  H. 
Pitkin,  M.  C.  Read  and  W.  I.  Chamberlain. 

At  the  present  time  E.  E.  Rogers  is  town- 
ship clerk  and  also  justice  of  the  peace.  The 
census  of  1890  gave  Hudson  a  population  of 
1,143;  the  last  census  (1900)  showed  a  de- 
crease to  982. 


In  the  drawing  of  lands  of  the  Connecticut 
Land  Company  the  present  township  of 
Northampton  fell  to  W.  Billings,  David  King, 
Ebenezer  King,  Jr.,  F.  King,  John  Leavitt, 
Jr.,  0.  P.  Holden,  Luther  Loomis,  Joseph 
Pratt,  Timothy  Phelps,  Solomon  Stoddard 
and  Daniel  Wright.  It  was  first  settled  in 
1802  when  Simeon  Prior,  a  veteran  of  the 
Revolutionary  War,  brought  his  wife  and  ten 
children  overland  from  the  beautiful  village 
of  Northampton,  on  the  Connecticut  River,  in 
the  green  hills  of  Hampshire  Coimty,  Massa- 
chusetts. Other  early  settlers  were  Justus 
Remington,  David  Parker  and  Samuel  King. 
Later  came  Rial  McArihur,  David  Norton, 
Nathaniel  Hardy,  Sr.,  Daniel  Turner. 
Northampton  Township  was  very  slow  in  be- 
ing settled.  The  Indians  remained  here  lon- 
ger than  in  any  other  part  of  the  country.  It 
was  not  until  the  American  forces  began  to 
assemble  here  for  the  war  of  1812  that  the 
last  of  the  red  men  departed.  Many  of  their 
village  sites,  mounds,  etc.,  may  be  seen  at  the 
present  time.  Here  was  a  rendezvous  for  mili- 
tia during  the  second  war  with  England,  and 
three  vessels  of  Commodore  Perry's  fleet  were 
built  in  Northampton  and  floated  down  the 
Cuyahoga  to  Lake  Erie. 

in  1886  the  village  of  Niles,  at  the  mouth 
of  Yellow  Creek,  was  platted.  It  never  grew 
to  anything  more  substantial  than  a  vision  in 
the  minds  of  its  projectors,  Peter  Voris  and 
his  associates.  The  site  is  now  called  Botzum. 
Other  hamleis  are  Northampton  Center, 
Steele's  Corners,  McArthur's  Corners  and 
French's  Mill.  Northampton  did  far  more 
than   her  share  in    fumishins   men    for  the 






Union  Army  in  1861-65.  More  than  one 
hundred  and  forty  of  her  citizens  responded 
to  the  call  of  the  nation.  In  1907  W.  E.  Voss 
is  township  clerk,  and  P.  D.  Hardy  and  L.  A. 
Hart  are  justices  of  the  peace. 


Northfield  was  first  settled  in  April,  1807, 
when  Isaac  Bason  brought  his  family  from 
Massachusetts  and  built  a  log-house  for  them 
about  a  mile  and  one-half  from  the  present 
Town  Hall.  Other  early  settlers  were  Jere- 
miah Cranmer,  George  Wallace,  Orrin  Wil- 
cox and  William  Cranny.  The  township  was 
organized  May  24,  1819,  when  an  election 
was  held,  at  which  Jeremiah  Cranmer,  John 
Duncan  and  George  Wallace  were  elected 
trustee.? ;  Henry  Wood,  clerk ;  Watrous 
Mather,  treasurer;  and  Abraham  Cranmer 
and  Edward  Coyne,  constables.  In  1840  the 
township  had  a  population  of  1,041.  It  fur- 
nished more  than  one  hundred  and  twenty- 
five  men  to  the  Federal  Army  in  the  Rebel- 
lion. In  1907  M.  A.  Van  Horn  is  township 
clerk  and  0.  E.  Griswold  and  H.  A.  McCon- 
nell,  justices  of  the  peace.  Flourishing  cen- 
ters are  Northfield,  Little  York,  Macedonia 
and  Brandywine. 


Norton  township  was  originally  a  part  of 
Wolf  Creek  township,  but  was  organized  as  a 
separate  township  in  April,  1818.  It  was 
named  for  Birdsey  Norton,  one  of  its  Con- 
necticut proprietors.  It  was  first  settled  in 
1810  by  James  Robinson,  who  came  from 
New  York  and  built  a  cabin  for  himself  on 
Wolf  Creek.  Other  early  settlers  were  .John 
Cahow,  Abraham  Van  Hyning,  Henry  Van 
Hyning,  John  D.  Humphrey,  Charles  Lyon, 
P.  Kirkum,  Seth  Lucas,  Charles  Miller  and 
Nathan  Bates.  At  the  organization  in  April, 
1818,  the  following  officers  were  elected: 
Clerk,  Joseph  D.  Humphrey;  justice  of  the 
peace,  Henry  Van  Hyning,  Sr. ;  trustees, 
Charles  Lyon,  Abrahaim  Van  Hyning  and 
Ezra  Way;  .supervisors,  .John  Cahow,  Elisha 

Hin.sdale  and  Jo.seph  Holmes.  Norton  pos- 
sesses some  of  the  richest  land  in  the  county 
and  many  of  her  citizens  have  amassed  much 
wealth  from  agriculture  and  mining  of  coal. 
The  township  also  posse.-ses  some  of  the  most 
prosperous  hamlets,  like  Norton  Center,  West- 
ern Star,  Loyal  Oak,  Hometown,  Johnson's 
Corners,  Sherman  and  Dennison. 

It  is  also  fortunate  in  having  within  its 
limits  that  marv&l  of  the  closing  years  of  the 
nineteenth  century,  the  "Magic  City" — Bar- 
berton.  It  is  a  city  that  was  almost  literally 
built  in  a  day.  In  1890  its  site  was  a  typical 
Ohio  farm,  with  its  fertile  fields,  rich  mea- 
dows, stretches  of  woodland,  running  brooks, 
comfortable  farm-houses  and  huge  bank- 
barns.  In  its  center  was  a  little  pond  of  clear 
water,  fed  by  springs  in  its  bottom,  and  named 
"Davis  Lake."  Rolling  farm  lands  sur- 
rounded it  on  all  sides.  A  mile  or  two  to  the 
north  was  the  village  of  New  Portage,  a  sta- 
tion on  the  Erie  and  Cleveland,  Akron  and 
Columbus  Railroads,  a  port  on  the  Ohio 
Canal,  and  the  southern  terminus  of  the 
Portage  Path,  that  aboriginal  highway  which 
connected  the  northern  waters  of  the  State  of 
Ohio  with  the  southern.  Five  miles  further 
north  was  Akron,  then  a  city  of  27,000  peo- 
ple. In  one  short  year  all  this  was  changed 
as  though  a  magician's  wand  had  swept  over 
the  scene.  The  old  farms  were  platted  into 
city  lots,  .streets,  parks  and  factory  sites.  An 
army  of  men  .set  to  work,  leveling  the  land, 
removing  fences  and  grading,  and  curbing 
the  streets.  Hundreds  of  workingmen's  cot- 
tages were  commenced;  splendid  residences 
along  the  shady  boulevard  around  the  lake 
gradually  took  form ;  great  factory  buildings 
along  the  railroads  arose  day  by  day,  and  a 
belt  line  of  railroad  began  to  encircle  the 
town.  By  the  end  of  1891  there  was  a  popu- 
lation of  nearly  2,000  people  settled  on  the 
old  Coventry  farms  of  the  year  before.  The 
reader  should  bo  cautioned  that  this  was  not 
a  "boom"  town ;  that  its  growth  was  not  like 
the  mushroom  towns  of  the  western  mining 
regions;  that  the  buildings  were  not  tempo- 
rary structures  to  be  replaced  later  by  a  more 
substantial  construction.    Here  were  no  rough 



pine  store-buildingri,  no  tents,  no  "slab"  sa- 
loons or  groceries.  On  the  contrary,  severe 
building  restrictions  were  incorporated  in 
each  deed  of  land  and  were  strictly  enforced 
by  the  grantors.  The  residences  around  the 
lake  would  be  a  credit  to  any  oity.  The  store- 
buildings  were  mainly  of  brick  and  each  fac- 
tory building  was  of  the  most  modern  steel, 
brick  and  stone  construction.  Indeed,  the 
thing  which  imOvSt  impressed  the  visitor  in 
.those  early  days  was  the  substantial,  perma- 
nent character  of  all  he  saw  about  him.  Dur- 
ing that  first  year  the  construction  of  the 
magnificent  Barberton  Inn  was  commenced. 
No  city  in  Ohio  had  a  better  hotel  at  that 
time.  The  fine  railroad  station  and  the  Bank 
building  were  also  started.  In  a  few  months 
more  than  a  million  dollars  had  been  invested 
in  permanent  improvements.  The  old  farms 
had  disappeared  forever;  the  walls  of  Barber- 
ton  .had  arisen  to  endure  so  long  as  men  shall 
buy  and  sell. 

The  founder  of  Barberton  was  Ohio  Colum- 
bus Barber,  the  president  of  the  Diamond 
Match  Company,  the  American  Sewer-pipe 
Company  and  a  hundred  other  companies, 
and  the  boy  who,  in  the  fifties,  had  peddled 
matches  which  his  father  had  dipped  by  hand 
in  the  little  frame  building  in  Middlebury. 
Early  in  1890  he  a.ssociated  with  himself 
Charles  Baird,  John  K.  Robinson  and  Albert 
T.  Paige,  and  together  they  purchased  nearly 
1,000  acres  of  land.  Later  in  the  year  they 
sold  an  undivided  one-half  interest  in  their 
holdings  to  George  W.  Crouse,  Sr..  and  a 
Pittsburg  syndicate,  the  head  of  which  was 
M.  J.  Alexander.  In  May,  1891,  these  men 
organized  themselves  as  "the  Barberton  Land 
and  Improvement  Company,"  with  Mr.  Bar- 
ber as  its  president.  One-half  of  the  stock 
was  owned  and  held  by  the  four  men  first 
above  mentioned.  Their  first  endeavor  was  to 
bring  to  Barberton  as  many  manufacturing 
establishments  as  possible.  They  organized 
many  themselves.  By  1892  the  following  big 
-concerns  were  doing  business  in  the  new  city 
and  emploving  many  hundreds  of  workmen, 
namely:  The  National  Sewer  Pipe  Company, 
with  a  capital  invested  of  a  quarter  million 

of  dollars  and  employing  200  men ;  the  Amer- 
ican Strawboard  Company,  capital  $6,000,- 
000,  and  employing  200  men ;  the  Sterling 
Boiler  Company,  capital,  half  a  million,  work- 
force, 300 ;  Kirkum  Art  Tile  Company,  $300,- 
000,  500  employees;  Creedmoor  Cartridge 
Company,  $500,000,  men  employed,  200 ;  the 
American  Alumina  Company,  $500,000,  em- 
ployees, fifty ;  the  United  Salt  Company,  capi- 
tal one  million,  men  employed,  150.  Mr. 
Barber  was  made  president  of  all  these  compa- 
nies, as  well  as  of  the  Barberton  Belt  Line 
Railroad  Co.,  and  the  Barberton  Savings  Bank 
Company,  Avith  a  capital  of  $100,000.  The 
other  men  interested  with  him  were  elected 
directors  and  officers  in  nearly  all  these  com- 
panies. The  next  year  the  great  corporation, 
known  as  the  Diamond  Match  Company,  and 
which  had  its  principal  factory  in  Akron,  be- 
gan the  constmction  of  its  vast  factory  on  the 
line  of  the  Cleveland,  Akron  and  Columbus 
Railroad  just  south  of  the  station.  When 
completed,  the  entire  Akron  plant  was  moved 
to  Barberton  and  the  working  population  of 
the  town  was  thus  increased  by  nearly  a  thou- 
sand persons.  The  Creedmoor  Cartridge  Com- 
pany was  soon  absorbed  by  the  Cartridge  trust, 
to  the  great  profit  of  the  local  promoters,  and 
the  plant  dismantled.  The  buildings,  how- 
ever, did  not  long  remain  idle,  for  the  Alden 
Rubber  Company  was  later  organized  and  its 
business  grew  so  rapidly  that  large  additions 
to  the  original  buildings  were  soon  neces,sary. 
Before  the  end  of  the  decade  had  been  reached 
the  Columbia  Chemical  Company,  with  its 
millions  of  capital  and  its  hundreds  of  em- 
ployees, had  come  within  the  zone  of  Barber- 
ton's  activities.  Its  plant  covers  many  acres 
in  the  southern  part  of  the  town  and  it  has 
been  one  of  the  big  industrial  successes  of 
the  place.  About  the  same  time  the  Pitts- 
burgh Valve  and  Fittings  Company  was  added 
to  the  long  list  of  industries  successfully  doing 
business  in  Barberton.  So,  we  say,  advisedly, 
that  Barberton  will  endure  so  long  as  men  en- 
gage in  commerce.  Its  foundation  is  as  sub- 
stantial as  any  biLsiness  community  in  the 
world.  It  has  shown  a  remarkable  power  to 
rallv  from  reverses.     It  has  had  several  such. 



The  Kirkum  Art  Tile  Company  ceased  to  do 
business  after  its  large  plant  had  been  entirely 
wiped  out  by  fire.  The  Barberton  Pottery 
Company,  after  an  unsuccessful  career,  was 
finally  sold  in  bankruptcy  proceedings.  One 
of  Barberton's  two  banks  also  found  the 
stress  of  competition  too  severe  and  suc- 
cumbed. There  were  other  failures  which 
also  brought  great  losses  upon  Barberton  peo- 
ple, but  they  are  all  infinitesimal  in  compari- 
son with  the  colossal  successes  which  have 
been  won.  Barberton  today  is  a  splendid 
monument  to  American  energy  and  sagacity. 
The  census  of  1900  was  the  first  in  which 
the  name  of  Barberton  appeared.  The  total 
population  then  was  4,354.  Today  it  is  prob- 
ably in  the  neighborhood  of  7.000.  The  pres- 
ent officials  are:  Mayor,  James  McNamara; 
clerk,  George  Davis;  treasurer,  E.  A.  Miller; 
marshal,  David  Ferguson. 


Green  and  Franklin  are  the  southern  town- 
ships of  the  county,  and  originally  were  part 
of  Stark  County,  being  inhabited  by  the  de- 
scendants of  the  Germans  of  Pennsylvania,  or, 
as  they  are  familiarly  called,  "Pennsylvania 
Dutch."  Summit  County  is  made  up  of  four- 
teen townships  from  Portage,  and  Franklin 
and  Green  from  Stark,  the  formation  taking 
place  in  1840.  Vigorous  opposition  aro.?e  on 
the  part  of  Stark  to  this  separation,  both  be- 
cause of  natural  affection  for  the  parent 
Dutch  stock  and  on  account  of  the  geograph- 
ical location  of  the  new  county  seat  at  Sum- 
mit. At  the  time  it  was  said  that  the  Dutch 
and  Yankees  could  not  mix,  but,  like  all  idle 
assertions,  time  has  shown  the  absurdity  of 
that  remark. 

Franklin  is  noted  in  natural  features  for 
the  possession  of  numerous  small  lakes.  The 
Tuscarawas,  in  early  days  a  much  larger 
stream  than  at  present,  offered  a  water  supply 
apparently  unfailing,  and  Turkeyfoot  Lake 
seemed  to  hold  out  large  promise.  The  coal 
deposits  have  always  been  large,  and  during 
the  first  settlements  the  cranberry  crop  was  an 
unfailing  source  of  revenue,  great  quantities 

of  this  berry  being  sent  east.  The  peach 
crop  was  also  large,  and  from  this  a  compound 
known  as  peach  brandy  was  made,  and  thor- 
oughly tasted  before  shipment  abroad.  In 
1833  distilleries  were  established,  but  flour- 
ished for  a  comparatively  short  time.  The 
more  stable  product  of  lumber  enriched  the 
possessors  of  forest,  and  great  quantities  of  it 
were  shipped  up  to  Cleveland,  and  from 
thence  to  the  more  distant  Lake  ports. 

The  early  settlements  of  Franklin  were 
Cartersville  and  Savannah.  ■  The  -first  w^ 
named  for  a  Wheeling  quaker,  who  owned 
large  tracts  of  land  on  which  his  town  was  lo- 
cated. Inability  to  withstand  the  encroach- 
ments of  the  rivers  made  this  place  speedily 
uninhabitable,  and  shortly  after  its  founding, 
1806,  it  was  abandoned.  In  1816  David  Har- 
vey planted  and  planned  the  town  of  Savan- 
nah, but  after  a  struggle  of  ten  years,  this 
settlement  yielded  to  the  superior  merits  of 
Clinton.  The  latter  had  all  the  advantages  re- 
sulting from  proximity  to  the  canal.  Clin- 
ton was  originally  laid  out  in  1816,  and  from 
the  first  was  a  consistent  busine.-«  mart.  It 
became  the  center  of  business  for  several  ad- 
joining counties.  Large  storehouses  for  grain 
were  erected,  doctor.*',  lawyers  and  merchants 
settled  there,  and  the  increased  shipment  of 
coal  made  the  town  a  veritable  emporium. 
After  flourishing  till  about  1850,  Clinton  de- 
clined in  influence  and,  owing  to  the  en- 
croachment of  Akron  and  several  allied  towns, 
decreased  in  power  and  influence.  The  pass- 
ing of  the  railroad  beyond  its  borders  con- 
signed it  permanently  to  the  role  of  the  rural 
village.  The  town  of  Manchester  was  started 
in  1815,  and,  being  inland  in  location,  never 
rose  to  anything  like  the  business  gait  of  Clin- 
ton, but,  nevertheless,  has  had  a  steady,  sub- 
stantial  growth. 

The  township  organization  took  place  in 
1817.  Previous  to  that,  in  1811,  it,  with 
Green  and  Lake  and  Jackson,  Townships  of 
Stark,  had  had  one  set  of  officers.  In  matters 
of  education  and  religion  Franklin  has  been 
second  to  none.  While  it  is  somewhat  uncer- 
tain as  to  the  first  teacher,  yet  it  seems  that  a 
Mr.  Mishler  ha.«  that  honor.    Rev.  J.  W.  Ham- 



mond  was  the  first  preacher  and  varied  the 
hTiigaiage  of  his  sermons  according,  as  the 
majority  of  his  hearers  were  German  or  Eng- 
lish speaking.  The  township  has  an.  honor- 
able Civil  War  record,  and  was  very  active  in 
the  promotion  of  the  celebrated  "Underground 

At  the  present  time  Franklin  has  a  tax  val- 
uation on  all  its  property  of  over  a  million 
dollars  and  from  her  people  have  gone  forth 
men  who  have  served  with  fidelity  and  intel- 
ligence in  all  the  walks  of  life. 

The  township  has  given  to  public  life  Hon. 
Hugh  R.  Caldwell,  judge  of  common  pleas; 
Hon.  John  Hoy,  judge  of  common  pleas; 
Hon.  Jacob  A.  Kohler,  representative,  1883- 
85 ;  attorney  general  of  the  State  of  Ohio, 
1886-88,  and  judge  of  common  pleas,  1900- 


Green,  the  sister  township  of  Franklin,  has 
had  a  varied  experience.  In  the  first  place, 
her  Indian  history,  like  that  of  all  early  set- 
tlements, has  been  full  of  romance.  Turn  as 
we  may  from  time  to  time  to  the  old  stories, 
as  we  read  that  of  Green  the  thought  of  the 
sufferings  and  hardships  of  those  pioneers  in 
conflict  with  the  red  man  must  absorb  our  at- 
tention. What  battles  were  fought  there  we 
may  not  know,  but  from  time  to  time  great 
masses  of  flint  arrow-heads  have  been  turned 
up,  also  an  old  mass  of  stones  with  its  awful 
suggestion  of  am  altar  for  human  sacrifice — 
these  are  matters  that  divert  our  minds  from 
the  prosy  life  man  has  been  condemned  to 
live  with  only  work  as  a  mitigating  circum- 
stance. However  numerous  the  Indians  were, 
they  were  driven  out  .shortly  after  the  war  of 
1812,  supposedly  because  the  aborigines  sided 
with  the  British.  With  them  gone,  the 
"Dutch"  were  allowed  to  turn  their  energies 
to  the  cultivation  of  their  farms.  At  first 
there  was  some  promise  of  coal,  but  this  failed 
and  at  this  time  the  township  is  experiencing 
a  boom  from  clay  found  there,  which  is 
worked  up  in  tlie  village  of  Altman.  As  is 
often  the  case  there  is  some  question  as  to  who 

was  the  first  settler,  Ixit  the  consensus  of  opin- 
ion gives  that  honor  to  John  Kepler,  with 
others  claiming  that  it  was  either  William 
Triplett  or  John  Curzen. 

A  distdiuct  town.ship  organization  was  ef- 
fected in  1814,  and  in  1840  occurred  the  sep- 
aration from  Stark  County  with  the  promise 
that  there  should  be  no  tax  on  public  build- 
ings in  the  township  till  1890.  Probably  the 
nearest  Green  ever  came  to  a  boom  was  the 
event  surrounding  the  organization  and  up- 
building of  the  Seminary.  This  was  a  Meth- 
odist school,  startled  in  1854,  with  a  capital 
of  $2,000,  divided  into  share?  of  $50  each.  At 
one  time  .some  one  hundred  and  thirty  stu- 
dents attended  the  seminary  and  it  passed 
through  varioiis  stages  till  its  final  decline 
about  1875. 

The  towns  of  Green  are:  Greensburg, 
founded  in  1828  by  David  Baer;  East  Lib- 
erty, founded  in  1839  (as  might  be  expected 
these  towns  have  been  rivals  in  a  quiet  way, 
but  this  feeling  has  shown  itself  chiefly  in  po- 
litical contests)  ;  Myersville,  founded  about 
1876,  has  importance  chiefly  because  it  has 
railroad  facilities  and  has  shown  some  ele- 
inents  of  steady  and  vigorous  growth. 

George  W.  Grouse  was  reared  in  Green 
Township.  He  has  served  as  county  treas- 
urer. State  senator,  1885-87,  and  federal  rep- 
resentative, 1887-90. 


Richfield,  like  the  other  townships  of  the 
Western  Reserve,  became  the  separate  prop- 
erty of  individuals  upon  the  drawing  of  lands 
conducted  by  the  Connecticut  Land  Com- 
pany. It  was  settled  soon  after  by  families 
who  came  from  Connecticut  and  Massachu- 
setts.  The  first  settler  was  Launcelot  Mays, 
who  came  in  1809.  The  township  was  or- 
ganized in  April,  1816,  and  John  Bigelow 
was  elected  clerk;  Isaac  Welton.  treasurer; 
William  Jordan,  Daniel  Keys  and  Nathaniel 
0\Tatt,  trustees,  and  Isaac  Hopkins,  con- 
stable. The  population  then  was  in  excess  of 
L50.  In  1840,  it  had  grown  to  1,108.  In 
1818  a  Union  church  organization    was    ef- 



fected,  which,  in  a  few  years,  beoame  the 
First  Congregational  Church.  The  Metho- 
dists, Baptists  and  United  Brethren  also  or- 
ganized societies  verj-  early  in  the  history  of 
the  township  and  have  been  uniformly  pros- 
perous, thus  indicating  the  sound  basis  upon 
which  society  in  Richfield  is  built.  The  in- 
fluence of  Richfield  has  always  been  exerted 
in  behalf  of  the  personal  and  civic  virtues. 
Her  schools  are  among  the  best  in  the  coun- 
try. In  1836  the  Richfield  Academy  was 
opened  and  attracted  manj^  pupils  from  out- 
side the  township.  Some  of  its  graduates  aft- 
erwards acquired  a  national  fame.  It  after- 
wards became  the  East  High  School,  was 
burned  in  1887  and  replaced  by  a  fine  modern 
building.  There  is  also  a  brick  high  school 
building  at  the  West  Center.  Richfield  Cen- 
ter is  composed  of  two  parts — the  East  Cen- 
ter and  the  West  Center,  situated  about  a  mile 
apart.  Both  centei-s  had  a  hotel  and  a  post- 
office.  The  West  Center  has  now  a  fine  ho- 
tel which  is  the  equal  of  any  of  the  rural 
hotels  in  the  county.  Of  late  years  Richfield 
has  been  gaining  prestige  as  a  summer  re- 
sort, many  wealthy  Cleveland  families  coming 
here  to  spend  the  summer.  Owing  to  the  lack 
of  transportation  facilities,  Richfield  has 
never  had  any  manufacturing  industries.  Mr. 
H.  B.  Camp,  of  Akron,  is  now  (1907)  pro- 
moting a  railroad  from  Cleveland  to  Akron, 
which,  if  built,  will  pass  through  the  centers. 
In  mercantile  life,  however,  many  of  her 
citizens  have  been  successful.  Among  such 
may  be  mentioned  William  C.  Weld,  Everett 
Famam,  George  B.  Clarke,  Frank  R.  Brower, 
Henr>'  C.  Searles,  Baxter  H.  Wood.  The  ho- 
tels have  been  successful  in  the  hands  of  Lewis 
P.  Ella?  and  Fayette  Viall.  Other  village  en- 
terprises which  have  been  successfully  con- 
ducted, some  of  them  for  many  years,  owe 
their  success  to  John  Ault.  Peter  Allen,  Seth 
Dustin,  T.  E.  Elkworth,  Z.  R.  Townsend,  C. 
P.  Townsend,  S.  E.  Phelps,  Henry  Killifer, 
Michael  Heltz,  C.  F.  Rathburn,  Henry  Green- 
lese,  Percy  Dustin,  Samuel  Fauble,  George  L. 
Dustin,  Julius  C.  Chapman,  P.  Oarr  and 
E.  D.  Carr.  Mention  should  be  made  of  the 
tile    factory    built    by    Ralph    Farnam    and 

Berkly  S.  Braddock.  The  former  was  an  ex- 
pert in  ceramics,  and  a  large  factory  and  pot- 
tery was  built  upon  the  old  Farnam  farm 
about  1890.  About  the  same  time,  these  two 
gentlemen  equipped  the  finest  stock  farm  in 
Summit  County  for  the  raising  of  fine  horses 
and  cattle.  One  stallion  alone  cost  them 
$5,000.  The  tile  industry  proved  unremu- 
nerative,  owing  to  the  long  distance  from  a 
railroad.  Both  men  sunk  their  large  private 
fortunes  in  these  enterprises.  Ralph  Far- 
nam aftem-ards  went  to  New  Jersey  and  was 
very  successful  in  the  tile  business.  The  old 
farm  finally  pa.ssed  into  the  possession  of 
Charles  P.  Brush,  of  Cleveland.  Richfield 
gave  over  150  men  to  the  of  the  Union 
in  1861-65.  Two  men  of  national  fame  have 
gone  forth  from  Richfield  in  the  persons  of 
Russell  A.  Alger  and  Samuel  B.  Axtell.  The 
present  to-miship  clerk  is  R.  H.  Chapman  and 
0.  B.  Hinnian  is  justice  of  the  peace. 


Springfield  township  was  first  settled  in 
1806,  when  Ariel  Bradley  moved  from  Suf- 
field  to  what  is  now  the  village  of  ^logadore. 
Other  early  settlers  were  Thomas  Hale,  Ben- 
jamin Baldwin,  John  Hall,  James  Hall,  Na- 
than Moore,  Reuben  Tupper,  Abraham  De- 
Haven,  the  Ellet  family,  the  Norton  family, 
Patrick  Christy,  James  McKnight,  William 
Foster  et  alii.  The  township  was  organized 
in  April,  1808.  The  manufacturing  of  the 
township  is  all  in  the  pottery  line,  as  great 
beds  of  potter's  clay  are  found  here.  Coal  is 
also  mined.  Mogadore  is  the  principal  vil- 
lage. North  Springfield,  Brittain,  Thomas- 
town,  Millheim  and  Krumroy  are  also  flour- 
ishing hamlets.  Springfield  furnished  nearly 
150  men  to  the  Federal  armies  in  the  Ci\-il 
War.  At  the  present  time,  J.  Ira  Emmet  is 
township  clerk,  and  R.  C.  Gates,  Milo  White 
and  M.  S.  Mishler  are  justices  of  the  peace. 


Stow  Township  is  named  after  Joshua 
Stow,  the  original  proprietor  by  grant  from 
the  Connecticut  Land  Company.     The  first 



settler  in  this  township  was  William  Walker, 
who  in  1802,  came  from  Virginia.  He  was 
followed  in  1804  by  William  Wetmore,  who 
built  a  hoiise  at  what  is  now  called  "Stow 
Corners."  Other  pioneers  were  Gregory 
Powers,  John  Campbell,  John  Gaylord,  Adam 
Steele,  George  Darrow,  Erastus  Southmayd, 
James  Daily,  Isaac  Wilcox  and  David  Rug- 
gles.  The  township  was  organized  in  1808. 
It  is  now  best  known  as  the  location  of  Silver 
Lake,  a  summer  resort  which  is  spreading  its 
fame  country-wide.  Since  the  death  of  R.  H. 
Lodge,  his  family  have  wisely  continued  his 
policies,  under  which  great  prosperity  came 
upon  Silver  Near  by  are  two  other 
beautiful  lakes — Wyoga  and  Crystal  Lake. 
Stow  township  also  contains  Monroe  Falls, 
a  village  on  the  Cuyahoga  River  a  few 
miles  above  Cuyahoga  Falls.  This  vil- 
lage was  founded  in  1836  by  Edmond 
Monroe,  a  wealthy  capitalist  of  Boston,  Mass. 
A  number  of  mills  had  been  erected  there 
to  make  use  of  the  water-power  afforded  by 
the  falls  in  the  river.  Up  to  the  advent  of 
the  Monroes  it  had  been  called  Florence.  Mr. 
Monroe  organized  the  "Monroe  Falls  Manu- 
facturing Company,"  and  built  a  large  store, 
many  residences  and  the  mill  which  is  now 
used  for  the  manufacture  of  paper.  The 
township  furnished  104  men  to  the  country 
when  our  national  life  was  threatened  in  1861. 
W.  Nickerson  is  now  township  clerk  and  Noel 
Beckley  and  W.  R.  Lodge  are  justices  of  the 


The  first  settlement  of  Twinshurg  Town- 
ship was  made  in  April,  1817,  and  the  honor 
of  being  the  first  settler  belongs  to  Ethan 
Ailing,  who  was  then  a  mere  boy  of  17  years, 
sent  on  by  his  father  to  prepare  for  the  later 

coming  of  the  Ailing  family.  Moses  Wil- 
cox and  Aaron  Wilcox,  twin  brothers,  were 
ako  among  the  very  earliest  settlers.  They 
were  also  among  the  original  proprietors,  as 
was  Isaac  Mills,  who  gave  the  township  its 
first  name  "Millsville."  The  Wilcox  twins 
afterwards  persuaded  the  settlers  to  let  them 
name  the  township,  which  they  did,  calling 
it  Twinshurg  in  honor  of  their  relationship. 
The  township  was  organized  in  April,  1819. 
The  first  officials  were  Frederick  Stanley, 
Lewis  Ailing,  Luman  Lane,  Samuel  Vail, 
Elisha  Loomis  and  Elijah  Bronson.  Ethan 
Ailing  died  in  1867,  and  by  his  will  left  eight 
shares  of  the  stock  of  the  Big  Four  Railroad 
Company  to  the  mayor  of  the  city  of  Akron 
for  the  purpose  of  having  the  dividends,  de- 
clared thereon,  being  used  to  buy  clothing,  so 
that  destitute  children  might  be  enabled  to 
attend  Sunday-school.  These  dividends  are 
being  used  for  this  purpose  at  the  present 
day,  being  turned  over  to  the  city  poor  direc- 
tor by  the  mayor  upon  their  receipt.  As 
early  as  1822  both  the  Methodists  and  Con- 
gregationalists  organized  churches  in  Twins- 
burg.  The  latter  built  a  church  in  1823  and 
the  present  one  in  1848.  The  Methodists 
built  churches  in  1832  and  1848.  The  Bap- 
tists organized  in  1832  and  built  a  church  in 
1841.  In  1843  "The  Twinsburg  Institute" 
was  opened  by  Samuel  Bissell,  which  was  one 
of  the  most  successful  educational  institu- 
tions in  the  county.  The  beautiful  soldiers' 
monument  on  the  Public  Square  was  dedi- 
cated July  4,  1867.  One  hundred  and  twenty- 
eight  men  of  Twinsburg  went  to  the  front 
during  the  Civil  AVar.  From  1856  to  1870 
"The  Twinsburg  Fair"  was  one  of  the  great 
features  of  agricultural  life  in  this  vicinity. 
At  the  present  time,  E.  J.  McCreery  is  town- 
.ship  clerk,  and  A.  J.  Brown  and  Isaac  Jayne 
are  justices  of  the  peace. 



AKROX    CITY    Ill)^^PlTAL. 

The  City  Hospital  of  Akron  had  its  incep- 
tion in  the  fund  left  by  an  early  French 
resident  of  Akron,  Boniface  De  Roo,  many 
years  ago.  This  fund,  which  represented  the 
lifetime  savings  of  a  frugal  hard-working 
man,  amounted  to  $10,000.  The  first  building 
used  was  the  old  frame  house  at  the  corner 
of  Bowery  and  Center  streets.  Here  a  num- 
ber of  patients  were  cared  for,  but  the  place 
was  palpably  too  old  and  behind  the  times, 
so  it  was  given  up  and  the  city  got  along 
for  a  number  of  years  longer  without  hospital 
facilities,  the  trustees  holding  the  fund  until 
such  time  as  the  sentiment  in  favor  of  estab- 
lishing a  permanent  hospital  should  take 

In  April,  1892,  the  City  Hospital  Associa- 
tion was  formally  organized,  with  T.  W.  Cor- 
nell, president;  0.  C.  Barber,  vice  president; 
Henry  Perkins,  secretary,  and  William  Mc- 
Farlin,  treasurer.  Twelve  trustees  were  chosen 
from  the  Hospital  Association.  The  De  Roo 
fund,  $10,000  contributed  by  T.  W.  Cornell, 
and  a  like  sum  by  0.  C.  Barber,  were  used 
to  purchase  the  Bartges  homestead  on  East 
Market  for  hospital  purposes.  After  some 
improvements  the  building  was  opened  as 
the  City  Hospital  of  Akron  on  October  18, 
1892.  Before  many  years  this  building  be- 
came constantly  overcrowded,  and  0.  C.  Bar- 
ber announced  that  he  would  see  that  a 
larger  one  was  built.  With  the  completion  of 
this  new  building  and  its  opening  on  -Tune  5, 
1904,  Mr.  Barber  has  invested  nearly  one 
quarter  of  a  million  of  dollars,  and  the  city 
of  Akron  has  a  hospital  equipment  second 
to  none.  Modern  operating  rooms  and  nurs- 
ing facilities,  with  the  best  of  everything  in 

its  line,  have  been  secured.  The  training 
school  for  nurses  was  opened  in  1897  with 
a  class  of  two,  and  has  been  constantly  in- 
creasing in  number  of  students  and  efficiency 
since  that  time,  graduating  eight  in  May, 
1907.  June  27,  1906,  the  first  resident  phy- 
sician or  interne  was  engaged,  and  his  pres- 
ence proved  so  helpful  that  another  was  se- 
cured May  1,  1907.  The  internes  serve  for 
eighteen  months  without  pay,  their  compen- 
sation coming  from  their  experience  gained 
during  residence  in  the  institution. 

The  officers  of  the  new  institution  are  as 
follows:  President,  0.  C.  Barber;  vice  presi- 
dent, George  T.  Perkins;  treasurer,  Harry  J. 
Blackburn ;  recording  secretary,  Alexander 
H.  Commins;  president  of  the  Auxiliary 
Board,  H.  M.  Houser;  superintendent,  Marie 
Anna  Lawson. 

The  Board  of  Trustees:  0.  C.  Barber, 
George  T.  Perkins,  M.  O'Neil,  H.  B.  Camp, 
C.  B.  Ravmond,  J.  A.  Kohler,  George  W. 
Grouse,  C.  E.  Sheldon,  I.  C.  Alden,  P.  E. 
Werner,  A.  H.  Marks,  C.  C.  Goodrich,  C.  C. 
Benner,  William  A.  Palmer. 

Junior  Board  of  Trustees:  George  W. 
Grouse,  jr.,  Tom  A.  Palmer,  L.  C.  Miles,  A. 
H.  Commins,  W.  B.  Baldwin,  E.  E.  Andrews, 
H.  M.  Houser,  E.  S.  Harter,  H.  H.  Camp, 
C.  H.  Isbell,  B.  N.  Robinson,  George  C.  Koh- 
ler, Karl  Kendig,  Alvin  V.  Baird. 

Officers  of  Staff:  President,  Dr.  H.  H.  Ja- 
cobs; vice  president,  Dr.  William  Murdoch; 
secretary.  Dr.  J.  N.  Weller. 

Hospital  Staff:  Consulting  surgeons,  Dr.  C. 
W.  Millikin,  Dr.  L.  S.  Ebright;  consulting 
physicians.  Dr.  J.  P.  Boyd,  Dr.  William  Mur- 
doch, Dr.  L.  S.  Sweitzer,  Dr.  0.  S.  Childs, 
Dr.  F.  C.  Reed. 



Visiting  Surgeons,  Dr.  J.  W.  Rabe,  Dr.  F. 
C.  Pai-ks,  Dr.  A.  F.  Sippy,  Dr.  D.  E.  Cranz, 
Dr.  G.  F.  Rankin,  Dr.  L.  C.  Eberhard. 

Visiting  Physicians,  Dr.  E.  S.  Underwood, 
Dr.  E.  J.  Canffield,  Dr.  H.  D.  Todd,  Dr.  J. 
H.  Seller,  Dr.  W.  S.  Chase,  Dr.  A.  A. 

Assistant  Surgeons,  Dr.  G.  W.  Stauffer,  Dr. 
J.  H.  Hulse,  Dr.  J.  H.  Weber,  Dr.  E.  S. 

Gynecologists  and  Obstetricians,  Dr.  I.  C. 
Rankin,  Dr.  H.  H.  Jacobs. 

Assistant  Obstetrician,  Dr.  A.  W.  Jones. 
Consulting  Oculist,  Dr.  A.  E.  Foltz. 
Oculists,  Dr.  J.  G.  Grant,  Dr.  M.  D.  Steven- 

Ear,  Nose  and  Throat,  Dr.  T.  K.  Moore, 
Dr.  E.  L.  Mather. 

Anaesthetist,  Dr.  J.   N.  Weller. 
Neurologist,  Dr.  W.  W.  Leonard. 
Pathologist,  Dr.  L.  C.  Eberhard. 
Bacteriologist,  Dr.  C.  E.   Held, 
Ladies'  Auxiliary  Board:     Mi-s.  W.  C.  Ja- 
cobs, president;  Mre.  William  Murdoch,  first 
vice  president;  Mrs.  Ira  Miller,  second  vice 
president;    Mrs.    T.    C.    Raynolds,   secretary; 
Mrs.  C.  H.  Palmer,  treasurer. 

Members:  ]\Irs.  W.  B.  Raymond,  Mrs.  R. 
L.  Ganter,  Mrs.  F.  H.  Ma.son,  Mrs.  G.  W. 
Plumer,  Mrs.  H.  J.  Shuffler,  Mrs.  L.  M.  Wolf, 
Mrs.  Ira  Miller,  Mrs.  F.  H.  Adams,  Mrs.  John 
Greer,  Mrs.  M.  O'Neil,  Mi-s.  William  Mur- 
doch, Mrs.  H.  M.  Smith,  Mrs.  G.  G.  Allen, 
Mrs.  S.  N.  Watson,  Mrs.  J.  M.  Beck,  Mrs.  C. 
H.  Palmer,  Miss  Dorothy  Work,  Mrs.  R.  P. 
Marvice,  Mrs.  C.  I.  Bruner,  Mrs.  E.  S.  Under- 
wood, Mrs.  Albert  Roach,  Mrs.  I.  C.  Alden, 
Mrs.  H.  K.  Raymond,  Mrs.  G.  W.  Grouse, 
jr.,  Mrs.  C.  L.  Brown,  Mrs.  I.  C.  Rankin, 
Mrs.  R.  H.  Kent,  Mrs.  T.  C.  Raynolds,  Mrs. 
E.  W.  Barton,  Mrs.  W.  C.  Jacobs,  Mrs.  Louis 
Loeb,  Mrs.  J.  H.  Greenwood,  Mrs.  F.  H. 
Smith,  Miss  Emma  Whitmore. 


In  the  early  days  of  the  county  the  poor 
and  indigent  were  cared  for  by  action  of  the 
trustees  of  the  various  town.ships.     The  meth- 

ods varied  much  in  different  townships  and 
the  system  was  far  from  satisfactory.  The 
usual  way  was  to  "let  out"  the  keeping  of 
the  unfortunate  citizens  to  the  lowest  bidder. 
This  was  a  shiftless  and  lazy  way  of  dispos- 
ing of  the  burden,  and  remains  a  great  re- 
proach to  those  unworthy  trustees  who  were 
guilty  of  such  a  breach  of  trust.  The  con- 
tractor was  bound  to  get  as  much  out  of  his 
contract  as  possible,  and  the  only  way  to 
accomplish  this  was  to  do  as  little  for  the 
pauper  as  possible.  In  the  great  majority  of 
cases  all  that  was  done  was  just  sufficient  to 
keep  the  soul  in  its  wretched  body.  The 
first  poorhouse  was  built  in  the  forties,  and 
was  a  rough  affair,  situated  in  South  Akron, 
between  Main  Street  and  the  present  Brew- 
ster switch.  In  1849,  the  old  regime,  with 
its  neglect  and  cruelty,  came  to  an  end.  The 
county  commissioners,  acting  under  an  Ohio 
statute,  purchased  150  acres  of  land  about 
two  miles  west  of  How^ard  Street,  and  lying 
between  Market,  Exchange  and  Maple 
(Streets,  extended.  In  the  summer  of  that 
year  $2,000  was  expended  in  adding  a  two- 
story  frame  building  to  the  other  buildings 
upon  the  land.  This  was  the  beginning  of 
our  fine  County  Infirmary  of  today.  In  1856, 
and  again  in  1879,  additional  land  was  pur- 
chased, until  today  the  county  farm  embraces 
a  tract  of  nearly  225  acres.  In  1864,  the 
legislature  authorized  the  expenditure  of 
$16,000  for  the  erection  of  the  brick  main 
building.  By  utilizing  the  labor  of  the  in- 
mates and  burning  the  brick  from  clay  found 
on  the  farm,  and  using  strict  economy,  a 
much  finer  building  was  built  than  was  orig- 
inally contemplated.  Large  additions  were 
made  to  this  main  building  in  1875,  1880 
and  1887,  and  many  smaller  additions  since 
1890.  Today  there  is  no  better  county  farm 
or  poorhouse  in  Ohio  than  the  Summit 
County  Infirmary.  The  infirmary  directors 
are  chosen  by  the  people  at  the  time  of  the 
State  election.  The  present  efficient  officers 
are  Z.  F.  Chamberlain,  of  Macedonia;  J.  M. 
Johnston,  of  Fairlawn,  and  W.  E.  Waters,  of 
Akron.     The  present  superintendent  is  S.  B. 




Stotler,  who  has  been  in  the  office  for  many 
yeare  and  has  rendered  its  difficult  duties  to 
the  entire  satisfaction  of  the  citizens. 


In  August,  1882,  the  Summit  County  com- 
missioners purchased  of  George  Allison,  of 
Tallmadge,  a  farm  near  Bette's  Corners,  con- 
sisting of  140  acres  of  land,  for  $15,000. 
Upon  this  tract  it  was  their  purpose  to  estab- 
lish a  home  for  orphan  children,  and  such 
others  under  sixteen  years  of  age  as  should 
be  in  need  of  county  care.  ■  A  strong  senti- 
ment began  to  set  in  against  this  action  of 
the  commissioners,  it  being  felt  that  so  large 
a  tract  was  not  needed  and  that  the  location 
should  be  nearer  to  Akron.  The  commission- 
ers accordingly  suspended  improvement  oper- 
ations, and  in  November,  1885,  leased  the 
brick  boarding-houses  on  Broadway,  nearly 
opposite  the  court-house,  which  was  demol- 
ished in  1906.  when  George  Crisp  &  Son  built 
their  large  .storage  building  upon  the  site. 
Finally,  in  1889,  the  commi.ssioners,  having 
sold  parcels  from'  the  Allison  farm  and  se- 
cured legislative  permission,  bought  the  old 
Jewett  homestead,  on  South  Arlington  Street, 
in  the  extreme  southeast  corner  of  the  city. 
The  property  now  embraces  nearly  seven 
acres  of  land,  and  the  old  building  has  been 
entirely  remodeled  and  thoroughly  adapted 
to  its  new  uses.  The  growth  of  the  city  and 
county,  however,  have  left  the  original  plat 
far  in  the  rear,  and  steps  should  be  taken  at 
once  for  the  erection  of  a  modern,  brick  and 
steel,  fireproof  structure  for  a  children's 
home.  The  county  ha.>  provided  a  stone  pal- 
ace for  the  county  criminals  (the  new  jail  is 
all  that)  ;  why  should  it  not  do  as  much  for 
its  little  children?  It  has  been  pointed  out 
many  times  that  the  present  building  is  a 
perfect  firetrap.  If  any  taxpayer  begrudge.-? 
the  amount  necessary  to  care  for  these  inno- 
cent children  in  a  proper  way,  he  is  not  a 
worthy  member  of  this  Western  Reserve  com- 


One  of  the  splendid  chai-itable  works  ac- 
complished in  Akron  was  the  founding  and 
maintenance  of  a  nursery  where  children 
might  be  kept  during  the  day,  thus  enabling 
mothers  to  undertake  work  outside  the  home. 
To  the  "King's  Daughters"  belongs  the  credit 
of  perceiving  and  adequately  meeting  this 
need.  In  1890,  these  young  ladies  organized 
the  Akron  Day  Nursery,  and  first  occupied 
rooms  in  the  Union  Charity  Association 
Building,  on  South  High  Street,  where  the 
Y.  W.  C.  A.  Building  now  is.  A  year  later 
Colonel  George-  T.  Perkins  presented  the 
young  ladies  with  a  house  and  lot  on  South 
High  Street  near  Buchtel  Avenue,  and  the 
dissociation  became  incorporated.  The  name 
was  then  changed  to  "Mary  Day  Nursery," 
in  honor  of  Mary  Raymond,  Colonel  Perkins' 
first  grandchild.  A  few  years  later  the  munifi- 
cence of  Colonel  Perkins  was  again  expe- 
rienced and  the  association  had  the  extreme 
pleasure  of  accepting  from  his  hands  the 
splendid  building  on  the  northeast  corner  of 
Broadway  and  Buchtel  Avenue.  It  is  splen- 
didly equipped  for  nursery  and  kindergarten 
purposes  and  will  meet  the  needs  of  the  city 
in  these  respects  for  many  years  to  come. 


This  society  wa.s  incorporated  in  1889  for 
the  purpose  of  relieving  destitution  and  pre- 
venting indiscriminate  alm.s-gdving.  It  is 
the  clearing-house  for  Akron's  charities.  It 
was  founded  by  the  union  of  the  Akron 
Board  of  Charities  and  the  Women's  Benevo- 
lent Association.  It  purchased  a  frame  dwell- 
ing-house on  High  Street  near  the  corner  of 
Market,  the  site  of  the  present  Young 
Women's  Christian  A.sosciation  Building.  In 
1903,  it  erected  the  fine  brick  building  called 
"Grace,"  the  money  for  which  was 
contributed  almost  entirely  by  Colonel  George 
T.  Perkins.  As  the  work  of  the  association 
has  fallen  more  and  more  to  the  lot  of  the 
Young  Women's  and  Young  Men's  Christian 
A.ssociations,  it  was  found  advisable,  in  1906. 



to  give  up  Grace  House,  and,  accordingly, 
it  was  turned  over  to  the  Young  Women'.^ 
Christian  Association.  The  latter  remodeled 
and  enlarged  the  building  at  an  expense  of 
$15,000,  and  today  it  enjoys  one  of  the  finest 
association  buildings  in  the  State.  The  asso- 
ciation has  moved  three  times,  originally 
occupying  the  basement  rooms  in  an  apart- 
ment house  on  the  east  side  of  South  High 
Street,  between  Mill  and  Quarry  Streets ; 
thence  moving  into  the  entire  third  story  of 
the  Wilcox  Building  on  South  Main  Street, 
where  for  two  years,  1905-1907,  it  success- 
fully conducted  its  splendid  work  among  the 
young  women  of  Akron.  In  April,  1907,  it 
moved  into  the  new  building  on  South  High 

The  present  secretary  of  the  Young  Men'."? 
Christian  Association  has  announced  that 
that  organization  is  in  no  sense  a  charitable 
one.  However,  in  giving  their  money  to  es- 
tablish it,  the  citizens  of  Akron  understood 
that  it  was  to  be  devoted  to  charitable  ends. 
At  the  present  time  the  color  line  is  strictly 
drawn,  and  only  white  men  of  a  certain  social 
grade  and  upwards,  are  welcomed  at  the  club- 
house. The  Young  Men's  Christian  Associa- 
tion is  the  result  of  a  movement  on  behalf  of 
boys  and  A'oung  men,  started  by  the  mayor 
of  Akron  in  1902.  Actively  assisted  by  Sam- 
uel P.  Orth,  he  interested  a  number  of  influ- 
ential citizens  in  behalf  of  a  Boy's  Club.  Mr. 
Orth  was  at  that  time  a  professor  in  Buchtel 
College.  The  idea  was  to  get  boys  without 
regard  to  color,  race,  habits  or  social  stand- 
ing, in  from  the  streets.  After  the  move- 
ment had  progressed  considerably  it  seemed 
best  to  a  majority  of  those  interested  in  it 
to  turn  the  whole  project  over  to  the  Ohio 
Young  Men's  Christian  Association  and  make 
use  of  their  organization.  No  one  doubted 
that  the  original  objects  of  the  promoters 
would  be  carried  out  by  the  latter  association. 
In  this  they  were  mistaken.  In  1903,  work 
was  commenced  on  a  fine  building  on  South 
Main  Street  at  the  southeast  corner  of  Main 
and  State  Streets,  the  site  having  been  pur- 
chased by  the  association.  Early  in  1906  it 
was  ready  for  occupancy.     It  is  a  splendid 

structure  for  the  purpose,  and  consists  of  gym- 
nasium, dining-rooms,  baths,  dormitories,  au- 
ditorium and  reception  and  social  rooms. 
Since  the  building  has  been  opened  and  its 
restricted  character  announced,  no  little  regret 
has  been  expressed  that  the  purpose  of  its 
early  promoters  was  not  persisted  in,  the 
Young  Men's  Christian  Association  has  never 
been  a  success  in  Akron,  two  former  asso- 
ciations having  gone  to  the  wall  after  more 
or  less  checkered  careers. 


The  Akron  Public  Library  is  the  outgrowth 
of  an  earlier  organization.  The  Akron  Li- 
brary Association,  this  in  turn  having  its 
rootage  in  the  Akron  Lecture  Association. 
Through  a  series  of  lectures  which  continued 
for  many  years,  through  membership  fees 
and  generous  donations,  the  Akron  Library 
Association  grew  vigorously.  In  1873,  the 
library  had  assumed  such  proportions  that  it 
required  more  care  than  the  association  felt 
inclined  to  give,  and  it  was  offered  to  the 
city,  with  the  stipulation  that  it  receive  proper 
support.  The  propo.sition  was  duly  consid- 
ered and  accepted  in  January,  1874.  The 
library  began  its  career  as  a  public  one  in 
March  of  the  same  year.  The  city  bought 
three  rooms  on  the  second  floor  of  the  Ma- 
sonic Block,  and  the  library  occupied  these 
until  October,  1898.  The  growth  during 
some  twenty  odd  years  made  another  move 
necessary,  and,  in  1898,  the  second  floor  of 
the  Everett  Building,  then  in  process  of  con- 
struction, was  reserved  for  the  library.  Prom 
these  bright  comfortable  rooms  it  moved  on 
April  23,  1904,  into  its  permanent  home,  the 
building  given  by  Mr.  Carnegie.  The  library 
opened  to  the  public  August  1,  1904. 

The  library  now  numbers  16,046  volumes 
for  circulation,  and  7,580  volume*  of  refer- 
ence and  government  reports — 23,626  vol- 
umes in  all.  Aside  from  the  main  library,  it 
reaches  the  public  through  eight  stations  for 
book  exchange.  The  reading  room  has  a 
large  and  attractive  list  of  magazines  and 
papers,  and  is  always  well  patronized.     From 



the  beginning  the  library  has  been  an  active 
and  vigorous  force  in  the  community. 

Librarians  of  Akron  Public  Library— 
T.  A.  Noble  to  1875;  Horton  Wright,  1875- 
1882;  J.  A.  Beebe,  1882-1889;  Miss  M.  P. 
Edgerton,  1889  to  present  year   (1907). 

Assistants — Miss  Mary  Vosburg  and  Mias 
Anna  M.  Krummer  to  1875 ;  Miss  Bessie  Wil- 
lis, 1875-1885;  Miss  M.  P.  Edgerton,  1885- 
1889;  Mrs.  J.  M.  Proehl,  1889  to  present; 
Miss  Clara  B.  Rose,  1895-1901;  Miss  Maud 
Herndon,  1901  to  present ;  Miss  Grace  M.  Mit- 
chell, 1903-1907 ;  Miss  Euphemia  MacRitchie 
(cataloguer),  1903-1905;  Miss  Rena  B.  Find- 
ley,  1907 ;  Miss  Ella  C.  Tobin,  1907. 

Directors  of  Library  Association  to  1874 — 
D.  L.  King,  J.  S.  Lane,  J.  H.  Pitkin,  I.  P. 
Hole,  C.  P.  Ashmun,  G.  T.  Perkins,  N.  D. 
Tibbals,  E.  P.  Green,  Ferdinand  Schu- 
macher, J.  H.  Peterson,  Thomas  Rhodes, 
R.  L.  Collett,  J.  A.  Long,  B.  S.  Chase,  Sid- 
ney Edgerton,  John  Wolf,  J.  H.  Hower,  W. 
C.  Jacobs,  J.  R.  Buohtel. 

Directors  of  Library  Since  Its  Organization 

as  a  Public  Library — J.  R.  Buchtel,  J.  P. 
Alexander,  M.  W.  Henry,  E.  P.  Green,  G.  T. 
Ford,  W.  L.  King,  C.  A.  Collins,  Adams 
Emerson,  Mason  Chapman,  N.  A.  Carter,  L. 
Miller,  T.  E.  Monroe,  F.  M.  Atterholt,  C.  W. 
Bonstedt,  C.  P.  Humphrey,  0.  L.  Sadler,  R. 
P.  Burnett,  C.  R.  Grant,  Elias  Fraunfelter, 
A.  H.  Noah,  Louis  Seybold,  G.  D.  Seward, 
C.  S.  Hart,  P.  E.  Werner,  W.  T.  Allen,  H. 
K.  Sander,  A.  H.  Noah,  M.  J.  Hoynes,  John 
Memmer,  W.  B.  Cannon,  H.  C.  Corson,  F.  W. 
Rockwell,  W.  T.  Tobin,  F.  C.  Bryan,  C.  P. 
Humphrey,  W.  T.  Vaughan,  J.  C.  Frank, 
G.  W.  Rogers,  J.  W.  Kelley,  A.  J.  Tidyman, 
T.  J.  Mumford,  W.  J.  Doran,  H.  A.  Kraft. 

Board  of  Directors  (1907)— President,  W. 
T.  Vaughan;  secretary,  G.  D.  Seward;  John 
C.  Frank,  Rev.  G.  P.  Atwater,  Dr.  M.  V.  Hal- 
ter, Henry  A.  Kraft. 

Library  Staff  (1907)— Miss  M.  P.  Edger- 
ton, Librarian;  Mrs.  J.  M.  Proehl,  Miss  Maud 
Herndon,  Miss  Rena  B.  Findley  and  Miss 
Ella  Tobin,  assistants;  James  C.  Gillen,  cus- 



By  far  the  oldest  of  the  agricultural  or- 
ganizations of  various  kinds  in  Summit 
County  is  the  Summit  County  Agricultural 
Society,  under  the  auspices  of  which  the  an- 
nual autumn  fair  is  held.  This  society  has 
had  an  uninterrupted  existence  since  about 
1841.  There  is  now  no  way  of  determining 
the  exact  date  of  its  organization,  as  the 
early  records  have  all  been  destroyed.  The 
rather  uncertain  recollection  of  persons  who 
came  to  Akron  in  1840  is  to  the  effect  that 
a  show  of  agricultural  produce  was  held  an- 
nually commencing  within  a  year  or  two  after 
that  dat€.  The  first  mention  made  of  any 
such  society  in  the  local  papers  of  the  time 
which  have  survived  to  us  occurs  in  1844. 
In  May  of  that  year  a  notice  was  published, 
calling  a  meeting  of  the  executive  committee 
for  the  purpose  of  adopting  rules,  under 
which  the  annual  fair  was  to  be  conducted. 

Subsequently,  the  State  of  Ohio  had  passed 
certain  acts  for  the  encouragement  of  agri- 
cultural societies.  By  the  terms  of  one  of 
them,  any  such  society  organized  in  Summit 
County  and  holding  an  annual  fair  might 
draw  $137.50  from  the  public  treasury,  each 
year,  to  be  applied  toward  defraying  the  ex- 
penses of  the  society.  This  was  not  a  large 
sura  and  would  not  go  far  in  meeting  the  ex- 
penses of  a  very  modest  fair;  but  the  results 
of  the  offer  in  many  of  the  counties  of  Ohio 
deinonstrated  the  wisdom  of  the  legislature. 
The  thrift  of  the  Summit  County  farmer  is 
proverbial.  As  might  be  expected,  the  offer 
of  the  State  was  soon  accepted. 

It  is  probable  that  the  affairs  of  the  early 
society  had  not  moved  forward  without  inter- 
ruption ;   it  may  even  have  ceased  to  exist. 

At  any  rate,  in  October,  1849,  the  auditor 
of  the  county  issued  a  call  for  a  public  meet- 
ing of  all  those  who  would  be  interested  in 
the  formation  of  a  society  of  agriculture.  In 
pursuance  of  this  call,  a  public  meeting  was 
held  in  the  new  court  house  on  the  eleventh 
day  of  November,  1849.  The  meeting  or- 
ganized by  electing  officers  and  appointing  a 
committee  of  five  farmers,  representing  differ- 
ent portions  of  the  county,  to  prepare  a  suit- 
able constitution  and  code  of  by-laws  for  the 
governing  of  the  organization.  Before  the 
meeting  adjourned,  the  society  had  secured 
seventy  members  from  among  those  who  had 
attended.  The  name  of  the  old  society,  The 
Summit  County  Agricultural  Society,  was 
adopted  as  the  name  of  the  organization. 
Perhaps  it  is  error  to  speak  of  the  "old  so- 
ciety," for  it  may  not  have  ceased  to  exist. 
However,  the  real  history  of  the  society,  as  we 
know  it,  begin.s  with  this  meeting  held  in 
the  autumn  of  1849.  If  the  old  society  was 
maintaining  an  uncertain  existence,  it  was 
put  firmly  on  its  feet  by  this  public  meeting. 
That  call  to  action  aroused  a  strong  public 
sentiment  which  has  been  a  potent  factor 
ever  since.  The  ultimate  result  has  been  to 
make  the  Summit  County  society  the  strong- 
est one  in  the  State,  and  the  Summit  County 
Fair  one  of  the  most  important  held  any- 
where in  the  Middle  West. 

On  November  18,  1849,  the  a-ssociation 
held  another  meeting  at  the  court  house,  at 
which  time  a  constitution  and  by-laws  were 
adopted  and  permanent  officers  elected.  This 
was  the  first  board  of  officials  of  which  we 
have  any  record.  Colonel  Simon  Perkins 
was   elected   president;   William   H.    Dewey, 



treasurer;  William  A.  Hanford,  of  Tall- 
madge,  secretary,  and  John  Hoy,  of  Frank- 
lin; Sylvester  H.  Thompson,  of  Hudson, 
Avery  Spicer,  of  Coventry;  James  W.  Weld, 
of  Richfield,  and  Philo  C.  Stone  were  elected 
as  a  board  of  directors  or  managers.  At  the 
present  time  the  practice  is  to  take  one  di- 
rectoT  from  each  to^-nship  in  the  county. 
These  directors  arranged  and  published  a  pre- 
mium list  and  made  all  preparations  for  hold- 
ing a  fair  during  the  fall  of  1850.  This,  the 
first  large  and  well-organized  fair  in  the 
county,  was  held  October  2nd  and  3rd,  1850 
At  that  time  two  days  were  deemed  enough. 
The  officers  probabh'  followed  the  custom  in 
New  England,  of  confining  the  fair  to  two 
days,  the  first  of  which  was  given  over  to  the 
"Horse  Show"  and  the  second  to  the  "Cattle 
Show."  For  the  last  twenty-five  or  thirty 
years,  at  least,  it  has  been  the  custom  to  de- 
vote four  days,  Tuesday,  Wednesday,  Thurs- 
day and  Friday,  of  fair  week  to  the  purposes 
of  the  exhibition.  It  is  now  held  on  the 
same  week  in  the  year  as  the  earliest  fair, 
in  1850.  It  is  probably  the  most  satisfactory 
time  which  could  be  selected. 

At  first  the  society  had  no  grounds  of  its 
own  and  was  obliged  to  request  the  county 
commLssioners  for  permission  to  hold  it  on 
the  grounds  surrounding  the  (then)  new 
county  court-house.  The  permission  was  will- 
ingly granted,  and  the  fair  was  held  in  the 
grove  which  then  covered  the  block  of  land 
between  High,  Church,  Broadway  and  State 
Streets.  The  court-hoase  building  wa.*  used 
for  the  display  of  flowers,  fruits  and  domestic 
articles,  while  the  stock  was  exhibited  in  the 
surrounding  grove.  There  was  no  race-track 
and,  of  course,  no  races.  If  the  interest  it 
aroused  in  things  agricultural  may  be  taken 
as  a  criterion,  the  fair  of  1850  wa*  a  big 
success.  On  account  of  the  fact  that  no  ad- 
mission was  charged,  the  total  receipts  for  the 
first  year  were  only  $327.53,  of  which  $100 
were  spent  in  awarding  premiums.  The  so- 
ciety secured  the  court-house  grounds  for  its 
fair  of  1851,  and  al.«o  held  its  third  fair 
there  in  1852.  The  increasing  number  of 
exhibits  made  it  neces.sary  to  erect  temporary 

booths  and  sheds  to  accommodate  them.  This 
being  a  source  of  expense  which  might  be 
avoided  by  securing  permanent  grounds,  and 
the  interest  of  the  public  throughout  the 
whole  county  increasing,  it  was  determined 
by  the  society  to  lease  suitable  grounds  and 
erect  more  substantial  and  worthy  buildings. 
The  president  of  the  .society,  Simon  Perkins, 
then  offered  it,  without  charge  or  rent,  the 
use  of  a  tract  of  land  on  South  Main  Street 
nearly  opposite  the  plant  of  The  B.  F.  Good- 
rich Company,  and  consisting  of  about  six 
acres  of  land.  An  exhibition  hall,  stock- 
sheds  and  a  high  fence  around  the  grounds 
were  built.  The  fourth  fair  was  held  on 
thase  grounds  on  October  12th  and  13th, 

In  five  years  the  annual  attendance  had 
grown  so  large  that  the  grounds  had  be- 
come entirely  inadequate.  The  receipts  had 
increased  to  $1,400  m  1858.  When  the  so- 
ciety decided  to  secure  new  quarters,  the  fine 
public  spirit  which  Cuyahoga  Falls  had  al- 
wavs  shown,  was  once  more  demonstrated. 
That  village  made  an  offer  of  $6,000  if  the 
new  grounds  should  be  located  there.  Never- 
theless, the  society  leased  for  a  period  of  five 
years  a  beautiful  tract  of  about  thirty  acres 
of  land  in  the  western  part  of  the  city.  It 
was  owned  by  Da\4d  L.  King  and  consisted 
of  the  high  land  immediately  west  of  the 
canal  between  Glendale  Avenue  and  Ash 
Street.  This  site  is  now  occupied  by  the  Mil- 
ler and  Conger  mansions  and  the  fine  grounds 
surrounding  them.  .  The  society  fitted  np 
these  grounds  with  the  necessary  buildings, 
a  race-track,  etc.,  at  a  cost  of  several  thou- 
sand dollars.  The  first  fair  held  on  these 
grounds  was  that  of  1859.  In  18G4,  the  lea'^e 
from  Mr.  King  expired.  Althotigh  he  offered 
to  sell  the  whole  tract  to  the  society,  for  fair 
puri:>oses  only,  for  the  extremely  low  price  of 
$5,000,  and  although  the  site  was  perfectly 
adapted  to  such  purposes,  yet  the  society,  in 
pursuance  of  a  .short-sighted  policy,  deter- 
mined to  move  again.  This  time  they  went 
still  further  west  and  located  on  the  grounds 
of  P.  D.  Hall,  just  east  of  Balch  Street.  Mr. 
Hall   leased  thirtv  acres,   most  of  it  covered 



with  a  fine  grove  of  trees,  to  the  society  for 
a  term  of  ten  years.  This  tract  has  been 
known,  popuhirly,  ever  since  as  the  old  "Hall 
Fair  Grounds."  The  first  fair  held  here  was 
in  the  autumn  of  1864.  Successful  fairs  were 
held  on  these  grounds  during  the  whole  of 
the  ten  years.  The  expiration  of  the  lease 
found  the  society  with  several  thousand  dol- 
lars in  its  trei^ury  which  it  could  devote  to 
the  purchase  of  grounds  of  its  own.  A  spir- 
ited contest  then  began  between  the  advocates 
of  different  sites.  Nine  or  ten  different  tracts 
adjoining  the  city  on  the  w&st  and  south 
were  offered  to  the  society  at  prices  ranging 
from  $200  to  $500  per  acre.  Every  one  of 
these  tracts  has  since  increased  in  value  to 
as  many  thousands.  At  first  the  society  de- 
termined to  purchase  the  property  of  Dr.  S. 
H.  Coburn  and  Samuel  Thornton  west  of 
South  Main  Street.  Then  the  committee  of 
purchase  concluded  to  accept  the  offer  of 
James  McAllister  for  his  thirty  acres  on  the 
highest  point  of  West  Hill,  just  west  of  Por- 
tage Path.  The  deed  was  made  and  the  so- 
ciety became  the  owner  of  it.  This  action 
aroused  a  storm  of  protest.  The  people  of 
Akron  objected  to  the  long  distance  from 
the  business  center  of  the  city  and  the  inhabi- 
tants of  every  township  in  the  county,  except 
those  in  the  western  part,  were  loud  in  their 
objection  that,  for  them  the  location  was 
practically  inaccessible.  As  a  result,  the  so- 
ciety, in  1875,  decided  to  sell  the  new 
grounds  and  buy  others  located  on  North 
Hdll.  Mr.  A.  T.  Burrows  had  offered  them 
forty-five  acres  there  at  a  price  of  $400  per 
acre.  At  a  meeting  held  six  months  later 
this  determination  was  reconsidered  and  a 
final  choice  was  made  of  a  tract  of  forty- 
five  acres  lying  in  the  valley  of  the  Little 
Cuyahoga,  near  the  old  Forge,  and  known 
as  the  "Austin  Powder  Patch."  This  tract 
of  land  haid  belonged  to  the  Austin  Powder 
Company,  and  had  been  the  site  of  their  pow- 
der mills  until  about  1860,  when  they  were 
moved  to  Cleveland.  Explosions  and  fires 
had  long  before  destroyed  all  the  buildings 
upon  the  tract.  The  writer  first  saw  it  in 
1874,  and  it  certainly  looked  far  from  invit- 

ing. Although  it  was  not  decided  until  June 
26,  1875,  to  purchase  this  tract,  yet  by  dint 
of  much  hard  labor  the  next  fair,  that  of 
October,  1875,  was  held  there.  It  was  the 
first  fair  held  on  the  society's  own  grounds. 
Contrary  to  the  expectations  of  many  citi- 
zens of  the  county,  it  was  a  big  success.  The 
attendance  and  the  exhibits  were  larger  than 
ever  before.  In  the  next  few  years,  the  so- 
ciety spent  much  money  in  grading,  improv- 
ing and  beautifying  the  grounds.  It  became 
a  real  expofsition,  on  a  small  scale.  Mercan- 
tile Hall,  Agricultural  Hall,  Floral  Hall,  the 
Grand  Stand  and  many  dining  halls,  exhibi- 
tion booths  and  stands  were  built;  the 
grounds  were  laid  out  in  an  attractive  man- 
ner with  artificial  lakes,  fountains,  etc.,  and 
the  name  "Fountain  Park"  was  given  to  the 
new  fair  grounds.  Since  1875,  the  successive 
fairs  of  the  society  have  been  held  here,  in- 
cluding the  1907  fair  just  held.  Since  1906 
there  has  been  a  strong  sentiment  setting  in 
toward  selling  Fountain  Park  and  securing 
more  accessible  grounds.  The  society  has 
been  successful  on  these  grounds,  but  the  in- 
crea.sing  crowds  make  it  impossible  for  the 
tran-sportation  companies  to  properly  handle 
visitors.  The  present  grounds  would  make 
very  desirable  railway  yards,  and  it  is  now 
understood  that  one  railway  company,  at 
least,  would  like  to  add  them  to  its  posses- 
sions. The  many  dangers  attending  the  ap- 
proach to  the  present  grounds  certainly  ought 
to  lead  the  present  members  of  the  society  to 
consider  the  purchase  of  other  grounds  more 
favorably  situated. 

The  officers  of  the  Summit  County  Agri- 
cultural Society  for  1907  are:  President,  L. 
M.  Kauffman;  vice  president,  B.  H.  Prior; 
secretary,  0.  J.  Swinehart;  treasurer,  G.  W. 
Brewster;  superintendent  of  race^,  E.  M.  Gan- 

When  the  Summit  County  Agricultural 
Society  reached  the  determination  to  move 
the  site  of  its  annual  fair  from  Hall's  Pair 
Grounds  to  the  New  Fountain  Park,  much 
dissatisfaction  was  expressed  by  those  opposed 
to  the  new  site.  The  discontent  prevajiled 
mostly  among  the  farmers  in  the  southern 



and  western  parts  of  the  county.  It  was  said 
that  the  new  site  was  difficult  and  dangerous 
to  approach,  and  doubts  were  held  as'  to  the 
healthfulness  of  it.  These  feelings  and  ex- 
pressions of  dissent  finally  culminated  in  the 
formation  of  a  rival  association  called  the 
"Summit  County  Fair  Association."  The 
society  was  incorporated  with  a  capital  of 
$5,000,  and  the  following  officers  were 
elected:  President,  James  Hammond,  of  Cop- 
ley; vice  president,  Frank  A.  Foster,  of 
Copley;  secretary,  Wellington  Miller,  of  Nor- 
ton ;  trea.surer.  Philander  D.  Hall,  Jr.,  of 
Akron.  Mr.  Hall  made  a  new  lease  of  his 
large  tract  on  favorable  terms  to  the  new 
society,  and  the  capital  paid  was  expended  in 
providing  buildings,  sheds,  fences,  etc.  The 
fair  was  held  in  the  last  week  of  September, 

1875,  and  was  an  entire  success,  both  from 
the  point  of  attendance  and  interest,  and 
from  the  point  of  exhibits.  The  new  society 
was  much  encoiiraged,  and  made  more  exten- 
sive plans  for  the  fair  of  1876.  While  the 
latter  was  succe.'vsful  from  all  points  of  view. 
yet  the  rival  fair  in  Fountain  Park  had  con- 
tinued to  grow  in  popularity  and  the  old 
objections  to  its  site  had  been  found  by  the 
experience  of  two  years  to  be  largely  un- 
founded. The  younger  association  did  not 
feel  encouraged  to  continue  their  exhibition, 
in  face  of  the  strong  sentiment  setting  in 
toward  the  "old  fair"  on  the  new  site.     It 

.was  accordingly  decided  to  wind  up  the  affairs 
of  the  new  association  and  disband.     Since 

1876,  the  Summit  County  Agricultural  So- 
ciety has  conducted  the  only  agricultural  ex- 
hibition held  in  the  county.  It  has  been 
uniformly  successful  and  is  today  an  exceed- 
ingly strong  and  prosperous  organization. 

When  the  difficulty  over  the  selection  of 
new  grounds  arose  in  1859,  the  fine  public 
spirit  of  Cuwhoga  Falls  was  again  mani- 
fested. That  village  made  an  offer  of  $6,000 
in  cash  to  the  Summit  County  Agricultural 
Society,  provided  the  new  fair  grounds  should 
be  located  there.  Upon  the  refusal  of  this 
splendid  offer,  the  citizens  of  the  village  de- 
termined to  have  an  agricultural  exhibition  of 
their    own.      They    formed    an    organization 

called  the  "Union  Fair  Association,"  and  pro- 
vided extensive  grounds  in  the  northern  part 
of  the  village  as  a  site  for  an  annual  autumn 
festival.  The  advantages  of  the  site  were  all 
that  could  reasonably  be  asked.  In  fact,  it 
was  superior  in  nearly  all  respects  to  any 
of  the  sites  previously  or  since  selected  for 
this  purpose.  The  grounds  were  first  opened 
for  exhibition  on  September  1,  1859.  The 
fair  was  well  attended  and  netted  the  asso- 
ciation a  profit  of  several  hundred  dollars. 
The  attendance  was  mainly  from  the  north- 
ern part  of  the  county.  The  profits  of  this 
first  fair  were  all  wiped  out,  however,  by  a 
race  meet,  which  was  held  in  the  latter  part 
of  October  of  the  same  year.  In  1860,  the 
date  of  the  fair  was  changed  to  the  fir.=t  week 
of  October.  The  attendance  was  not  as  large 
as  had  been  hoped  for,  although  the  exhibi- 
tion itself  was  well  worthy  of  patronage.  The 
last  fair  held  on  these  grounds  was  that  of 
1861.  The  display  of  stock  and  products  of 
the  farm  was  excellent,  and  an  attraction  in 
the  form  of  competitive  military  drills  be- 
tween the  different  'military  companies  of  the 
county  was  added,  but  the  attendance  was 
far  below  the  line  of  profit.  With  the  inevi- 
table staring  the  a.ssociation  in  the  face,  it 
was  decided  to  disband,  and  the  Summit 
County  Association  from  that  time  on  had 
no  competition  from  the  "Union  Fair  Asso- 

Two  other  town.ships  which  tried  to  con- 
duct rival  fairs  without  lasting  success  were 
Richfield  and  Twinsburg.  The  citizens  of 
Richfield  organized  the  "Richfield  Agricul- 
tural Club"  in  1851,  and  in  the  fall  of  that 
year  conducted  a  fair  which  was  reasonably 
successful.  It  was  supported  by  a  well-popu- 
lated and  wealthy  community,  and  being 
economically  condiicted,  it  continued  to  grow 
in  popularity  and  influence.  At  length,  in 
1858,  the  "Union  Agricultural  and  Mechanic 
Arts  Society"  was  incorporated,  comprising 
citizens  of  parts  of  Medina  and  Cuyahoga 
counties  as  well  as  Summit.  This  tri-countv 
fair  continued  to  prosper  and  held  succe.«sful 
exhibitions  each  autumn  on  well-appointed 
fair  grounds,  situated  between  the  two  villages 



of  East  and  West  Richfield.  Finally,  the  in- 
terest in  the  central  exhibition  at  Akron  be- 
came so  strong  that  at  was  decided  that  the 
agricultural  interests  of  the  county  would  be 
best  subserved  by  limiting  the  exhibitions  to 
the  big  one  held  at  the  county  seat.  The  last 
fair  on  the  Richfield  grounds  was  held  in 
•1875.  The  next  year  the  society  sold  its 
grounds  and  wound  up  its  affairs. 

About  the  time  the  Richfield  Fair  was 
started,  the  people  of  Twinsburg  commenced 
an  annual  township  exhibition  of  agricultural 
products.  In  1855,  this  was  expanded  into 
the  "Union  Fair  Association,"  composed  of 
Twinsburg,  Hudson  and  Northfield  town- 
ships in  Summit  County;  Solon  and  Bedford 
townships,  in  Cuyahoga  County,  and  Aurora 
township,  in  Portage  County.  Fine  fair- 
grounds were  established  near  Twinsburg 
Center,  and  the  society  prospered  for  many 
years.  After  the  war  the  interest  began  to 
wane,  and  after  the  fair  of  1871,  it  was  de- 
cided to  discontinue  them.  In  1872,  the 
grounds  were  sold  and  the  "Union  Fair  As- 
sociation" of  Twinsburg  was,  from  that  time 
on.  merely  a  matter  of  history. 


Among  the  organizations  which  the  agri- 
culturists of  the  county  have  provided  for 
their  betterment,  physically,  mentally  and 
spiritually,  the  Grange  occupies  an  important 
place.  That  the  movement  has  been  well 
thought  of  in  this  general  vicinity  is  evi- 
denced by  the,  following  iinposing  list  of 
Summit  County  Granges.  The  names  of 
their  respective  officers  is  for  the  year  1906- 
1907.  Granges  and  officers  are  as  follows: 
Pomona  Grange — Eugene  F.  Cranz,  of  Ira, 
master;  S.  J.  Baldwin,  of  Tallmadge,  lec- 
turer, and  Mrs.  0.  S.  Scott,  secretary.  Dar- 
row  Street  Grange — W.  M.  Darrow,  master; 
Mrs.  F.  R.  Howe,  lecturer;  Mabel  E.  Shively, 
secretary.  Osbom's  Corners'  Grange — W.  E. 
Riiple,  master;  Monnie  Woodruff,  lecturer; 
A.  L.  Aikman,  secretary.  Northampton 
Grange — George  W.  Treap,  master;  0.  Mc- 
Arthur,    lecturer;    Howard    G.    Treap,    secre- 

tary. Richfield  Grange — Henry  S.  Gargett, 
master;  Mrs.  Mary  Baughnian,  lecturer; 
Frank  M.  Hughes,  secretary.  Copley  Grange 
— Arthur  Chrisanan,  master;  R.  J.  Dalling.i, 
lecturer;  Herbert  Hammond,  secretary.  Bath 
Center  Grange — I.  L.  Underwood,  master; 
Mrs.  William  Waltz,  lecturer;  E.  C.  Robin- 
son, secretary.  Tallmadge  Grange — S.  C. 
Barnes,  master;  Mrs.  Lottie  Clark,  lecturer; 
II.  J.  Walters,  secretary.  Highland  Grange 
— E.  Blender,  master;  George  Lauby,  lec- 
turer; J.  W.  Foltz,  secretary. 


By  Aaron  Teeple,  Esq. 

In  the  early  settlement  of  Summit  County 
our  pioneer  fathers  were  beset  with  the  stern 
realities  of  life^ — a  house  to  shelter,  the  pro- 
curement of  raiment  and  the  wherewithal  to 
be  fed.  The  forests  had  to  be  cleared  away, 
habitations,  though  rude,  erected,  and  the 
unbroken  soil  subdued.  Without  markets  in 
which  to  dispose  of  any  surplus  products  or 
to  procure  necessary  supplies,  only  at  remote 
distances  through  roadless  forests,  their  cm- 
ditions,  as  we  view  them  now  with  our  mod- 
ern improvements,  were  that  of  unwonted 
hardship  and  deprivation.  The  writer  can 
well  remember  the  old  time  "log-rolling," 
when  the  neighbors  came  together  for  miles 
around  to  pile  the  timbers  previously  cut 
into  huge  heaps  for  burning.  Then  it  was 
the  custom  for  each  farmer  to  grow  a  piece 
of  ground  to  flax,  that  was  in  time  pulled, 
broken,  beaten,  heckled,  and  finally  spun  and 
woven  into  cloth  for  clothing  or  beddinar. 
Almost  every  log  cabin  was  then  provided 
with  an  upper  chamber  reached  by  ascending 
a  ladder,  where  the  children  were  put  to  bed, 
with  only  a  puncheon  roof  above  to  protect 
from  the  storm  without.  Usually  in  this 
cabin  near  the  ladder  stairway,  a  hole  was 
bored  in  one  of  the  logs,  and  a  strong  wooden 
])in  driven,  where  any  wild  game,  brought 
in  to  add  to  the  food  supply,  was  hung.  At 
night,  when  the  meat  supply  became  low, 
the  stuTdy  woodman   would   take   down   the 





rifle,  fasten  a  lighted  candle  on  his  hat  and 
visit  the  chopping.  Deer  were  plentiful  then 
and  the  newly  cut  timber  affoi'ded  excellent 
browsing.  The  approach  of  the  light  would 
give  alarm,  and  the  reflected  light  from  the 
eyeballs  of  the  deer  give  the  hunter  the  point 
to  aim  at,  while  the  light  of  the  candle  en- 
abled deliberate  precision  for  deadly  work. 

The  pre-eminent  factor  then  was  the  so- 
ciability everywhere  manifest.  Did  a  neigh- 
bor want,  he  had  only  to  make  it  known. 
Be  it  labor,  food,  or  other  supply,  all  were 
ready  to  sacrifice,  if  need  be,  to  meet  the 
want.  In  those  days  but  little  attention  was 
devoted  to  the  esthetic  culture  of  home  or 
the  ornamentation  of  its  surroundings. 
Doubtless  our  ancestors  had  as  ardent  ta^te 
or  desire  to  cultivate  and  enjoy  the  beautiful, 
as  we,  their  progeny,  but  the  sterner  demands 
had  first  to  be  met  and  overcome  ere  these 
could  be  gratified,  or  luxuri&s  be  considered. 
The  wild  flowers,  in  many  instances,  were 
transplanted  and  in  a  measure  domesticated 
by  culture,  as  were  several  species  of  grapes 
and  berries  found  growing  on  low  lands  in 
the  forest. 

Among  the  early  settlers  in  our  county 
were  Austin  M.  Hale,  of  Mogadore,  Dr.  Men- 
dell  Jewett,  of  Middlebury;  Daniel  Hine,  of 
Tallmadge ;  Andrew  Hale,  of  Bath ;  Edwin 
Wetmore,  of  Northampton,  and  a  Mr. 
Robinett,  who  lived  just  over  the  line  of 
Northfield  in  Cuyahoga  County,  father  of  B. 
A.  Robinett,  of  Northfield.  With  them  the 
love  and  culture  of  fruit  was  supreme  and 
uppermost.  To  provide  a  supply  in  their 
new  home,  to  be,  various  kinds  of  seeds, 
vines  and  small  trees  and  shnibbery  were 
brought  from  their  New  England  homes,  and 
planted  in  their  gardens,  becoming  the  basis 
from  which  most  of  the  orchards  and  gar- 
dens of  Summit  County  sprung. 

Daniel  Hine  was  the  pioneer  in  grape  and 
pear  culture,  Andrew  Hale  and  Austin  Hale 
of  apples,  and  Edwin  Wetmore  of  peache«. 
By  careful  cross  fertilization,  the  wild  with 
improved  varieties,  many  new  types  were  se- 
cured. Of  the  tree  fruits,  especially  the  apple 
has  undergone  but  few  changes.     The   old 

Rambo,  the  Rhode  Island  Greening,  the  Bel- 
mont, and  many  of  the  older  varieties,  re- 
main as  distinct  as  when  first  introduced  and 

The  pioneer  nursery  business  was  instituted 
by  Austin  M.  Hale  of  Mogadore,  Denis  A. 
Hine  and  M.  Jewett  of  Middlebury,  and  Jobe 
Green,  just  over  the  Bath  line  in  Granger, 
Medina  County.  In  order  to  increase  their 
stock,  seed  of  fruit  was  planted  and  the  seed- 
ling stock  set  in  nursery  rows,  producing  in 
mast  instances  fruit  of  very  inferior  quality. 
To  improve  the  fruit,  long  journeys  were 
made  to  South  Eastern  Ohio  near  Marietta, 
where  Israel  Putnam,  jr.,  had  established  a 
nursery  of  forty  or  fifty  varieties  of  choice 
fruit  brought  from  his  old  home  in  Connec- 
ticut prior  to  the  year  1817.  Scions  were 
secured  and  young  tre&s  grafted.  About  the 
year  1824,  the  Kirtlands  established  a  nur- 
sery in  Trumbull"  County  with  stock  brought 
from  New  England,  including  peaches,  pears, 
apples  and  many  of  the  smaller  fruits.  Our 
home  nursery  men,  alert  to  increase  their 
product  in  quantity  as  well  as  quality,  were 
not  .slow  to  avail  them.selves  of  anything  new 
in  their  line  and  became  customers  to  some 
extent  of  the  Trumbull  County  nursery, 
from  these  sources  most  of  the  orchards  and 
small  fruits  w-ere  originally  desseminated. 
Among  the  older  orchards  of  Summit  County 
were  that  of  Maxwell  Graham  in  Stnw,  Jphn 
Ewart  of  Springfield,  W.  B.  Storer  of  Por- 
tage, and  Andrew  Hale  of  Bath — orchards 
that  by  careful  treatment  haVe  and  are  now 
yielding  large  crops  of  choice  fruit  annually. 
For  many  years  Summit  County  was  noted 
as  being  a  dairy  and  farming  community. 
The  milling  interests  at  the  county  seat 
created  a  demand  for  cereals  and  the  southern 
part  of  the  county  being  adapted  in  soil  to 
their  growth,  it  became  largely  a  grain-grow- 
ing section.  While  the  northern  part  of  the 
county  was  a  heavier  soil  better  adapted  to 
grass,  and  the  dairy  interest  thrived.  But 
with  the  building  of  railroads  increasing  fa- 
cilities of  transportation,  the  close  proximity 
to  coal  fields  cheapening  fuel,  Akron  became 
a  manufacturing  center.    With  each  new  in- 



dustry  came  a  corresponding  increase  in  pop- 
ulation, creating  an  increased  demand  for 
fruits,  vegetables  and  garden  products.  Mar- 
ket gardening  became  a  fixed  industry.  Per- 
haps the  earliest  to  engage  in  gardening  to 
any  extent  was  Charles  C.  Miller  and  Foster 
A.'Tarbell  of  Copley,  W.  B.  Storer  and  Sam- 
uel Bacon  of  Portage,  and  Charles  H.  Welch 
of  Springfield.  The  business  became  so 
profitable  that  soon  others  followed.  At 
present  the  business  has  grown  to  such  an 
extent  that  frequently  in  the  .summer  months 
from  eighty  to  100  wagons  loaded  with  fruit 
and  garden  products  are  on  the  Akron  mar- 
ket on  a  morning.  This  demand  for  food 
supplies,  with  the  diversity  of  the  soil  of  the 
county,  has  been  the  means  to  enable  the 
culture  of  many  hitherto  neglected  products. 
The  swamp  lands  near  Greentown  were 
drained  and  brought  under  culture,  and  Jo- 
seph A.  Borst  became  the  pioneer  in  celery 
growing.  Soon  after  the  Atwood  Brothers  of 
Akron  commenced  dn  a  large  way  the  rais- 
ing of  celery  on  the  muck  land  of  Copley 
swamp  just  west  of  Akron.  Many  acres  of 
once-thought  waste  land  have  become  drained 
and  are  now  producing  celery,  onions,  cab- 
bage and  other  hardy  garden  products  in  dif- 
ferent portions  of  the  county.  Matthew 
Crawford  for  more  than  forty  years  has  been 
growing  plants  of  small  fruits  and  developing 
new  varieties.  Many  of  our  choicest  varieties 
of  strawberries:  are  the  result  of  his  labors. 
Recently  his  attention  has  been  given  mostly 
to  growing  bulbs.  With  Rev.  M.  W.  Dai- 
las,  a  few  years  ago  he  grew  about  nine  acres 
of  gladiolas.  The  market  responded,  the  de- 
mand became  so  groat  that  the  supply  has  not 
been  suflicient.  This  season  one  dealer,  we 
learn,  has  placed  his  order  for  2,000,000 
gladiola  bulbs,  requiring  at  least  10  acres  of 
land  to  produce  them.  Hyacinth  and  daff'o- 
dil  bulbs  are  now  grown  .successfully,  and  the 
time  will  likely  soon  come  when  further  im- 
portations from  abroad  will  become  unnec- 

The  first  effort  at  organization  of  the  Agri- 
cultural and  Horticultural  interests,  aside 
from  the   Summit  County   Agricultviral   So- 

ciety, was  made  in  the  year  1878  by  a  call 
from  Dr.  M.  Jewett,  M.  C.  Read,  L.  V.  Bierce 
and  others  to  form  a  Farmers'  Club.  The 
meetings  were  held  monthly  in  the  Empire 
Hall  in  Akron,  and  continued  for  several 
years.  The  meetings  were  at  first  well  at- 
tended and  were  usually  of  much  interest  and 
profit.  Subjects  relating  to  the  home,  prod- 
ucts of  the  farm,  fi-uit  growing,  as  well  as 
those  more  intricate  and  scientific  relating  to 
how  plants  grow,  how-  to  originate  new  varie- 
ties, were  presented  in  well  written  papers 
and,  in  some  instances,  pointedly  discussed 
The  club  became  so  heavily  freighted,  how- 
ever, with  professional  men,  who  spun  out 
their  paperse  so  fine  and  to  such  length  that 
the  interest  began  to  lag.  As  an  instance, 
one,  a  Dr.  Smith,  was  asked  to  prepare  a 
paper.  He  chose  for  his  theme  "Sexuality  in 
Nature."  He  argued  that  in  the  mineral  as 
well  as  in  the  animal  and  vegetable  king- 
doms, distinct  traces  of  sexuality  exist.  The 
article  was  highly  scientific,  and  of  sufficient 
length  to  fill  a  whole  page  in  the  Summit 
County  Beacon,  and  required  over  an  hour 
in  reading.  At  the  of  the  reading  but 
a  small  audience  remained  to  its 
merits.  It  became  evident  to  the  officers  of 
the  organization  that  to  impart  new  life  a 
radical  change  must  take  place.  Hence  a 
call  was  made  to  meet  at  the  Friendly  Inn, 
at  the  corner  of  Howard  and  Mill  Streets  in 
Akron,  for  con,sultation.  The  meeting  was 
held  on  the  18th  of  January,  1882.  There 
were  19  persons  present.  Dr.  Jewett  was 
chosen  president,  and  Matthew  Crawford  sec- 
retary. The  object  of  the  meeting  was  stated 
by  the  chair,  and  enlarged  upon  by  several 
others.  At  the  suggestion  of  Mr.  Crawford 
the  matter  of  reorganization  along  the  lines  of 
horticulture  was  considered  with  much  favor. 
An  adjournment  was  made  to  meet  with  Mrs. 
E.  0.  Knox  (on  her  invitation),  then  editor- 
ess  of  the  Cuvahoga  Falls  Reporter,  on  Feb- 
marv  8,  1882.  At  this  meeting  it  was  de- 
cided to  organize  the  Summit  County  Horti- 
cultural Society.  Dr.  Mendall  Jewett  was 
chosen  president  and  Matthew  Crawford  sec- 
retary.    A  committee  was  appointed  to  pre- 



pare  a  constitution  and  by-laws  for  the  gov- 
ernment of  the  society,  which  were  presented 
at  a  subsequent  meeting  and  adopted.  The 
meeting.-;  of  the  society  ai'e  held  monthly,  on 
invitation,  at  the  residences  of  its  members, 
who  regard  it  a  privilege  as  well  as  a  duty 
to  entertain  its  membership.  Reports  are  re- 
ceived on  orchards,  vineyards,  small  fruits, 
ornamental  planting,  ornithology,  ento- 
mology, botany  and  forestry  at  each  meeting 
from  a  standing  committee  in  each  depart- 
ment appointed  for  that  purpose.  Some  com- 
petent person  is  selected  in  addition  to  pre- 
sent a  paper  or,  which  forms  part  of 
the  program  for  each  meeting.  The  discus- 
sions following  the  reports  of  the  standing 
committee  and  the  points  presented  in  the 
esssij  or  address  serve  to  make  the  meetings 
of  much  interest.  The  program  for  the  year's 
work  is  prepared  in  advance  by  the  executive 
committee  of  the  society,  giving  place  of 
meeting  for  each  month,,  and  list  of 
officers  and  standing  committees  for  the  year. 
Since  the  organization  of  the  society  a 
quarter  of  a  century  ago  it  has  continued  to 
grow  and  prosper.    The  influence  exerted  and 

the  good  work  done  by  the  organization  is 
shown  in  its  social  greetings,  the  exhibits  of 
choice  flowers,  and  fine  vegetables  and  fruits 
at  its  monthly  gatherings.  The  incentive  to 
its  members  is  to  make  their  homes  more 
social,  pleasant  and  attractive,  that  when  in 
turn  it  is  theirs  to  entertain,  their  guests  may 
be  delighted  in  the  surroundings.  Neighbors 
are  influenced,  and  fine  homes  with  choice 
lawms  become,  in  a  measure,  contagious. 
The  county  fair  in  its  exhibit  in  the  horti- 
cultural department,  is  another  example  of 
its  work.  The  monthly  meetings  are  reported 
for  the  local  press  of  the  county,  and  in  many 
instances  are  wholly  or  in  part-,  copied  in 
many  of  the  leading  agricultural  and  horti- 
cultural journals  of  the  country. 

A  number  of  the  membership  are  solicited 
to  aid  in  Farmers'  Institute  work,  either 
through  the  State  Board  of  Agriculture  or 
directly  by  county  societies. 

The  present  board  of  officers  is  Charies  N. 
Gaylord,  of  Stow,  president;  Capt.  P.  H. 
Young,  of  Tallmadge,  vice  president,  and 
Miss  Nellie  Teeple,  of  Akron,  secretary  and 



Steam  and  Electric  Railroads — The  Ohio  Canal — The  Ohio  and  Pennsylvania  Canal. 

At  the  present  time  the  steam  railroads  of 
Summit  County  are  subsidiary  lines  of  the 
four  great  railroad  systems  of  Eastern  United 
States,  viz:  The  Baltimore  &  Ohio,  repre- 
sented by  the  Cleveland,  Terminal  &  Valley, 
the  Cleveland,  Lorain  &  Wheeling,  the  Akron 
&  Chicago  Junction,  and  the  Pittsburgh  & 
Western.  Allied  to  the  Baltimore  &  Ohio,  is 
the  Pennsylvania  Company,  represented  by 
the  Cleveland,  Akron  &  Columbus,  and  the 
Cleveland  &  Pittsburgh.  The  Erie  is  now  the 
successor  to  the  historic  New  York,  Pennsyl- 
vania &  Ohio,  while  the  great  Lake  Shore 
system  finds  expression  in  the  solitary  North- 
ern Ohio  and  the  latest  line,  the  Lake  Erie 
&  Pittsburgh.  In  addition  to  these  is  the 
Akron  &  Barberton  Belt  Line,  now  generally 
understood  to  be  a  Pennsylvania  property, 
and  sold  in  the  open  market  only  a  few  years 
ago  for  the  sum  of  $1,000,000. 

To  write  of  the  sale  of  a  road  for  a  million 
tells  why  the  history  of  any  railroad  in  this 
day  ceases  to  have  any  strictly  personal  side, 
for  such  a  story  is  no  longer  the  culmination 
of  struggles  and  sacrifice  on  the  part  of  hardy 
pioneers  but  is  rather  the  result  of  a  correct 
reading  of  the  broker's  tape.  The  many 
millions  involved  in  railroads  represent  as 
many  varied  peoples  and  interests  as  the  num- 
ber of  dollars.  Their  owners  live  far  from 
the  line  of  their  property,  so  that  in  Summit 
County  to-day  it  is  literally  true  that  the 
profits  from  the  above  lines  return  to  owners 
in  every  state  of  the  country,  and  in  countries 
as  far  distant  as  Holland  and  Belgium. 

First  in  point  of  time  in  this  county  is  the 
Cleveland  &  Pittsburgh  EaiLroad,  running 
from  Pittsburgh  to  Cleveland  and  entering 
Summit  on  the  east  at  Hudson.  Projected 
and  started  in  1836,  retarded  by  the  panic  of 
1837,  and  finally  completed  in  1851,  this 
road  is  one  of  the  wonders  of  the  financial 
world,  in  that  it  has  never  defaulted  a  pay- 
ment on  the  interest  of  its  bonds  and  since 
1854  has  paid  a  steady  and  unfailing  income 
of  6  per  cent  on  the  investment  to  all  stock- 
holders. It  has  been  lately  double  tracked 
from  Alliance  to  Hudson  and  over  that 
stretch  of  territory  is  a  model  line  in  physical 

The  road  now  known  as  the  Cleveland, 
Akron  &  Columbus,  also  Pennsylvania  prop- 
erty, possesses  local  interest,  in  that  it  started 
with  "The  Akron  Branch  Railroad,"  which 
in  1851  was  planned  as  a  feeder  to  the  Cleve- 
land &  Pittsburgh.  At  that  time,  through 
the  enterprise  of  Simon  Perkins,  an  amend- 
ment was  made  to  the  charter  of  the  Cleve- 
land &  Pittsburgh,  extending  that  line  from 
Hudson  to  Akron  and  by  popular  vote  this 
county  subscribed  for  stock  in  the  Company 
to  the  amount  of  $100,000.00.  By  the  middle 
of  1852,  the  road  was  completed  to  Orrville. 
Like  all  railroads  it  had  its  ups  and  downs, 
and  after  various  litigation,  in  which  the 
name  was  changed  from  the  "Akron  Branch" 
to  Cleveland,  Zanesville  and  Cincinnati,  later 
to  Cleveland,  Mount  Vernon  &  Delaware, 
and  finally  to  the  Cleveland,  Akron  &  Co- 
lumbus, the  road   prospered   till  it  was  de- 



clared  fcy  McCrea  of  the  Pennsylvania  Com- 
pany in  1893,  this  road  was  the  bright  spot 
in  that  system.  The  casual  reader  will  do 
well  to  observe  that  this  road  arose  through 
the  aid  of  the  people  of  the  communities 
through  which  it  passed,  and  took  its  life  and 
nurture  from  the  legislature  creating  it,  and 
the  county  which  burdened  itself  with  taxes 
to  maintain  it.  Not  a  dollar  was  paid  this 
county  in  dividends,  but  the  county  took  its 
reward  in  the  increased  wealth  incident  to 
improved  transportation  facilities. 

The  Akron  and  Barberton  Belt  Railroad, 
opened  in  1892,  extends  in  and  around  the  city 
of  Barberton  and  is  thirteen  miles  in  length. 
This  line  represents  one  of  the  most  modern 
phases  in  railroads  in  that  of  itself  it  carries 
nothing  to  any  distance,  but  is  simply  a 
feeder  to  the  railroads  centering  in  Akron 
and  drawing  its  revenue  from  the  factories 
which  it  touches,  but  carrying  no  passengers. 

The  Baltimore  and  Ohio  system,  we  speak 
of  it  as  such,  for  it  does  not  exist  as  a  rail- 
road, comprises  the  roads  of  its  system  al- 
ready named.  There  is  no  Baltimore  and 
Ohio  Railroad  in  Summit  County,  for  that 
railroad  does  not  own  a  mile  of  road  in  the 
state  of  Ohio,  and  does  not  operate  a  mile. 
That  system,  incorporated  under  the  la^vs  of 
We-st  Virginia  and  Maryland,  owns  the  stock 
by  majority  holding  of  the  various  roads  set 
forth,  and  by  such  arrangement  maintaiins 
uniformity  in  the  general  officers  of  the  vari- 
ous constituent  companies.  To  be  specific, 
a  passenger  going  from  Cleveland  to  Wheel- 
ing, arrives  in  ^Vkron  at  Akron  Junction  over 
the  Cleveland  Terminal  &  Valley,  from  there 
he  passes  over  the  P.  C.  &  T.,  also  called  the 
Pittsburgh  and  Western,  to  the  Union  Sta- 
tion, whence  he  passes  over  the  Akron  &  Chi- 
cago Junction  to  Warwick,  from  which  point 
he  completes  hi?  journey  to  Wheeling  over 
the  Cleveland,  Lorain  &  Wheeling.  All  these 
roads  are  part  of  the  Baltimore  &  Ohio  sys- 

The  Cleveland  Terminal  &  Valley  is  the 
successor  to  the  Valley  Railroad  Company,  a 
railroad  which  will  ever  hold  a  pleasant  place 
in  the  memorv  of  this  countv,  because  of  the 

many  local  people  whose  life  and  hopes  were 
bound  up  in  its  completion.  Starting  in  1869 
as  the  Akron  and  Canton  Railroad,  under 
Mr.  D.  L.  King,  it  became  the  "Valley"  in 
1871.  To  raise  the  money,  a  public  meeting 
was  held  at  the  Academy  of  Music  in  Akron, 
in  January,  1872.  Committeemen  from 
every  township  were  appointed  to  rouse  sen- 
timent on  the  road.  Sufficient  money  was 
raiser  to  start  construction  in  March,  1873, 
and  much  work  was  done.  But  the  panic  of 
1873  tightened  the  money  supply,  and  in 
1875  Mr.  King  sailed  for  England  to  inter- 
est the  English  capitalists.  In  this  he  failed, 
and  returning  to  America  the  bonds  of  the 
company  were  finally  disposed  of,  and  the 
first  train  was  run  over  the  line  from  Cleve- 
land to  Canton,  January  28,  1880.  The 
Cleveland,  Terminal  and  Valley  corporation 
was  organized  in  1895  and  secured  the  A'al- 
ley  property  at  foreclosure  sale.  The  ma- 
jority of  the  stock  of  this  corporation  is  owned 
by  the  Baltimore  &  Ohio. 

The  Pittsburgh  &  Western  was  projected  in 
1881,  and  in  1891  became  part  of  the  Balti- 
more &  Ohio  system  by  lease.  The  story  of 
this  road  is  bound  up  with  that  of  the  Akron 
&  Chicago  Junction.  In  1890  two  con- 
struction companies  were  building  in  Akron 
MeCracken  &  Semple  were  building  the  P.  A. 
&  W.,  while  Ryan  &  McDonald  were  at  work 
on  the  A.  &  C.  J.  Both  claimed  to  be  the 
builders  of  a  Western  and  Eastern  outlet  to 
Chicago  and  Pittsburgh,  but  finally  it  devel- 
oped that  the  Akron  &  Chicago  Junction  was 
a  Baltimore  &  Ohio  proposition.  The  acquisi- 
tion of  the  Pittsburgh  &  Western  with  the 
Akron  &  Chicago  Junction  gave  the  Balti- 
more &  Ohio  a  direct  line  from  Chicago  to 
Pittsburgh.  The  Akron  &  Chicago  Junction 
is  merely  a  right  of  way  from  Chicago  Junc- 
tion to  Warwick.  Thence  it  proceeds  to  Ak- 
ron over  the  Cleveland.  Akron  &  Columbus, 
and  from  Akron  it  terminates  at  Akron  Junc- 
tion. The  method  of  transfer  to  the  Balti- 
more &  Ohio  is  of  some  interest.  In  1890  it 
was  leased  to  The  Baltimore  and  Ohio  and 
Chicago  Railroad,  one  of  the  Baltimore  & 
Ohio  stool  pigeons,  for  999  years  renewable 



forever.  Subsequently  this  lease  was  assigned 
to  the  Baltimore  &  Ohio. 

As  to  the  Cleveland,  Lorain  &  Wheeling — 
this  is  the  latest  acquisition  of  the  Baltimore 
&  Ohio.  The  main  line  passes  through  the 
southern  corner  of  the  county  and  in  1902 
the  Baltimore  &  Ohio  secured  a  majority  of 
its  stock.  On  the  books  of  the  Cleveland, 
Lorain  &  Wheeling  this  stock  appears  in  the 
name  of  a  resident  of  Baltimore,  Md.,  but 
it  is  voted  as  B.  &  O.  stock. 

The  history  of  the  Erie  now  a  continental 
road  and  a  so-called  "trunk  line,"  starts  with 
the  secret  plans  of  Hon.  Marvin  Kent  of 
Kent,  Ohio,  to  form  a  continental  line  from 
east  to  west.  In  the  words  of  another,  "he 
conceived  the  idea  of  forming  a  direct  line 
from  New  York  to  St.  Louis,  nearly  1,200 
miles,  by  connecting  with  the  Erie  road  at 
Salamanca,  on  the  east,  and  by  the  Dayton 
&  Hamilton  with  the  Ohio  and  Mississippi 
at  Cincinnati,  on  the  west."  A  liberal  charter 
was  secured  and  he  started  in.  Opposition 
developed  in  Pennsylvania,  and  instead  of 
constructing  a  new  road  through  Pennsylva- 
nia, he  and  his  associates  bought  the  Pitts- 
burgh and  Erie  road.  This  charter  author- 
ized unlimited  extension  and  subsequently 
the  State  of  Pennsylvania  and  New  York  per- 
mitted the  chartering  of  separate  roads  in 
each  State,  and  finally  there  was  developed 
the  historic  Atlantic  and  Great  Western 
Railway  Company.  The  road  was  completed 
in  1864,  after  eleven  years  of  labor  on  the 
part  of  Mr.  Kent.  The  road  ran  from  Akron 
to  Dayton,  and  after  various  litigation  be- 
came known  as  the  New  York,  Pennsylvania 
&  Ohio  Railroad  Company.  It  was  finally 
leased  to  the  Erie  Railroad  under  which  it 
now  operates.  Probably  no  one  road  ever 
passed  through  the  litigation  of  this  road,  for, 
from  December,  1874,  down  to  1879,  its  law- 
suits were  continuous  and  apparently  unend- 
ing. Even  at  the  present  writing,  litigation 
is  pending  as  to  the  ownership  of  bonds  of 
the  road  deposited  in  the  county  treasury 
to  the  credit  of  unknown  English  and  Dutch 

The  Lake  Shore  Railroad,  or  more  prop- 

erly the  Lake  Shore  &  Michigan  Southern, 
is  represented  in  Summit  County  by  the  ill- 
.starred  Northern  Ohio  and  the  promising 
Lake  Erie  &  Pittsburg.  These  two  roads  rep- 
resent the  extremes  of  railroad  construction; 
one  is  poverty-stricken  and  wretchedly 
equipped;  the  other  with  no  trains  running 
as  yet,  has  abundant  means  and  every  facil- 
ity for  rapid  gro\\i:h.  Originally  the  North- 
ern Ohio  was  called  the  Pittsburgh,  Akron 
and  Western,  and  was  designed  by  the  late 
Senator  Brice  to  be  a  connecting  link  in  his 
world-wide  road  from  China  to  New  York. 
The  death  of  that  eminent  Democrat  stopped 
its  growth,  and  it  is  now  a  mere  line  running 
from  Akron  to  Delphos,  a  distance  of  165 
miles.  It  was  incorporated  in  1883  and  trains 
began  in  1891.  It  passed  into  the  hands  of 
the  Lake  Erie  &  Western,  and  that  small  sys- 
tem passed  into  those  of  the  Lake  Shore.  The 
Lake  Erie  &  Pittsburgh,  now  under  construc- 
tion, is  designed  as  an  important  feeder  to  its 
parent  system.  Originally  it  started  at  Lo- 
rain, and  for  a  long  time  the  exact  owners 
of  the  road  were  unknown.  Finally  the  Belt 
Line  of  Cleveland  was  made  a  part  of  tlie 
scheme,  and  it  passed  from  the  hands  of  the 
contractors  who  projected  it  into  the  posses- 
sion of  the  present  owners. 

A^arious  other  roads  have  been  planned  in 
and  through  Summit  County,  where  the  im- 
mense shipping  done  by  the  various  factories 
has  inspired  the  avarice  or  the  ambition  of 
promoters.  To  recount  them  all  in  detail 
would  only  be  calling  the  roll  of  failure,  at  no 
time  an  elevating  task.  Among  them  are  the 
Clinton  Line,  the  Clinton  Line  Extension,  the 
Hudson  &  Painesville,  and  the  New  York  and 
Ohio.  The  last  unsuccessful  project  was  ad- 
vanced by  the  versatile  Charley  French,  who 
planned  great  things  for  the  railroad  maps 
of  the  country,  and  in  his  organization  in- 
cluded the  A.shland  &  Wooster,  and  finally 
the  Lake  &  River  Route.  This  scheme  failed 
and  at  the  present  time  no  further  changes 
are  proposed  in  Summit  County  railroads. 

So  far  as  concerns  railroad  stations,  all  the 
steam  roads  now  center  at  the  Union  Passen- 
ger Station,  and  this  is  becoming  inadequate 



to    handle    the    steadily    increiiaiiig    traflie. 

This  Union  Station  was  originally  the  site 
of  the  Bates  homestead  and  was  opened  for 
use  in  1891.  Before  the  Valley  became  part  of 
the  Baltimore  &  Ohio  system,  it  had  a  sta- 
tion on  West  Market  Street,  now  replaced  by 
the  packing-house  at  the  corner  of  Canal  and 
West  Market.  For  a  long  time  the  Erie  main- 
tained a  separate  station  on  the  ground  of  the 
old  Union  Depot,  but  finally  made  peace  with 
the  Pennsylvania  and  occupied  with  it  the 
present  Union  Station. 

The  conclusion  to  be  drawn  from  the  rail- 
road situation  in  Summit  County  is  the  same 
conclusion  to  be  drawn  from  the  railroad  sit- 
uation throughout  the  Nation.  We  have  no 
pressing  need  of  further  transportation  fa- 
cilities from  steam  roads.  We  have  reached 
the  intensive  stage  in  their  development,  and 
that  means  that  original  grantors  of  the  rights 
to  these  roads,  the  people  of  this  county, 
look  to  the  road  for  repayment.  This  repay- 
ment must  take  place  in  fair  passenger  and 
freight  rates,  in  decent  payment  of  taxes,  and 
in  equipment  insuring  safety  both  to  pas- 
senger and  highway  traveler.  The  people  of 
this  county  owe  the  railroads  nothing;  the 
railroads  owe  them  the  above  moderate  and 
honest  returns.  It  is  fair  to  say  that  any 
such  organization  as  is  now  maintained  by 
the  Baltimore  &  Ohio  in  this  County,  as 
above  detailed,  is  a  menace  to  the  fulfillment 
of  any  of  the  above  conditions.  For  ex- 
ample, the  Baltimore  &  Ohio  as  such,  does 
not  pay  a  dollar  of  taxes  into  the  treasury 
of  this  county,  and  any  attempt  at  competi- 
tion in  freight  rates  is  impossible  under  the 
present  arrangement.  The  solution  of  these 
matters  is  no  part  of  an  historical  article,  but 
it  is  fair  to  say  that  the  final  determination 
of  them  will  occur  when  honest  County  au- 
ditors and  pro-secutors  who  are  sufficiently  in- 
telligent to  grasp  the  situation  occupy  the 
offices.  That  means  intelligence  and  effi- 
ciency on  the  part  of  the  electorate,  and  so 
far  at  least  individuals  may  meet  the  situa- 

At  the  present  writing,  the  canals  of  Sum- 
mit County  are  in  a  transition  state  and  the 
average  resident  looks  on  them  as  a  doubtful 
luxury.  This  is  due  partly  to  the  great  out- 
lay of  money  required  to  maintain  them,  with 
.<o  little  result  locally,  and  partly  to  the  feel- 
ing that  the  day  of  the  canal  is  past.  Cer- 
tainly the  present  physical  features  of  the 
canal  are  not  inspiring,  for  in  Summit  they 
consist  of  a  race  running  through  Middle- 
bury,  and  along  the  southern  border  of  the 
Fair  Grounds,  and  terminating  at  Main 
Street,  where  the  canal  goes  underground 
along  Main  Street,  and  finally  flows  into  the 
main  canal.  The  sole  purpose  of  this  muddy 
and  dirty  stream  is  to  supply  power  to  the 
mills  of  the  Quaker  Oats  Company,  and  the 
.stream  itself  is  owned  by  the  Akron  Hydrau- 
lic Company,  a  private  corporation.  The 
main  canal,  officially  known  as  the  Ohio  and 
Erie  Canal,  passes  through  the  townships  of 
Northampton,  Boston,  Northfield,  Portage, 
Coventry  and  Franklin.  This  canal  is  at 
present  valuable  to  the  owners  of  the  various 
rubber  factories  in  Akron,  and  aside  from 
furnishing  transportation  for  various  canoe 
parties,  has  no  other  worth.  What  the  fu- 
ture holds  for  this  canal,  and  every  canal  in 
Ohio,  is  to  be  tested  in  the  light  of  the  re- 
sults to  be  seen  from  the  plans  now  on  foot. 
These  plans  embrace  large  expenditures  of 
money  and  seem  a  part  of  a  con-sistent  effort 
to  demonstrate  the  feasibility  of  canals  as 
water  transportation.  This  chapter  will  dis- 
cuss the  story  of  the  canals  of  Summit  in 
the  light  of  that  plan. 

The  history  of  Akron  begins  with  the 
.story  of  the  Canal  projected  by  Dr.  Cra«by, 
and  as  this  canal  brought  biisiness  and  manu- 
facturing enterprises  to  the  community,  it 
would  seem  that  the  canal  miist  always  stand 
forth  as  a  blessing.  Previous  to  that,  how- 
ever, it  may  be  profitable  to  look  at  the  his- 
tory of  these  canals  in  the  whole  state.  The 
desire  for  extensive  internal  improvements 
found  expression  in  New  York  in  the  con- 
struction of  the  Erie  Canal,  and  in  the  divi- 



sion  of  political  parties  on  the  need  of  further 
interniU  improvements.  In  1825,  Ohio  asked 
of  the  Federal  government  aid  in  the  con- 
struction of  the  canals.  The  Government  re- 
sponded by  a  grant  aggregating  1,230,521 
acres.  From  the  sale  of  these  lands  has  been 
realized  about  two  and  one  quarter  anillion 
dollars,  and  there  remains  at  this  time  of 
this  imperial  grant  only  land  to  the  amount 
of  $100,000.00.  Wo  have  still  many  miles  of 
canal  in  Ohio,  and  as  bearing  on  their  fu- 
ture, it  may  be  instructive  to  bear  in  mind 
the  decision  of  the  United  States  Supreme 
Court,  construing  the  terms  of  the  above 
named  federal  grant.  In  Wakh  vs.  Railroad, 
etc.,  U.  S.  Supreme  Court  reports.  Vol.  170. 
P.  469,  the  conclu.'iion  was  reached  that  the 
State  of  Ohio  has  the  right  to  abandon  its 
canals  and  to  permit  their  use  for  a  purpo.^e 
analogous  to  the  canals;  but  the  right  to 
abandon  the  canals  entirely  and  to  permit 
the  use  of  them  other  than  that  as  common 
carriers  is  doubted. 

The  Ohio  and  Erie  canal,  as  above  referred 
to,  -was  begun  Julv  4,  1825,  and  completed  in 
1833,  and  cost  the  sum  of  $7,904,971.89. 
The  net  results  of  this  construction  were 
beneficial,  for  it  was  said  that  the  facilities 
of  transportation  from  the  interior  of  Ohio 
to  the  markets  of  New  York  were  such  "that 
wheat  commanded  a  higher  price  at  Massillon, 
one  hundred  miles  west  of  Pittsburg,  than  at 
points  sixty  mil&s  east  of  it."  The  building 
of  this  canal,  with  a  summit  near  the  pres- 
ent site  of  Akron,  naturally  brought  many 
workers  to  this  vicinity,  and  it  became  clear 
to  Messrs.  Perkins  and  King  that  it  would 
be  profitable  to  anticipate  the  founding  of  a 
city.  But  Mr.  King  was  not  content  with  an 
outlet  to  the  Ohio;  he  desired  one  east  and, 
accordingly,  set  on  foot  the  Ohio  and  Penn- 
sylvania canal.  To  aid  him  in  hLs  project 
he  first  .secured  a  charter  from  the  legislature, 
and  to  secure  this  there  were  raised  funds  to 
pay  "expenses."  A  paper  to  raise  such  funds 
read  as  follows:  "We,  the  subscribers,  citi- 
zens of  ]\Iiddlebury  and  Akron,  aud  their 
vicinity,  confident  that  inestimable  advan- 
tages Avould   remit    to  our  villages,   and  this 

section  of  our  country  generally,  from  a  canal 
connecting  the  Ohio  canal,  at  the  Portage 
Summit,  with  the  Pennsylvania  canal  at 
Pittsburg,  and  anxious  that  an  act  should 
pass  the  legislature  of  Ohio,  at  their  present 
session  authorizing  the  construction  of  such 
canal,  will  pay  the  sums  annexed  to  our  re- 
spective names,  to  John  McMillen,  Jr.,  and 
Peter  Bowen,  for  the  purpose  of  defraying 
the  expenses  of  delegates  from  the  aforesaid 
villages  to  the  legislature  to  assist  in  procur- 
ing the  passage  of  such  act.  Payment  to  be 
made  at  the  time  of  .subscribing." 

It  would  seem  from  the  foregoing  that  the 
"Third  House"  had  an  early  history  even, 
among  the  untutored  forefathers.  The  canal 
was  got  uaider  way,  and  it  was  originally  de- 
signed that  the  course  should  be  through  the 
then  rival  village  of  Middlebury.  However, 
wires  were  pulled  and,  instead,  it  pa.ssed 
through  Akron.  Dr.  Crosby,  in  the  mean- 
time had  started  a  cross-cut  below  and  to  the 
North  of  Middlebury,  and  with  this  influx 
of  water,  additional  power  was  secured  for 
the  mills  at  Akron,  and  the  first  step  taken 
toward  Akron's  ascendancy  over  Middlebury. 

The  completion  of  the  Ohio  and  Pennsyl- 
vania Canal  was  the  call  for  a  grand  cele- 
bration all  along  the  line  from  Pittsburg  to 
Akron.  The  accounts  of  that  carnival,  a? 
taken  from  contemporary  records,  furnish  an 
interesting  sidelight  on  life  in  the  '40's.  At 
each  town  and  village  preparations  w'ere 
made  to  receive  the  distinguished  party  on 
board  the  first  boat.  Both  the  Governor  of 
Ohio  and  of  Pennsylvania  were  invited,  and 
at  each  landing  place  new  visitors  were  taken 
on  board  till  the  terminus,  Akron,  where  the 
preceding  festi\'ities  wound  up  with  a  ban- 
quet on  the  site  where  now  stands  the  Claren- 
don Hotel. 

As  a  financial  proposition,  the  state  had 
invested  in  the  canal  $420,000.00  in  stock, 
and  there  had  been  raised  by  other  subscrip- 
tions from  private  sources  $840,000.00.  Divi- 
dends were  declared  for  a  time  and  the  in- 
creased freight  and  passenger  service  from 
Cleveland  to  Pittsburg,  via  Akron,  added  to 
the   pre-itige   of   the   City   of   Akron.      From 



1852  till  1856,  the  tolls  collected  at  the  port 
of  Akron  raii  from  six  thousand  to  eight 
thousand  dollars.  But  then,  as  now,  the 
menace  of  the  railroad  was  at  hand,  and  this 
time  it  was  not  Mr.  Harriman  or  Mr.  Hill, 
but  the  forgotten  Cleveland  &  Mahoning 
Railroad.  By  precise!}'  the  same  means  as 
has  been  pointed  out  in  the  case  of  the  Balti- 
more &  Ohio  in  the  chapter  on  Railroads,  this 
creature  of  the  legislature  proceeded  to  settle 
the  career  of  the  canal.  The  stock  was  bought 
in  open  market  by  this  concern  and  a  policy 
of  jockeying  began  to  depreciate  the  rest  of 
the  stock  owned  by  the  state.  The  whole 
block,  amounting  to  $420,000.00,  was  sold 
to  Charles  L.  Rhodes,  of  Cleveland,  in  1862, 
for  $35,000.00,  and  the  ruin  and  debasement 
of  the  canal  was  complete.  The  canal,  a 
queenly  maiden  among  the  commercial  high- 
ways of  the  world,  became  a  wanton  and  a 
by-word  among  the  people,  for  Mr.  Rhodes 
was  vice-president  of  the  railroad,  and  the 
stock  was  used  to  enrich  the  treasury-  of  his 
railroad.  Improvements  stopped,  and  finally 
a  petition  was  sent  to  the  legislature  demand- 
ing that  it  be  abandoned.  Several  times  the 
canal  bed  was  cut  and  the  water  permitted  to 
escape.  This  local  feeling  arose  largely  be- 
cause of  the  stagnant  condition  of  the  water 
and  the  consequent  endangering  of  the  health 
of  the  community. 

Any  article  on  the  canal?  of  Summit 
County  would  be  incomplete  without  men- 
tioning the  ambitious  attempt  to  found  Sum- 
mit City  along  what  is  now  the  "Gorge." 
Dr.  Eliakim  Crosby  conceived  the  idea  that 
a  great  mill-race  could  be  constructed  alone; 
the  site  of  the  Gorge,  and  to  that  end  de- 
signed the  canal  at  that  point.  So  great  a 
man  as  Horace  Greeley  became  deeply  in- 
terested and  wrote  a  glowing  account  of  the 
propo.sed  metropolis  of  the  West.  Interest 
was  roused  over  the  entire  coimtry,  and  great 
quantities  of  money  flowed  in  from  the  Ea.«t. 
A  nominal  capital  "stock  of  $5,000,000.00  was 
proposed,  and  work  was  begun.  So  confi- 
dent were  those  interested  that  one  of  the 
Rochester  shareholders  offered  to  pledge  his 
entire  fortune  on  the  ^supposition  that  the  lots 

surrounding  the  city  would  shortly  be  as  val- 
uable as  the  highest  priced  lot  in  Rochester. 
Below  and  around  what  is  now  the  CTorge  an 
immense  city  was  laid  out,  and  part  of  the 
labor  was  paid  in  scrip  redeemable  in  these 
lots  when  the  City  should  be  complete.  This 
scrip  was  sold  all  through  the  East  and  sup- 
plies of  raw  material  were  taken  in  exchange. 
At  one  time  the  promises  were  so  great  and 
the  prospects  so  alluring  that  it  was  proposed 
to  make  this  the  County  seat.  The  engineer- 
ing difficulties  that  beset  the  projectors  were 
simply  enormous.  Great  blocks  of  stone 
were  to  be  hewn  through,  and  fills  and  cuts 
that  would  daunt  the  best  equipped  engineer 
of  to-day  were  to  be  met.  Dr.  Crosby  rose 
to  every  occasion.  On  May  27,  1844,  the  first 
water  was  sent  through  the  race,  and  the  day 
of  realization  seemed  at  hand.  But  dissen- 
tions  arose  among  the  stockholders;  money 
was  hard  to  secure,  and  at  last  protracted  liti- 
gation settled  this  project.  Finally  in  June, 
1850,  the  entire  property  which  had  cost  in 
the  neighborhood  of  $300,000.00  was  sold 
for  some  $35,000.00,  and  the  dream  of  the 
"Lowell  of  the  West"  was  over. 

At  the  present  writing,  the  one  tangible 
asset  of  value  remaining  of  all  the  canals  of 
Summit  County,  is  the  property  of  the  Akron 
Hydraulic  Company.  This  flows  along  the 
southern  line  of  the  Pair  Grounds  and  fur- 
nishes the  water-power  indicated  before. 

It  would  be  vmprofitable  to  leave  a  discus- 
sion of  water-ways  without  commenting 
,on  the  cause  of  the  failure  and  indicating  a 
safe  line  of  future  action.  In  his  report  to 
Governor  Nash  in  1903,  Engineer  Perkins 
discusses  the  causes  of  past  failures  and  lays 
out  the  future.  From  this  report  it  appears 
that  from  1827  to  1860  inclusive,  the  latter 
date  being  just  prior  to  leasing  to  a  private 
corporation,  gro.^s  receipts  amounted  to.  some 
$14,000,000.00.  From  that  time  on  a  steady 
decrease  set  in  and,  the  war  coming  on,  the 
interest  of  the  State  was  diverted  to  other 
channels.  Bearing  in  mind  that  the  Legis- 
lature of  the  State  bad  leased  the  canals  to 
private  corporations,  it  is  difficult  to  .see  how 
thev  came  to  the  conclusion  that  to  retain 



them  would  be  bad  business.  Space  will  not 
allow  a  further  discussion  of  that  report.  It 
is  now  proposed  to  rehabilitate  the  canal  sys- 
tem, and  to  build  new  locks  and  widen  the 
channel  and  increase  the  supply  of  water. 
To  this  end  the  reservoir  in  Summit  County 
is  being  greatly  enlarged  and  it  is  proposed 
to  increase  it  so  that  there  will  be  flooded 
166  acres  of  land,  and  that  will  contain  in 
reserve  about  eighty  million  gallons  of  water. 
New  conditions  of  transportation  have  arisen 
and  among  these  is  the  celebrated  electric 
mule,  this  being  a  kind  of  trolley  car  run 
along  the  tow  path  to  draw  the  canal  boat 
It  is  expected  that  the  canal  will  form  a  con- 

venient means  of  carrying  raw  material  and 
other  merchandise,  in  which  time  is  not  a 
factor  in  the  delivery.  The  sane  conclusion 
of  the  matter  is  a  confident  reliance  in  the 
plans  mapped  out,  and  an  ever  constant  re- 
minding of  the  career  of  the  Ohio  and  Penn- 
sylvania canal,  now  abandoned  beyond  re- 
demption. The  Federal  government  has 
shown  interest  in  the  project;  of  a  ship  canal 
from  lake  to  river,  and  it  is  possible,  if  the 
present  administration  shows  wisdom  in  its 
action,  that  once  more  the  boats  of  Summit 
County  may  go  from  the  town  of  Coventry 
to  New  Orleans. 

Harry  S.  Quine. 



The  County's  Chief  Manufacturing  Establishments  of  the  Past  and  of  the  Present — Clay 
Products — Cereal  Mills — Agricultural  Implements — The  Rubber  Industry  —  Printing 
and  Publishing,  Etc. 

As  premised  in  the  introduction  of  this 
history,  Akron's  great  distinction  lies  in  its 
pre-eminence  as  a  city  of  manufactures.  Long 
before  the  traveler  reaches  the  city  he  finds 
its  position  marked  on  the  horizon  by  a  cloud 
of  smoke  by  day  and  a  blaze  of  light  by  night. 
The  smoke  which  hovers  about  the  city  is  in- 
separable from  any  place  doing  manufactur- 
ing on  a  large  scale,  and,  therefore,  this  is  one 
of  the  discomforts  which  is  borne  by  Akron's 
citizens  with  equanimity.  The  smoke  means 
turning  wheels,  prosperity,  and  an  inflow  of 
golden  wealth  to  enrich  capitalist  and  work- 
ingman  alike.  This  golden  shower  makes 
possible  also  the  extensive  mercantile  life  of 
the  city.  Great  department  stores,  some  of 
them  as  large  as  any  in  the  State  of  Ohio, 
have  been  attracted  here  by  the  great  demand 
for  commoditi&s,  which  they  supply  in  all 
the  various  lines  of  retail  trade.  Akron  has 
stores  which  would  be  a  credit  to  any  city  in 
the  land.  They  are  founded  on  a  substantial 
basis  and  their  success  has  been  uniform. 

The  year  1907  has  marked  the  highest 
point  in  the  commercial  life  of  the  city  a- 
well  as  in  the  manufactories.  The  im- 
portance of  Akron  as  a  center  of  manufactur- 
ing makes  it  necessary  to  devote  an  entire 
chapter  to  a  statement  of  its  resources  in  that 
respect,  and  to  present  an  historical  outline 
of  its  industrial  development.  The  earliest 
manufacturing  in  Akron    was    conducted  in 

Middlebury,  and  was  of  a  kind  which 
was  common  to  all  pioneer  settlements. 
The  first  requisite  of  such  a  settle- 
ment was  a  saw-mill  and  grist-mill  and 
some  sort  of  a  smithy.  In  Middlebury  these 
were  operated  by  the  extensive  water-power 
which  the  Cuyahoga  River  affords  at  that 
place.  The  first  industry  of  this  kind  was  a 
grist-mill  built  in  1808  by  Aaron  Nori;on. 
This  occupied  the  ground  on  Case  Avenue, 
where  the  Akron  Sewer  Pipe  Company  now 
stands.  Ten  years  after,  Bagley's  Woolen 
Mills  was  built  in  the  same  vicinity  on  the 
river  bank.  In  1817  the  Cuyahoga  Blast 
Furnace  was  erected  by  Aaron  Norton  and 
William  Laird  on  the  present  site  of  the  Great 
Western  Cereal  Company's  mills.  This  fur- 
nace was  established  for  the  purpose  of  smelts 
ing  the  iron  ore  which  was  found  in  this  vi- 
cinity. This  ore  consisted  principally  of  bog 
iron,  and  the  industry  became  unprofitable 
upon  the  introduction  of  the  rich  ore  from  the 
Lake  Superior  region,  and  for  that  reason  was 
discontinued.  About  1825  the  furnace  prop- 
erty was  purchased  of  Ralph  Plum,  the  then 
owner,  by  Dr.  Eliakim  Crosby,  who  com- 
menced the  manufacturing  of  plows,  hoes  and 
other  agricultural  implements.  In  1827  the 
furnace  property  was  sold  to  Arnold,  Daniel 
and  Isaac  Stewart.  Dr.  Crosby  then  built  a 
large  grist-mill  farther  east  on  the  Cuj^ahoga 
River,  which  he  operated  for  a  year  or  two, 
and  then  sold  to  Increase  Sumner. 




The  clay  deposits  in  the  neighborhood 
soon  attracted  the  attention  of  early  settlers. 
The  potter's  clay  found  in  this  vicinity  is  un- 
surpassed in  quality  and  has  made  Akron's 
stoneware  famous  throughout  the  length  and 
breadth  of  the  land.  Before  long  Akron's 
sewer-pipe  was  the  standard  for  the  world. 
Both  the  stoneware  and  the  sewer-pipe  indus- 
try were  established  about  the  same  time.  The 
pioneer  worker  in  both  of  these  fields  was  Ed- 
win H.  Merrill,  assisted  by  his  brother,  Cal- 
vin J.  Merrill.  He  commenced,  in  1847,  the 
manufacture  of  stone  bottles,  jugs,  smoking 
pipes  and  various  other  articlas  of  stoneware 
on  Bank  Street,  in  the  village  of  Middlebury. 
Enoch  Rowley  was  a  contemporary  of  these 
men  and  conducted  a  successful  enterprise  in 
clay  working  for  many  years  in  the  same 

In  1849  Hill,  Fo.ster  &  Co.  commenced 
making  sewer-pipe.  The  firm  consisted  of 
David  E.  Hill,  Robert  Foster  and  Reuben 
McMillen.  In  1851  the  Merrill  Brothers  and 
Hezekiah  Camp  purchased  the  inter&st  of 
Robert  Foster,  and  the  company  changed  its 
name  to  Hill,  Merrill  and  Company.  Both 
Messrs.  Hill  and  Merrill  devoted  themselves 
to  perfecting  the  process  of  manufacture  and 
invented  many  new  methods.  In  1855  this 
company  became  Merrill,  Powers  &  Company, 
composed  of  Eldwin  H.  Merrill,  Calvin  J.  Mer- 
rill, Frank  Adams  and  Henry  G.  Powers.  In 
1858  the  Merrills  withdrew.  Mr.  Hill  re-en- 
tered the  business  and  the  firm  name  was 
changed  to  Hill,  Powers  &  Company.  In  1859 
Hill  and  Adams  bought  out  the  other  parties 
and  continued  the  business  until  1868,  when 
the  Hill  and  Adams  Sewer  Pipe  Company  was 
formed.  This  company  consisted  of  David 
E.  Hill,  David  L.  King,  Ozias  Barber,  Lorenzo 
Aiistin  and  Frank  Adams.  At  this  time  there 
was  only  one  other  factory  of  this  kind  in  the 
United  States.  In  1871  the  company  was  re- 
organized as  the  Akron  Sewer  Pipe  Company, 
with  a  capital  of  $175,000.  Mr.  Frank  Adams 
was  president  and  David  L.  King  secretary 
and  treasurer  of    the    company.     In    1873 

David  E.  Hill  founded  the  Hill  Sewer  Pipe 
Company,  with  a  capital  of  $80,000.  In  1872 
the  Buckeye  Sewer  Pipe  Company,  with  a 
capital  of  $100,000,  was  organized  by  Joseph 
A.  Baldwin.  In  1879  Robinson  Brothers  and 
Company,  with  a  capital  of  $300,000,  was  or- 
ganized for  the  purpose  of  operating  a  sewer- 
pipe  factory  at  the  Old  Forge.  This  company 
was  formed  by  Henry  Robinson  and  Thomas 
Robinson.  It  was  a  nucleus  for  the  gi'eat  Rob- 
inson Clay  Product  Company  of  the  present 
time.  In  1889  the  Summit  Sewer  Pipe  Com- 
pany was  incorporated,  with  a  capital  of  $100,- 
000.  It  comimenced  the  manufacture  of 
sewer-pipe  on  Miller  Avenue  in  South  Akron. 
Joseph  A.  Baldwin  was  its  president  and 
George  T.  Whitmore  was  its  general  manager. 
In  1850  Enoch  Rowley,  Edward  Baker  and 
Herbert  Baker  commenced  the  manufacture 
of  yellowware  in  Middlebury.  About  1852 
Thomas  Johnson  associated  himself  with  the.-e 
men.  In  1857  Johnson  Whitmore  and  Com- 
pany was  organized,  Mr.  Richard  AVhitmore 
and  the  Robinson  Brothers  having  succeeded 
Mr.  Rowley.  In  1862  the  firm  changed  to 
Whitmore,  Robinsons  and  Company,  wliich 
continued  until  September,  1887,  when  The 
Whitmore,  Robinson  and  Company  was  in- 
corporated, with  a  capital  stock  of  $200,000. 
The  bu.siness  was  continued  under  this  name 
until  1902,  when  the  Robinson  Clay  Product 
Company  was  incorporated  under  the  laws  of 
the  State  of  Maine,  with  a  capital  of  $2,000,- 
000.  In  1861  Edwin  H.  Merrill  and  his  son, 
H.  E.  Merrill,  established  the  Akron  pottery 
on  the  corner  of  South  Main  and  State 
Streets.  In  1880  Fred  W.  Butler  became  in- 
terested with  them.  In  1887  these  three  men 
formed  the  corporation  known  as  the  E.  H. 
Merrill  Company,  with  a  capital  stock  of  $50,- 
000.  The  company  continued  until  they 
merged  with  The  Robinson  Clay  Product 
Company  in  1902.  Other  stoneware  compa- 
nies which  have  done  a  successful  business  in 
Akron  are  the  Ohio  Stoneware  Company  (G. 
A.  Parker,  president;  F.  S.  Stelker,  secretary; 
E.  H.  Gibbs,  treasurer,  227-250  Front  Street), 
The  United  States  Stoneware  Company,  F.  W. 
Rockwell  and  Company,  The  Akron  Stone- 



5  s 

o  ^ 



ware  Company,  Markle  and  Inman  Company 
and  Fred  H.  Weeks. 

In  1875  Joseph  C.  Ewart  commenced  in  the 
southern  part  of  the  city  the  manufacture  of 
vitrified  roofing-tile.  In  1902  this  company 
was  incorporated  under  the  name  of  the  Ak- 
ron Roofing  Tile  Company,  S.  A.  White, 
president;  Charles  E.  Rowland,  secretary  and 
treasurer  and  general  manager;  W.  B.  Col- 
lins,- assistant  secretary. 

There  have  been  a  number  of  successful 
brick  manufactories  in  the  city,  among  which 
are  the  Diamond  Fire  Brick  Works,  estab- 
lished in  1866  by  J.  Park  Alexander.  The 
business  is  still  carried  on  at  the  corner  of 
Canal  and  Cherry  Streets  in  this  city.  The 
Akron  Fire  Brick  Company  was  established  in 
1873  by  Byron  A.  Allison  and  Delos  Hart. 
Since  1877  Mr.  Allison  continued  the  busi- 
ness alone  until  the  incorporation  of  the  com- 
pany in  1882,  with  .a  capital  stock  of  $50,000. 


Reference  has  been  made  to  the  small  grist- 
mills which  were  operated  in  the  county  in 
the  eai-ly  days.  These  were,  of  course,  of  a 
very  limited  capacity  and  were  destined  mere- 
ly to  meet  the  needs  of  the  farmers  in  the 
surrounding  territory.  They  brought  their 
grain  to  these  primitive  mills  and  sometimes 
waited  until  it  was  being  ground  to  flour.  On 
account  of  lack  of  transportation  facilities,  lit- 
tle or  no  attempt  was  made  to  find  a  market 
for  dealer.*  extending  outside  the  county.  In 
1832,  just  after  the  canal  was  opened  from 
Cleveland  to  Portsmouth,  milling  on  a  large 
scale  was  begun.  The  first  of  these  large  mills 
was  the  Old  Stone  Mill,  which  was  built  in 
1832  by  Dr.  Eliakim  Cro.sby,  and  inter- 
ested with  him  in  his  canal  projects.  This 
was  budlt  to  use  the  waters  of  the  race  from 
the  Old  Forge  through  the  center  of  Main 
Street  to  Lock  Five.  In  1838  the  Et/na  Mills, 
located  on  the  canal,  just  north  of  West  Mar- 
ket Street,  was  built  by  Samuel  A.  Wheeler 
and  John  B.  Mitchell.  A  year  later,  Joseph 
A.  Beebe  and  William  E.  Wright  built  the 
Center  Mills,  ako  located  on    the    canal    at 

Cherry  Street.  In  1840  the  Cascade  Mills  at 
the  terminus  of  the  races  on  North  Howard 
Street,  were  built  by  AVilliam  Mitchell.  A  year 
or  two  after,  George  W.  McNeil  built  the 
City  Mill  on  West  Market  Street  between 
Canal  Street  and  the  canal.  George  Ayliffe 
about  the  same  time  commenced  the  manufac- 
ture of  cereal  goods  on  South  Main  Street. 
He  sold  out  to  Carter  and  Steward,  who  con- 
tinued the  business  of  making  oatmeal  until 
their  mills  were  destroyed  by  fire  in  1881.  In 
1856  Albert  Allen  established  the  Allen  Mill 
on  Canal  Street,  south  of  Cherry  Street. 

In  1851  Ferdinand  Schumacher  came  to 
Akron  from  Germany.  He  was  born  in  Celle, 
Hanover,  March,  30,  1822,  and  came  to  the 
United  States  in  1850.  He  worked  one  year 
on  a  farm  near  Cleveland  and  in  1851  opened 
up  a  fancy  goods  store  in  the  Hall  block  on 
the  corner  of  Market  and  Howard  Streets. 
His  partner  in  this  was  Theodore  Weibezahn. 
Their  store  was  a  very  small  one  and  fronted 
on  West  Market  Street.  It  did  not  offer  the 
inducement  for  advancement  that  Mr.  Schu- 
macher desired  and,  accordingly,  in  August, 
1852,  he  started  a  small  grocery  store  in  the 
room  now  occupied  by  the  Dollar  Savings 
Bank.  His  business  growing  rapidly,  he 
imoved  to  a  larger  stand  across  the  street,  next 
to  the  Empire  House.  In  1859  he  com- 
menced making  oatmeal  on  a  very  small  scale 
in  a  frame  building  on  Howard  Street.  Loyal 
to  his  native  country,  he  named  it  the  Ger- 
man Mill.  Oatmeal  was  a  new  thing  in  this 
locality  and  its  sale  was  at  first  very  slow.  The 
early  deliveries  were  ^made  in  a  hand-cart,  and 
a  humbler  l>eginning  could  not  have  been 

Mr.  Schumacher  in  a  few  years  added  the 
making  of  pearl  barley  to  his  line.  In  1863 
he  built  the  first  of  his  mills  on  South  Sum- 
mit Street,  between  Mill  and  Quarry.  In 
1872  a  new  German  Mill  was  built  there.  In 
1879  a  large  grain  elevator  was  built  by  Mr. 
Schumacher.  Then  came  the  Big  Jumbo 
mill,  an  eight-.story  structure,  devoted  entire- 
ly to  the  making  of  cereals.  Then  a  fine,  stone 
office  building,  co.sting  $80,000,  was  built  on 
the  corner  of  Mill  and  Broadway.    Mr.  Schu- 



macher  was  now  the  foremost  miller  in  the 
world.  The  company,  of  which  he  was  the 
founder  and  head,  had  reached  the  climax  of 
prosperity,  when,  on  the  night  of  March  6, 
1886,  the  entire  plant  was  destroyed  by  fire, 
entailing  a  loss  of  over  a  million  dollars  to 
the  company. 

In  April,  1886,  just  a  month  after  the  de- 
struction of  the  big  plant  by  fire,  the  Ferdi- 
nand Schumacher  Milling  Company  was  in- 
corporated, with  a  capital  stock  of  two  million 
dollars.  The  Old  Stone  Mill,  which  had  been 
operated  by  Cummins  and  Allen,  was  con- 
solidated with  the  Schumacher  interests.  Mr. 
Ferdinand  Schumacher  was  made  president 
of  the  new  company.  In  July,  1891,  the 
American  Cereal  Company  was  incorporated, 
with  a  capital  of  $3,400,000.  This  was  com- 
posed of  all  the  principal  oatmeal  mills  of  the 
United  States.  It  absorbed  the  Hower  Mill- 
ing Company  of  Akron.  In  1907  the  Quaker 
Oats  Company  took  the  place  of  the  Ameri- 
can Cereal  Company.  Just  after  the  forma- 
tion of  the  American  Cereal  Company  the 
principal  office  was  established  in  Chicago 
and  many  of  Akron's  best  citizens  were  taken 
to  that  city  on  account  of  the  change.  The 
representative  of  the  officers  of  the  company 
at  Akron  is  J.  H.  Andrews,  the  local  super- 

In  1870  Robert  Turner  commenced  the 
manufacture  of  oatmed  on  the  corner  of 
Canal  and  Cherry  Streets.  He  was  succeeded 
in  1879  and  1880  by  The  Hower  Company,  of 
which  John  H.  Hower  was  president;  Har- 
vey Y.  Hower,  vice-pre.sident;  M.  Otiis  Hower, 
secretary,  and  Charles  H.  Hower,  treasurer. 
At  the  time  of  their  consolidation  with  the 
American  Cereal  Company  they  were  doing 
a  very  large  and  prosperous  business. 

In  1883  John  F.  Seiberling  organized  the 
Seiberling  Milling  Company,  and  built  a  six- 
story  brick  flouring  mill  in  east  Akron,  which 
is  now  the  Akron  plant  of  the  Great  Western 
Cereal  Companv.  It  was  organized  with  a 
capital  of  $200,000,  and  had  a  capacity  of  100 
barrels  a  day.  The  first  officers  were  J.  F. 
Seiberling,  president;  Lucius  C.  Miles,  secre- 
tuTV,  and  Frank  A.  Seiberling,  treasurer.    In 

1901  it  became  a  part  of  the  Great  Western 
Cereal  Company,  with  a  capital  of  $3,000,000. 
The  Allen  Mills  were  founded  about  1845  by 
Simon  Perkins,  Jedediali  D.  Commins,  Alex- 
ander H.  Commins,  Jesse  Allen,  Hiram  Al- 
len and  Jacob  Allen.  The  mills  were  after- 
wards converted  into  flouring  mills  by  the 
Perkins  Company  and  afterwards  the  Allye 
and  Company  was  formed  of  F.  H.  Allen, 
Victor  J.  Allen  and  William  A.  Palmer. 


At  one  period  of  its  existence  Akron  was 
known  as  the  "Match  Town."  This  was  on 
account  of  the  location  here  of  the  Barber 
Match  Company,  which  afterwards  became 
the  Diamond  Match  Company.  The  most 
primitive  form  of  the  match  was  the  small, 
pine  stick,  coated  with  certain  chemicals, 
which  were  lighted  by  dipping  the  chemical 
end  in  a  solution  of  aqua-fortis.  Matches  aft- 
erwards were  made  by  using  a  chemical  com^ 
position,  which  could  be  ignited  by  means  of 
a  piece  of  sand-paper.  Late  in  the  thirties  came 
the  Loco-Foco  match.  Samuel  A.  Lane  and 
James  R.  Miltimore  were  the  pioneer  makers 
of  matches  in  Akron.  These  Loco-Foco 
matches  were  of  pine,  dipped  alternately  into 
melted  brimstone  and  a  phosphonis  composi- 
tion. S.  A.  Lane  and  Company  began  mak- 
ing them  in  1838.  They  continued  the  busi- 
ness onlv  about  a  vear,  finding  little  profit  in 

In  1845  George  Barber  commenced  the 
manufacture  of  matches  in  a  small  barn  in 
Middleburv.  This  was  the  humble  beginning 
of  the  great  Diamond  Match  Company  of  to- 
day, with  its  great  factories  and  universal 
business.  Mr.  Barber  found  the  business 
profitable  and  made  several  removals,  finally 
occupying  the  entire  woolen  factory  which 
stood  on  the  site  of  the  present  Goodyear  Tire 
and  Rubber  Works.  In  1865  the  Barber 
Match  Company  was  formed,  with  George 
Barber,  president;  0.  C.  Barber,  secretary  and 
treasurer,  and  J.  K.  Robinson,  general  agent. 
In  1871  the  Barber  Match  Company  moved 
to  South  Akron  to  where  the  Diamond  Rubber 



works  is  now  located.  In  1881  the  Barber 
Match  Company,  with  twenty-eight  other  es- 
tablishments in  the  United  States,  were  incor- 
porated under  the  name  of  the  Diamond 
Match  Company,  with  a  capital  stock  of  $6,- 
000,000.  Mr.  0.  C.  Barber  was  made  presi- 
dent of  this  company  and  John  K.  Robinson, 
treasurer.  Today  the  Diamond  Match  Com- 
pany is  one  of  the  great  industrial  corpora- 
tions of  the  world,  and  the  most  credit  for  its 
success  is  due  to  the  Akron  man,  Ohio  Colum- 
bus Barber,  who  has  been  its  president  since 
its  inception. 

In  1879  the  Miller  Match  Company  was 
formed  for  the  manufacture  of  parlor  matches 
in  the  building  which  formerly  stood  just 
west  of  the  old  plant  oif  the  B.  F.  Goodrich 
Company.  It  wa^  organized  bv  Harvev  F. 
Miller  and  S.  S.  Miller.  Col.  A.  L.  Conger 
was  its  president.  In  1885  it  was  incorporated 
with  a  capital  stock  of  $100,000.  In  1888  it 
was  sold  to  the  Diamond  Match  Company. 


The  Buckeye  Mower  and  Reaper  Works :  In 
1864  a  branch  of  the  A.  Aultman  Company, 
of  Canton,  w^as  established  in  Akron  and  th« 
manufacture  of  inowers  and  reapers  was  com- 
menced in  the  great  plant  along  the  railroad;? 
at  the  corner  of  Center  Street.  A  separate 
company  was  then  formed  to  conduct  the 
business  and  was  known  as  Aultman,  Miller 
and  Company.  Lewis  Miller  was  the  general 
superintendent  of  the  works  from  the  begin- 
ning, and,  under  his  able  direction,  the  com- 
pany grew  to  be  one  of  the  largest  institu- 
tions of  its  kind  in  the  country.  Much  of 
the  Buckeye  machine  was  the  invention  of 
Mr.  Miller  himself.  G.  "W.  Crouse  was  presi- 
dent; Ira  Miller,  .secretary,  and  R.  H.  Wright, 
treasurer.  The  company  continued  to  do  a 
prosperous  business  until  about  1902,  when 
the  organization  of  the  International  Harves- 
ter Company  deprived  the  local  company  of 
its  opportunity  to  compete  on  equal  groimds. 
In  1905  a  receiver  for  the  company  was  ap- 
pointed and  the  entire  a.ssets  were  sold  to  the 
International  Harvester  Company,  by  order  of 

the  court.  The  litigation  over  the  failure  of 
the  Aultman,  Miller  Company  is  still  (in 
1907)  pending. 

In  1865  John  F.  Seiberling  organized  the 
J.  F.  Seiberling  Company  and  established  the 
Empire  Mower  and  Reaper  Works  on  the 
railroad,  near  Mill  Street.  Mr.  Seiberling 
had  been  a  druggist  in  Akron  and  in  1858 
had  invented  the  Excelsior  mower  and  reaper, 
with  a  dropper  attachment.  In  1861  he  com- 
menced the  manufacture  of  them  at  Doyles- 
town.  In  1864  he  began  the  manufacture  in 
Massillon,  and  in  1865  brought  the  industry 
to  Akron.  A  large  business  was  soon  e.stab- 
lished  and  very  extensive  shops  were  erected. 
In  the  panic  of  1873  the  company  was  unable 
to  weather  the  storm  and  an  assigne  in  in- 
solvency took  possession  of  the  plant.  When 
the  Excelsior  plant  was  sold,  Mr.  Seiberling 
purchased  it  and  organized  a  new  company, 
entitled  the  J.  F.  Seiberling  Company,  with 
himself  as  president;  F.  A.  Seiberling,  secre- 
tary and  treasurer,  and  Charles  W.  Seiberling 
as  superintendent.  Capital  stock  was  $160.- 
000,  and  the  plant  was  known  as  the  Empire 
Works.  The  business  at  first  was  successful, 
and  Mr.  Seiberling  reaped  a  large  fortune.  In 
the  year  1900  business  began  to  fail  and  ul- 
timately an  'assignee  was  appointed  by  order 
of  court  and  the  business  wound  up.  The  old 
Empire  plant  was  afterwards  occupied  by 
the  India  Rubber  Company  and  still  Later  by 
the  Fiebeger  Heating  Company. 

The  Akron  Iron  Company  was  established 
by  Lewis  Miller  and  other  parties  intere.sted 
in  the  Aultman,  Miller  Company  in  1866. 
Large  rolling  mills  were  built  on  the  railroads 
south  of  Exchange  Street.  Upon  its  reorgani- 
zation in  the  year  1900  the  company  was 
known  by  the  title  of  the  Akron  Iron  and 
Steel  Company,  with  a  large  part  of  its  capital 
stock  held  in  the  East.  Stress  of  competition 
overwhelmed  it,  and  finally  its  business  was 
wound  up,  and  the  plant  sold  to  the  railroad 
.companies.  The  old  site  is  now  a  part  of  the 
Akron  yards  of  the  Erie  railroad. 

In  September,  1886,  the  Selle  Gear  Com- 
pany was  incor{3orated  with  a  capital  stock  of 
$100,000.     George  W.   Crouse  was  its  presi- 



dent;  F.  M.  Atterholt,  vice-president,  and  W. 
C.  Parsons,  secretary  and  treasurer.  A  large 
factory  was  built  on  Chestnut  Street,  corner 
of  High,  and  the  company  began  the  manu- 
facture of  the  Selle  patented  platform  gear 
for  wagons.  In  1906  it  became  the  Akron- 
Selle  Company,  with  M.  Otis  Hower  as  presi- 
dent and  general  manager ;  H.  Y.  Ho\ter,  vice- 
president;  H.  A.  Paul,  secretary,  and  E.  R. 
Held,  treasurer.  Under  the  able  manage- 
ment of  M.  Otis  Hower,  a  very  large  busi- 
ness is  being  built  up,  and  there  are  good 
reasons  for  believing  that,  in  a  very  short 
time,  this  concern  will  be  one  of  the  largest 
maufacturing  institutions  of  the  city. 

The  Akron  Belting  Company  was  incor- 
porated in  1885  by  George  W.  Crouse,  Alfred 
M.  Barber  and  Sumner  Nash.  Its  first  plant 
was  on  North  Main  Street,  where  the  Grand 
Opera  Hou.'^e  is  now  located.  They  are  mak- 
ing a  very  superior  quality  of  leather  belting 
of  all  sizes.  Upon  the  vacation  of  the  Allen 
Mills  on  Canal  Street,  this  company  moved 
into  them  and  ha.s  continued  to  do  busines.*  at 
that  stand  since.  The  pra'^ent  officers  are :  A. 
B.  Rhinehart,  president;  Sumner,  vice- 
president;  George  Wince,  secretary  and  treas- 
urer, and  Webster  Thorpe,  .-iuperintendent. 


In  1872  Thomas  Phillips  and  Company 
commenced  the  manufacture  of  paper  on  the 
Ohio  Canal  at  West  Exchange  Street.  Their 
business  consisted  of  making  paper  bags,  flour 
sacks,  wrapping  paper,  etc.,  and  a  very  large 
business  has  been  built  up.  In  1887  The 
Thomas  Phillips  Company  was  incorporated 
with  a  capital  stock  of  $150,000.  G.  W. 
Crouse  was  its  president  and  Clarence  How- 
land,  secretarj^  and  general  manager.  The 
present  officers  are  F.  D.  Howland,  president ; 
F.  A.  Seiberling.  vice-president;  G.  D.  How- 
land,  secretary,  and  F.  A.  Howland,  treasurer 
and  general  manager. 

In  1885  the  Akron  Twine  and  Cordage 
Company  was  organized  by  the  directors  of 
the  Aultman,  Miller  Company.  G.  W.  Crouse 
was  its  president;  Ira  M.  Miller,  vice-president. 

and  R.  H.  Wright,  secretary  and  treasurer.  A 
large  factory  was  built  on  Hdll  Street  just  east 
of  the  railroads.  Rope  and  cordage  of  all 
kinds  was  manufactured.  .V  specialty  was 
made  of  binder  twine.  When  hard  times  fell 
upon  the  Buckeye  Mower  and  Reaper  Works, 
the  Twine  and  Cordage  Company  became  in- 
volved in  the  trouble  and  for  a  long  time  they 
did  not  run.  But  at  the  present  time  they  are 
being  operated  under  the  direction  of  the  In- 
ternational Harvester  Company,  which  pur- 
chased the  assets  of  the  Aultman,  Miller  Com- 

In  1878  Edward  George  Kubler  and  John 
Martin  Beck  founded  what  has  been  known 
as  the  Akron  Varnish  Works.  They  are 
manufacturers  of  varnishes.  Japans  and  other 
similar  products.  They  commenced  in  a  hu'm- 
ble  way  in  a  .small  building  on  Bowery  Street, 
and  afterwards  built  a  large  brick  factory  on 
West  State  Street,  where  they  still  are  engaged 
in  the  .same  busin&ss.  In  1882  David  L.  King 
organized  the  King  Varnish  Company,  and 
built  a  large,  six-story  brick  factory  on  Canal 
Street,  just  north  of  Market.  The  business 
■proved  unprofitable  and  an  assignment  was 
made.  In  1889  David  R.  Paige  bought  the 
business,  associating  John  H.  McCrum  with 
him.  Upon  the  destruction  of  the  factory  by 
fie,  the  company  was  merged  with  the  Kubler 
and  Beck  Company,  under  the  name  of  the 
Akron  Varnish  Company.  The  officers  are: 
E.  G.  Kubler,  president :  J.  M.  Beck,  vice-pres- 
ident and  treasurer;  E.  M.  Beck,  secretary;  F. 
W.  Whitner,  assistant  treasurer;  F.  A.  Fauver, 

In  1870  John  W.  Baker  and  John  C.  Mc- 
Millen  established  the  Baker-McMillen  Com- 
pany and  commenced  the  manufacture  of 
enameled  knobs,  handles,  etc.  In  July,  1890, 
the  Baker-McMillen  Company  was  incorpo- 
rated with  a  capital  of  $120,000,  and  a  very 
large  busine&s  was  built  up.  The  present  of- 
ficers are:  H.  B.  Sperr^^,  president  and  treas- 
urer; W.  H.  Stoner,  secretary  and  general 

The  firs4.  planing  mill  was  e«tabli.shed  in 
Akron  in  1832  by  Smith  Burton  in  Middle- 
bury.    In  1836  James  Bangs  started  a  shingle 



mill  near  the  corner  of  Main  and  Federal 
Streets.  Samuel  G.  AVilson  bought  him  out, 
and  a  few  years  later  established  a  shingle 
mill  and  lumber  yard  on  Main  Street,  just 
south  of  Howard.  A  few  years  later  Mr.  Wil- 
son took  in  Justus  Rockwell  and  they  bought 
out  the  lumber  yard  of  W.  B.  Storer,  which 
had  been  established  on  North  Main  Street. 
Mr.  Samuel  G.  Wilson  was  thus  the  pioneer 
lumber  dealer  of  Akron.  In  1865  he  inter- 
ested himself  with  William  B.  Doyle,  Samuel 
Farnum  and  John  H.  Dix,  and  they  organ- 
ized the  firm  of  W.  B.  Doyle  and  Company. 
In  1S67  Hon.  John  Johnson  bought  the  in- 
terest of  Mr.  AVilson.  In  1873  Mr.  Johnson 
retired  and  the  business  was  conducted  by  the 
other  parties,  until  the  death  of  Mr.  Dix  in 
1886,  and  the  retirement  of  Mr.  Farnum  in 
1888,  when  the  business  was  carried  on  by 
Mr.  Doyle.  Upon  his  death,  August  6,  1890, 
this  pioneer  company  ceased  to  exist. 

In  1845  David  Miller  established  a  na'^h, 
door  and  blind  factory,  which  was  purchased 
by  D.  G.  Wilcox  in  1866.  In  1864  he  formed 
a  partnership  with  Samuel  B.  Weary,  Jacob 
Snyder  and  Andrew  Jackson,  under  the  firm 
name  of  AVeary,  Snyder  and  Company.  In 
1867  the  company  was  incorporated  and  con- 
tinued to  do  business  until  the  destruction  of 
the  plant  by  fire  about  five  years  ago. 

In  1863  George  Thomas  established  the 
Thomas  Building  and  Lumber  Company, 
with  works  on  the  west  side  of  the  canal,  be- 
tween Bank  and  Cherry  Streets.  In  1877 
David  AV.  Thomas  succeeded  to  the  business. 
In  1888  he  organized  the  corporation  with  a 
capital  stock  of  $100,000.  The  new  company 
also  took  possession  of  the  lumber  business 
thereftofore  conducted  by  AVilliam  Buchtel. 

In  1867  the  business  of  Solon  N.  AVilson 
was  established,  and  he  is  now  doing  a  suc- 
cessful business  in  lumber  and  contracting. 
The  Hankey  Lumber  Company  was  estab- 
lished in  1873  by  Simon  Hankey. 

The  Enterprise  Manufacturing  Company 
is  one  of  Akron's  most  successful  manufactur- 
ing establishments.  It  was  founded  in  1881 
by  Ernest  F.  Pflueger,  and  was  incorporated 
in  1886  for  the  purpose  of    making    fishing 

supplies,  etc.  It  has  grown  from  the  start,  un- 
til it  now  occupies  the  great  factory  of  Ash 
Street.  The  present  officers  are:  G.  A. 
Pflueger,  president;  G.  E.  Pflueger,  vice-presi- 
dent and  superintendent;  E.  A.  Pflueger,  sec- 
retary and  treasurer,  and  H.  A.  West,  assist- 
ant secretary  and  treasurer. 

The  Western  Linoleum  Company  was  in- 
corporated January  1,  1891,  with  a  capital  of 
$200,000.  A.  M.  Cole  was  its  first  president; 
AA^.  E.  Hoover,  secretary  and  treasurer,  and 
Charles  Templeton,  general  superintendent. 
They  are  now  a  part,  of  the  Standard  Table  Oil 
Cloth  Company.  E.  A.  Oviatt  is  the  local 

The  Globe  Sign  and  Poster  Company  began 
business  as  the  Globe  Sign  Company,  and 
was  incorporated  in  1890.  John  Grether,  S. 
S.  Miller,  Frank  Reefsnyder,  AV.  B.  Gamble 
and  H.  G.  Bender  were  its  first  organizers. 


The  B.  F.  Goodrich  Con>pany.  Akron  is 
best  known  today  as  the  world's  center  for 
the  rubber  manufacturing  industry.  It  is  the 
chief  of  all  our  industries.  It  has  more  capi- 
tal inve,sted,  more  hands  employed,  larger  fac- 
tories, and  a  larger  value  of  output  than  any 
other  line  of  manufacture  in  the  city.  Most 
of  this  growth  has  taken  place  in  the  last 
twelve  years;  all  of  it  .since  1870.  The  origin 
of  rubber-working  in  Akron  goes  back  to  the 
advent  of  Dr.  B.  F.  Goodrich  in  our  midst. 
The  date  is  1870.  He  was  the  original  rubber 
mam  of  Akron,  and  without  him  there  probab- 
ly would  have  been  no  rubber  industry  here. 
In  1870  Dr.  B.  F.  Goodrich  came  from  the 
East  and  a.ssooiated  himself  with  Colonel 
George  T.  Perkins,  George  AA^.  Crouse  and 
others  of  this  city,  and  started  what  was  then 
known  as  B.  F.  Goodrich  and  Company — ^the 
Akron  Rubber  AA^orks.  The  business  slowly 
grew  and  prospered  until  in  1880  a  co-partner- 
ship was  formed  and  the  business  incorpo- 
rated under  the  name  of  The  B.  F.  Goodrich 
Company,  with  a  capitalization  of  $100,000. 
The  growth  of  the  company  was  continuous 
from  that  time  on   and  the  capital   was  in- 



creased  from  time  to  time  as  the  demands  of 
the  business  required,  until  at  present  the 
capitalization  of  the  company  is  $10,000,000. 

Dr.  Goodrich  remained  president  of  tlie 
company  until  1888,  the  time  of  his  death, 
when  Colonel  George  T.  Perkins  succeeded 
him,  holding  the  position  until  January  15, 
1907.  The  present  officer  are:  B.  G.  Work, 
president;  F.  H.  Mason,  vice-president;  II.  E. 
Raymond,  second  vice-president;  C.  B.  Ray- 
mond, secretary;  W.  A.  Folger,  treasurer;  AV. 
A.  Means,  assistant  treasurer ;  E.  C.  Shaw,  gen- 
eral manager  of  works ;  C.  C.  Goodrich,  gen- 
eral superintendent,  and  H.  E.  Joy,  assistant 
general  superintendent.  The  directors  are 
Colonel  George  T.  Perkins,  F.  H.  Mason,  B. 
G.  Work,  H.  E.  Raymond,  E.  C.  Shaw,  George 
W.  and  C.  C.  Goodrich. 

The  product  oif  the  company  consists  of  a 
full  line  of  soft  rubber  goods,  such  a  belting, 
hose,  packings,  druggists'  sundry  goods,  golf 
balls,-  tennis  balls,  automobile  and  bicycle 
tires,  carriage  tires,  molded  goods,  mats,  boots 
and  shoes.  The  factory  buildings  cover  an  area 
of  sixteen  and  one-half  acres  of  floor  space  on 
fifteen  and  one-half  acres  of  ground,  and 
the  buildings  are  lighted  by  over  8,000  incan- 
descent lamp.s  and  one  hundred  arc  lights. 
The  power  plant  has  a  generating  capacitv  of 
3,500  K.  W.,  and  a  boiler  -capacity  of  6,Cm 
H.  P.,  4,500  H.  P.  of  -motors  being  used  to 
drive  the  machinery  throughout  the  plant. 
The  company  has  3,300  people  in  its  employ. 

Diamond  Rubber  Company.  In  1898  the 
Diamond  Rubber  Company  was  unknown  out- 
side of  a  limited  circle  of  trade.  With  a  oapi- 
talization  of  $50,000,  it  was  manufacturing  a 
modest  line  of  mechanical  rubber  goods  and 
tires — then,  as  now,  in  competition  with  con- 
cerns powerful  in  productive  and  brain  ca- 
pacity. And  ati  that  time,  too,  the  majority 
of  competing  companies  were  rich  with  the 
prestige  which  long  established  business  rela- 
tion? give.  Still  the  Diamond  Rubber  Com- 
pany grew. 

The  present  canitalization  of  the  concern  is 
$5,000,000,  but  the  real  extent  of  its  growth 
and  the  rapid  increase  of  its  strength  are  l>et- 
ter  .shown  by  other  comparisons.     Two  hun- 

dred and  fifty  was  the  number  of  the  com- 
pany's employes  in  1898.  Twenty-!?even  hun- 
dred and  twenty  is  the  number  in  1907,  with 
the  quota  of  brains  per  capita  also  increased. 

Crude  rubber  was  brought  by  cases  of  500 
pounds  each  by  this  company  seven  years  ago. 
Now  single  purchases  amount  to  as  much  as 
200  tons.  For  four  years  the  mill  rooms  of 
the  Diamond  Rubber  Company  have  been  in 
operation  night  and  day  the  year  around. 
Their  equipment  in  1898  included  seven  mills 
and  two  calenders.  Today,  with  twenty-seven 
mills  and  seven  calenders,  it  is  only  by  keep- 
ing every  wheel  constantly  turning  that  stocks 
can  be  made  ready  fast  enough. 

An  engine  capacity  of  250  horse-power, 
whicli  was  sufficient  seven  years  ago,  has 
steadily  increased  until  today  the  capacity  is 
2,050  horse-power  and  every  ounce  of  pressure 

If  every  day  for  ten  years,  Sundays  in- 
cluded, the  factories  of  the  Diamond  Rubber 
Company  had  expanded  95  square  feet,  the 
total  would  still  fall  short  of  equaling  the 
extensions  in  new  buildings  and  additions  the 
company  has  erected  within  that  time.  And 
the  ground  area  used  is  now  eighteen  acres, 
as  compared  with  less  than  six  acres  in  1898. 

Seven  years  ago  the  Diamond  Rubber  Com- 
pany had  no  branch  establishments:  they 
were  not  necessary.  Today  the  company  has 
its  own  branches  in  twelve  principal  cities, 
with  three  stores  in  New  York  and  two  in 
Chicago,  besides  exclusive  agencies  in  many 
other  business  centers. 

Hose  holds  a  conspicuous  place  in  the  prod- 
ucts of  the  company,  and  is  a  department  hav- 
ing .several  extensive  sub-divisions.  Air-brake 
hose  is  the  most  prominent  in  the  line  of  its 
products  for  the  railroad  trade.  From  a  small 
beginning  their  production  of  air-brake  hose, 
made  to  Master  Car  Builders'  Recommended 
Practice,  or  their  own,  or  other  specifications, 
has  grown  to  an  average  of  nearly  2.000  pieces 
per  dav,  made  with  such  care  and  precision 
that  the  percentage  of  rejected  goods  has 
cea.sed  to  be  a  factor — a  remarkable  achieve- 

The  steam  hose  problem  is  another  whose 



solution,  in  a  manner  distinctlj'  gratifying, 
not  only  to  the  company,  but  to  the  trade,  con- 
tributed directly  to  the  growth  of  the  com- 
pany. And.  furthermore,  the  mastery  of  the 
art  of  making  steam  hose  was  in  itself  the 
overcoming  of  the  long-vexing  car-heating 
hose  problem  as  well.  Both  are  now  a  notable 
part  of  their  daily  output,  with  an  increase  in 
these  and  allied  lines,  such  as  signal  hose,  cor- 
rugated tender  hose,  etc.,  steadily  indicated 
from  month  to  month. 

Another  division  of  the  hose  department 
which  has  similarly  expanded  is  that  devoted 
to  water  hose,  tank  hose  and  kindred  kinds. 
Hose  for  fire  protection  is  a  subject  so  impor- 
tant that  they  regularly  divide  it  into  three 
classifications — rubber  fire  ho.*e,  cotton  jacket 
rubber-lined  fire  hose,  and  cotton  jacket  rub- 
ber-lined mill  hose.  There  is  not  a  day  in  the 
year — Sundays  always  excepted — that  their 
own  looms  are  not  roaring  with  industry  in 
the  weaving  of  fire  and  mill  hose  jackets  from 
their  own  tested  yarn.  Their  sales  of  garden,  by  the  way,  where  formerly  measured 
yearly  by  the  thousands  of  feet,  are  now  com- 
puted by  the  millions. 

Belting  constitutes  a  large  department  in 
the  Diamond  factories,  and  in  seven  years  the 
output  has  doubled  and  doubled  again,  one  of 
the  various  additions  erected  within  that  pe- 
riod having  been  expressly  to  provide  greater 
space  and  facilities  for  the  belt  department. 

Six  hand  used  to  keep  up  with  the 
demand  for  moulded  goods  made  by  the  com- 
pany. Today  ten  times  six  and  all  hydraulic 
presses  are  necessary.  Hard  rubber  has  been 
a  part  of  the  Diamond  Rubber  Company's 
product  for  only  a  few  years,  but  today  the 
department  would  make  by  itself  a  factory  of 
creditable  size.  The  output  Is  confined  large- 
ly to  battery  jars,  sheets,  rods  and  tubing,  re- 
insulating  tape,  etc. 

Tires — last,  but  by  no  means  least.  Dia- 
mond detachable  clincher  tires  for  automo- 
biles are  the  equipment  on  a  very  large  per- 
centage of  all  motor  cars  used  in  this  countr\'. 
Diamond  .solid  side  wire  motor  truck  tires  and 
Diamond  solid  and  cushion  tires  for  lighter 
commercial  vehicles  and  carriages  are  scarce- 

ly less  well  known.  The  annual  business  of 
this  eompaey  in  its  tire  department  mounts 
well  into  the  millions  of  dollars  and  has  made 
necessary  the  erection  of  one  of  the  largest 
structures  on  earth  devoted  to  rubber  tire  man- 

The  Goodyear  Tire  and  Rubber  Company. 
Frank  A.  Seiberling  purchased  the  Woolen 
and  Felt  Company  plant  in  June,  1898,  and 
immediately  thereafter  caused  to  be  organized 
The  Goodvear  Tire  &  Rubber  Company,  with 
an  authorized  capital  of  $200,000,  $90,000 
paid  in,  the  officers  being  David  E.  Hill,  pres- 
ident; George  Hill,  vice  president:  H.  B. 
]\Ianton,  treasurer;  Charles  W.  Seiberling.  sec- 
retary; F.  A.  Seiberling,  general  manager. 
The  above,  with  Byron  W.  Robinson  and  L. 
C.  Mills  constituted  the  first  board  of  direc- 
tors. The  work  of  installation  of  machinery 
and  equipping  the  plant  was  immediately  un- 
dertaken and  vigorously  prosecute  so  that  by 
December,  1898,  the  mill  was  put  in  opera- 
tion. The  business  was  a  success  from  the 
start,  the  company  readily  securing  sufficient 
orders  to  keep  them  operating  to  their  full 

The  following  year  Mr.  R.  C.  Pen  field  ac- 
quired the  interests  of  the  Hills,  becoming 
president  of  the  company.  One  hundred 
thousand  dollars  of  new  capital  was  put  into 
the  business  at  that  time,  wdiich,  with  a  stock 
dividend  declared  out  of  profits,  made  the 
paid-up  capital  $200,000.  The  business  stead- 
ily increased  under  the  impiilse  of  additional 
capital,  so  that  in  1902  the  authorized  capital 
was  increased  to  one  million  dollars,  $500,000 
of  which  was  paid  up,  partly  in  ca^h  and  part- 
ly in  stock  dividends. 

Each  year  extensive  additions  were  made  to 
the  plant  until  its  capacity  today  is  fully  four 
times  greater  than  w^hen  first  started,  and  the 
company  is  handling  a  business  more  than 
five  times  greater  in  volume. 

Its  present  officers  are:  F.  A.  Seiberling, 
president  and  general  manager:  L.  C.  Miles, 
vice-president;  George  M.  Stadelman,  secre- 
tarv ;  Charles  W.  Seiberling,  treasurer. 

The  history  of  the  company  has  been  one 
of  .steady  progress  and  is  marked  by  an  im- 



portant  patent  litigation  that  affected  the  en- 
tire carriage  tire  industry  of  the  United  States. 
The  Goodyear  Company  was  operating  under 
a  patent  owned  by  it  for  the  mvanufacture  of  a 
certain  type  of  solid  carriage  tire,  which  the 
owners  of  the  Grant  patent  claimed  was  an  in- 
fringement upon  their  rights.  Up  to  the  time 
that  the  Goodyear  Company  entered  their  field 
the  Grant  patent  had  had  a  complete  monop- 
oly of  the  rubber  tire  industry  of  the  United 
States.  In  a  bitter  contest  involving  a  large 
expenditure  on  both  sides,  extending  over  a 
period  of  two  years'  time,  the  United  States 
Court  of  Appeals  decided  the  Grant  patent  in- 
valid, opening  the  market  in  this  country  to 
anyone  who  desired  to  make  rubber  tires  of 
their  type.  As  a  result,  twenty-five  manufac- 
turers in  this  country  are  now  making  the 
Grant  type  of  tire,  though  The  Goodyear  Tire 
&  Rubber  Company  is  probably  making  more 
solid  rubber  carriage  tires  than  any  other  one 
concern  in  the  United  States,  turning  out  as 
much  as  six  tons  per  day  in  the  height  of  the 

They  are  also  large  manufacturers  of  pneu- 
matic bicycle  and  automobile  tires,  and  with- 
in the  past  two  years  have  brought  out  a  quick 
detachable  tire  upon  their  Universal  rim, 
which  promises  to  revolutionize  the  method 
of  attaching  and  detaching  tires  in  this  coun- 
try. As  a  result  of  their  initiative,  all  of  the 
leading  concerns  are  working  and  are  bring- 
ing out  devices  for  accomplishing  the  same 
ends.  They  now  employ  over  a  million  dol- 
lars of  capital,  and  800  men,  with  a  volume 
of  business  approximating  $3,000,000  an- 


The  Werner  Company,  book  manufacturers, 
lithographerss,  general  printers  and  engravers, 
publishers  of  the  new  Werner  edition  of  the 
Encyclopedia  Britannica.  Paul  E.  Werner 
started  in  the  printing  business  as  publisher 
of  the  Akron  Germania  in  1875  on  the  third 
floor  of  the  building  on  Howard  Street,  ad- 
joining the  southeast  corner  of  Howard  and 
Market  Streets,  then  owned  bv  E.  Steinbacher. 

In  1877  he  removed  his  business  to  the  sec- 
ond floor  of  the  Kramer  building,  also  on 
Howard  Street.  In  1879  he  occupied  a  frame 
building  on  Howard  Street,  which  stood  where 
the  Arcade  building  now  stands,  and  added 
the  publication  of  the  Sunday  Gazette.  In 
1881  he  removed  to  the  southeast  corner  of 
Howard  and  Mill  Streets  and  added  to  his 
business  the  publication  of  the  Daily  arid 
Weekly  Tribune.  In  1883  he  removed  his 
business  to  a  three-story  frame  building  spe- 
cially fitted  up  for  him,  which  stood  where  the 
large  mill  of  the  American  Cereal  Company 
now  stands  on  Howard  Street.  In  1885  James 
Christy  erected  a  four-story  brick  bulling  es- 
pecially for  him  on  Howard  Street,  directly 
south  of  the  big  mill.  By  that  time  the  com- 
mercial printing  part  of  the  business  had 
grown  to  larger  dimensions. 

Paul  E.  Werner  realized  that  the  field  in 
the  newspaper  business  in  a  town  of  the  size 
of  Akron  was  very  limited,  and  disposed  of 
his  newspapers.  About  100  people  were  em- 
ployed in  that  building.  Very  soon  these 
quarters  were  too  small  for  the  continually 
growing  business.  In  1887  the  Werner  Print- 
ing and  Lithographing  Company  was  organ- 
ized, larger  capital  was  procured,  and  a  large 
tract  of  land,  located  at  the  corner  of  Perkins 
and  Union  Streets  (the  present  location  of 
the  company's  factory)  was  then  purchased 
for  the  purpose  of  erecting  buildings  special- 
ly designed  and  equipped  for  the  manufactur- 
ing of  books  on  a  large  scale,  and  of  printed, 
lithographed  and  engraved  articles  in  gen- 
eral. The  business  continued  to  grow  very 
rapidly  and  new  buildings  w^ere  added  every 
year  for  a  number  of  years,  until  at  the  pres- 
ent time  the  Werner  Company  occupies  the 
following  buildings:  Three  buildings  each 
300  feet  long,  forty  feet  wide;  three  buildings 
each  200  feet  long,  fifty  feet  wide ;  three  build- 
ings each  100  feet  long,  fifty  feet  wide;  one 
building,  seventy-five  feet  long,  thirty  feet 
wide;  one  building,  eighty  feet  long,  forty 
feet  wide,  and  a  number  of  other  small  build- 
ings, all  equipped  with  the  most  modem  ma- 
chinery required  for  the  manufacturing  of 
books  and  other  printed,  lithographed  and  en- 








I— I 








graved  products.  The  capital  invested  in  and 
required  in  the  conduct  of  the  business  of  The 
Werner  Company  is  very  large  and  amounts 
to  over  $3,000,000. 

In  1907  the  officers  of  this  company  are  as 
follows:  P.  E.  Werner,  president  and  gen- 
eral manager;  R.  M.  Werner,  vice-president 
and  assistant  treasurer;  C.  I.  Bruner,  treas- 
urer; Karl  Kendig,  secretary;  H.  M.  Huddles- 
ton,  assistant  secretary;  Edward  P.  Werner, 
general  superintendent. 

The  Werner  Company  is  by  far  the  largest 
and  most  complete  book  factory  on  the  Ameri- 
can continent.  It  comprises  under  one  roof, 
so  to  speak,  and  under  one  management,  all 
the  graphic  arts  and  trades. 

It  furnishes  directly  and  indirectly  material 
oneans  of  livelihood  for  four  or  five  thousand 
Akron  inhabitants.  The  great  majority  of  the 
employees  of  the  Werner  Company  are  skilled 
in  trades  and  arts  and  receive  high  compensa- 

During  the  year  1906  the  works  of  The 
Werner  Company  were  in  uninterrupted  oper- 
ation, and  a  great  part  of  the  time  worked 
thirteen  hours  daily.  During  that  year  this 
company  purchased  and  received  raw  mate- 
rials and  shipped  finished  products  rep- 
resenting the  full  capacity  of  one  thousand 
two  hundred  railroad  cars.  The  products  in- 
cluded more  than  3,000,000  large  books;  more 
than  15,000,000  large  and  finely  illastrated 
catalogues  made  for  the  largest  manufacturing 
concerns  of  this  country,  and  millions  of  other 
printed,  lithographed  and  engraved  articles. 

If  the  books  alone  which  were  manufac- 
tured by  The  Werner  Company  last  year  were 
laid  on  a  pile,  one  on  the  top  of  the  other,  this 
pile  would  reach  ninety-.six  miles  into  the  air. 
If  these  books  were  laid  side  by  side  they 
would  constitute  a  line  500  miles  long. 

The  raw  materials  consumed  during  the 
past  year  comprise  3,500  different  kinds.  The 
largest  consumption  is  in  paper,  cloth,  leather, 
gold  and  ink.  If  the  paper  consumed  during 
the  past  year  were  laid  in  sheets  side  by  side, 
they  would  reach  around  the  world  four  times. 
The  binders'  cloth  consumed  measured  5.000,- 
000    square    feet.    The    different    kinds    of 

leather  consumed  required  the  skins  of  25,000 
cattle,  30,000  sheep  and  36,000  Persian  and 
Morocco  goats.  Over  3,000,000  leaves  of  gold 
were  consumed.  While  the  principle  product 
of  this  factory  is  books.  The  Werner  Com- 
pany has  a  world-wide  reputation  for  furnish- 
ing fine  commercial  work,  typographic  as  well 
as  lithographic,  catalogues  of  every  descrip- 
tion. Of  this  particular  kind  of  product  it 
makes  more  than  any  other  concern  in  the 
United  States. 


The  Whitman  &  Barnes  Manufacturing 
Company,  manufacturers  of  mowing  and  reap- 
ing machine  knives,  sickles,  sections  and  parts 
of  cutting  apparatus,  "Diamond"  twist 
drills,  reamers  and  collateral  lines,  wood 
handle  and  drop  forged  wrenches,  lawn  mow- 
ers, haying  tools,  such  as  hay  carriers,  forks, 
pulleys,  etc.,  spring  keys  and  cotters,  rubber 
pad  horse-shoes,  hammers,  planer  knives  and 
cutters  for  wood-working  machinery.  In  1848 
the  predecessors  and  founders  of  the  present 
corporation.  The  Whitman  &  Barnes  Manu- 
facturing Company,  commenced  in  a  very 
small  way  to  make  knives  and  sickles  for  mow- 
ing and  reaping  machines.  They  were  the 
first  in  this  country  to  engage  in  the  manufac- 
ture of  these  parts.  From  the  small  begin- 
ning in  1848  this  firm  has  advanced  and  in- 
creased until  now  it  has  three  factories — one 
at  Akron,  Ohio,  occupied  exclusively  in  the 
manufacture  of  Diamond  twist  drills  and  col- 
lateral lines;  one  at  Chicago,  111.,  at  which  fac- 
tory they  manufacture  knives  and  sections, 
wrenches,  lawn  mowers,  hay  tools,  spring  keys 
and  cotters,  and  rubber-pad  horse  shoes;  one 
at  St.  Catharines,  Ontario,  where  they  manu- 
facture knives  and  sections,  hammers,  haying 
tools,  planer  knives  and  cutters  for  wood-work- 
ing machinery.  Their  factories  are  equipped 
with  the  most  modem  machinery,  and  they 
employ  a  very  large  number  of  skilled  me- 
chanics, which  enables  them  to  produce  goods 
equal  to  any  upon  the  market,  and  at  a  price 
which  allows  them  to  compete  successfully  in 



the  trade.  Thedr  brands  are  extensively 
known,  not  only  in  this  country,  but  in  all 
foreign  countries,  and  their  trademark,  "Dia- 
mond W.  &  B.,"  is  a  trade  name  the  world 
over  and  a  guarantee  of  the  quality  of  the 
goods  manufactured. 

In  the  past  two  years  they  have  materially 
changed  their  manner  and  way  of  handling 
their  business  with  the  trade,  abolishing  their 
branch-house  system  for  the  purpose  of  ally- 
ing themselves  directly  with  the  jobbing  trade. 
This  change  meets  with  the  hearty  approval 
of  the  jobbere  over  the  country,  and  thej'  are 
fast  associating  themselves  with  this  company 
in  handling  their  large  line  of  products. 

The  Akron  factory  is  managed  by  George 
A.  Barnes,  who  has  been  long  associated  with 
the  company.  The  Chicago  factorv^  is  man- 
aged by  AV.  H.  Eager.  The  St.  Catharines 
factory  is  managed  by  W.  W.  Cox,  who  has 
been  for  many  years  an  officer  of  the  company, 
and  who  stands  very  high,  not  only  in  the 
States,  but  in  Canada.  A.  D.  Armitage,  who 
also  has  been  connected  with  this  company  for 
many  years,  is  general  manager  of  manufac- 

The  officers  of  the  company  are:  C.  E.  Shel- 
don, president;  W.  W.  Cox,  vice-president; 
Prank  H.  Hiscock,  second  vice-president; 
Wm.  Stone,  treasurer;  C.  E.  Caskey,  assistant 
treasiirer:  James  Barnes,  secretary;  W.  H.  Gif- 
ford,  chairman  ;  Frank  Hiscock,  general  coun- 
sel. The  directors  are  C.  E.  Sheldon,  George 
T.  Perkins,  George  C.  Kohler,  C.  T.  Bruner, 
George  A.  Barnes,  all  of  Akron,  Ohio;  Frank 
H.  Hiscock,  William  Stone,  W.  H.  Gifford, 
Syracuse,  New  York;  W.  W.  Cox,  St.  Cath- 

Milton  Otis  Howor  was  born  in  Doylestown, 
Wayne  County,  Ohio,  November  25, 1859,  and 
i?  a  son  of  John  H.  and  Su.san  Yongker 
Hower.  He  attended  school  in  Doylestown 
and  was  subsequently  a  pupil  in  the  Akron 
public  schools  and  at  Buchtel  College.  .  He 
began  his  business  career  as  secretary  of  The 
Hower  Company,  proprietors  of  the  Akron 
Oatmeal  Mills.  These  mills  were  afterward 
consolidated  with  the  American  Cereal  Com- 
pany, of  which  Mr.  Hower  l)ecame  director. 

vice-president  and  chairman  of  the  Executive 
Committee.  In  1894  he  removed  to  Chicago, 
where  the  general  office  of  the  American 
Cereal  Company  is  located,  but  after  remain- 
ing there  six  years,  he  returned  to  Akron,  He 
is  president  of  The  Akron-Selle  Company, 
The  Lombard-Replogle  Engineering  Com- 
pany, Akron  Wood-Working  Company,  Ak- 
ron Hi-Potential  Porcelain  Company,  San- 
dasky  Grille  and  Manufacturing  Company, 
Jahant  Heating  Company,  The  Bannock  Coal 
Company,  Hower  Power-Building  Company; 
vice-president,  of  The  Central  Savings  and 
Trust  Company ;  director  of  the  Akron  Home 
Building  and  Loan  Association,  and  director 
of  the  Akron  Canal  and  Hydraulic  Company. 
Mr.  Hower  was  married  November  16,  1880, 
to  Blanche  Eugenia  Bruot,  daughter  of  Jamies 
F.  and  Rosalie  Bruot.  They  have  two  chil- 
dren, Grace  Susan  Rosalie  Hower  (now  Mrs. 
Paul  E.  Findlay)  and  John  Bruot  Hower. 
The  family  residence  is  at  No.  60  Fir  Street. 


The  Ab.stract,  Title-Guarantee  &  Trust 
Companv,  124  South  Mmn ;  incorporated, 
1892 ;  capital,  $30,000. 

The  Actual  Business  College  Company,  616 
Hamilton  Building;  incorporated.  1905;  cap- 
ital, $10,000. 

The  Akron  Belting  Company,  74  South 
Canal;  incorporated,  1895;  capital,  $100,000. 

The  Akron  Brewing  Company,  865  South 
High;  incorporated,  190-3;  capital,  $125,000. 
The  Akron  Building  &  Loan  Association,  130 
South  Main;  organized,  1888;  capital,  $5,- 

The  Carriage  and  Implement  Company,  67- 
71  West  Market;  incorporated,  1904;  capital, 

The  Akron  China  Company,  corner  of  Sec- 
ond Avenue  and  Baltimore  &  Ohio  Railroad; 
incorporated,  1894;  capital,  $150,000. 

The  Akron  Clay  Company,  1010  East  Mar- 
ket: incorporated,  1904. 

The  Akron  Coal  Company,  26  Central  Of- 
fice Building:  incorporated,  1891;  capital, 



The  Akron  Cultivator  Company,  214  North 
Union;  incorporated,  1889;  capital,  $1,000,- 

The  .Vkron  Democrat  Company,  92  East 
Mill;  incorporated,  1892;  capital,  $25,000. 

Akron  Electrical  Manufacturing  Company, 
Ira  Avenue;  incorporated,  1891;  capital, 

The  Akron  Excelsior  Laundry  Company, 
62  South  High;  incorporated,  1903;  capital, 

The  Akron  Extract  and  Chemical  Com- 
pany, 184  South  Main:  incorporated,  1903; 
capital,  $35,000. 

The  Akron  Fertilizer  Company,  ofRce  516- 
519  Everett  Building;  incorporated,  1900; 
capital,  $25,000. 

Akron  Fire  Brick  Company,  1057  Bank; 
incorporated,  1882;  capital,  $50,000. 

The  Akron  Fireproof  Construction  Com- 
pany, 285  Park;  incorporated,  1901;  capital, 

The  Akron  Foundry  Company,  526  Wash- 
ington; incorporated,  1894;  capital,  $25,000. 

The  Akron  Gas  Company,  59  Ea'it  Market; 
incorporated   (III).  1891 ;' capital,  $400,000. 

The  Akron  Germania  Company,  124  South 
Howard;  established  1869:  incorporated, 
1889;  capital,  $25,000. 

The  Akron  Glass  and  Machinery  Company, 
12  East  Market:  incorporated,  1901;  capital, 

The  Akron  Grocery-  Company.  117  East 
Mill:  incorporated,  1889;  capital,  $100,000. 

The  Akron  Laundry-  Company,  77  South 
High;   incorporated,   1900;   capital,   $30,000. 

The  Akron  Machine  Company,  1069  Bank; 
incorporated,  1891:  capital,  $100,000. 

The  Akron  Manufacturing  Company.  929 
South  High:  incorporated,  1898  and  1905; 
capital.  $50,000. 

The  Akron  Odd  Fellows  Temple  Company, 
80  South  Main:  incorporated,  1895:  capital, 

Akron  Oil  Companv,  Arcade  Block;  incor- 
porated  fW.  Va.),  1899:  capital,  $20,000. 

The  Akron  People'.?  Telephone  Company. 
232  Hamilton  Building:  incorporated,  1899: 
capital,  $500,000. 

The  Akron  Press  Publishing  Company,  foot 
of  Mill;  incorporated,  1900;  capital,  $10, 

The  Akron  Printing  and  Paper  Company, 
128-132  South  Howard:  incorporated,  1904; 
Ciipital,  $60,000. 

The  Akron  Provision  Company,  135  South 
Main;   incorporated,   1903;   capital,   $25,000. 
The  Akron  Pure  Milk  Company,  265  Bow- 
ery; incorporated,  1903;  capital,  $10,000. 

The  Akron  Reahy  Company,  1120  South 
Main;  incorporated.  1900;  capital,  $150,000. 

The  Akron  Roofing  Company,  10  East  Ex- 
change; incorporated,  1905;  capital,  $5,000. 

The  Akron  Roofing    Tile    Company,    754 
Brook;  incorporated,  1902;  capital,  $105,000. 
.      The     Akron     Rubber    Company,    Rubber 
Street;  incorporated,  1890;  capital,'$10,000. 

The  Akron  Rubber  Shoe  Company,  Rubber 
Street;  incorporated,  1905. 

The  Akron-Selle  Company,  455  South 
High;  incorporated,  1903;  capital,  $100,000. 

The  Akron  Sewer  Pipe  Companv,  999  East 
Market ;  established  1848 ;  cai)ital,  $300,000. 

The  Akron  Skating  Rink  Company,  268 
East  Market:  incorporated,  1905;  capital, 

The  Akron  Soap  Company,  Cuyahoga 
Street  Extension:  incorporated,  1904:  capi- 
tal, $50,000. 

The  Akron  Tent  and  Awning  Company, 
163  South  Main :  incorporated,  1891 ;  capital, 

The  Akron  "\^arni=h  Company,  254  South 
Main :  incorporated.  1897 ;  capital,  $250,000. 

The  Akron  Wall  Plaster  Company,  994 
and  996  EcTst  Market:  incorporated.'  1901; 
capital.  $50,000. 

The  Akron  Water  Works  Company,  comer 
Howard  and  Cherrv:  organized  1880;  capital, 

The  Aladdin  Rubber  Company.  39  Arcade 
Block;  incorporated.  1905;  capital,  $100,000. 

The  Alkali  Rubber  Company,  115  Jack- 
.son ;  incorporated,  1904 :  capital,  $10,000,000. 

The  Aluminum  Flake  Company.  428  Ham- 
ilton Building:  incorporated  (Maine)  1903: 
capital,  $500,000. 

The   American   Scrap   Iron    Company,    10 



West  Buchtel  Avenue;  incorporated,  1904; 
capital,  $50,000. 

The  Angelo  Andrew  Paint  and  Vamish 
Company,  182  South  Main;  incorporated, 
1901 ;  capital,  $10,000. 

The  Arcturus  Lithia  Springs  Company, 
130  South  Main;  incorporated,  1904;  capi- 
tal, $15,000. 

The  Atlantic  Foundry  Company,  62 
Cherry;  incorporated,  1905;  capital,  $10,000. 

The  Automatic  Clutch  Company,  Ira  Ave- 
nue; incorporated,  1905;  capital,  $120,000. 

The  Baker-McMillen  Company,  17  Bow- 
ery; incorporated,  1890;  capital,  $120,000. 

The  Beacon  Journal  Company,  145  South 
Main;  established  1839;  capital,  $80,000. 

The  Biggs  Boiler  Works  Company,  1007 
Bank;  incorporated,   1900;   capital,  $75,000 

The  Brew.ster  Coal  Company,  444  South 
Main;  organized  1876;  capital,  $50,000. 

The  Braner-Goodhue-Cooke  Company,  130 
South  Main  ;  incorporated,  1897  ;  capital,  $50,- 

The  Buckeye  Chemical  Company,  Doyle 
Block;  established  1882;  incorporated,  1901. 

The  Buckeye  Loan  Company,  429  Dobson 
Building ;  incorporated,  1905 ;  capital,  $10,- 

Buckeye  Rubber  Company,  corner  Cook  and 
Third  Avenue;  incorporated,  1900;  capital, 

The  Buckeye  Sewer  Pipe  Company,  887 
East  Exchange;  organized  1872;  capital, 

The  Burger  Iron  Company,  42  East  South; 
incorporated,  189G;  capital,  $25,000. 

The  M.  Burkbardt  Brewing  Company,  513 
Grant;  incorporated,  1902. 

The  Burt  Manufacturing  Company,  47 
Central  Savings  &  Trust  Building;  incorpo- 
rated, 1902 ;  capital,  $50,000. 

The  L.  W.  Camp  Companv,  285  Park ;  in- 
corporated, 1902;  capital,  $20,000.    ' 

The  Central  Savings  &  Trust  Company,  90 
South  Main;  incorporated.  1904;  capital  and 
.surplus,  $200,000. 

The  Chaiuite  Cement  &  Clay  Product  Com- 
pany, 1004  Market;  incorporated 
(Maine),  1904;  capital,  $4,500,000. 

Colonial  Salt  Company,  Kenmore;  incor- 
porated (New  Jersey),  1901;  capital,  $350,- 

The  Colonial  Sign  &  Insulator  Company, 
corner  Grant  and  Morgan ;  incorporated, 
1904;  capital,  $50,000. 

The  Columbia  Coal  Company,  26  Central 
Office  Building;  incorporated,  1903;  capital, 

The  Columbia  Insulator  Company,  1007 
Bank ;  incorporated,  1902 ;  capital,  $25,000. 

The  Commercial  Printing  Company,  46- 
52  North  Main ;  incorporated,  1899 ;  capital, 

The  Crown  Drilling  Machine  Company,  67 
East  Thornton ;  incorporated,  1904 ;  capital, 

The  M.  T.  Cutter  Company,  10  South 
Howard;  incorporated,  1905. 

The  Day  Drug  Company,  10  South  How- 
ard; incorporated,  1905;  capital,  $15,000. 

The  Dentist  Dental  Rubber  Company,  102 
Hamilton  Building;  incorporated,  1906;  capi- 
tal, $100,000. 

The  Diamond  Rubber  Company,  Falor 
Street;  established,  1894;  incorporated,  1901; 
capital,  $3,500,000. 

The  Dickson  Tran.sfer  Companv,  24  North 
High;  incorporated,  1892;  capital,  $100,000. 

The  Dime  Savings  Bank  Company,  corner 
Howard  and  Mill;  incorporated,  1890;  capi- 
tal, $50,000. 

The  Dobson  Building  Company,  330  Dob- 
son  Building;  incorporated,  1905. 

The  Dollar  Sa\"ings  Bank  Company,  12 
East  Market ;  incorporaited,  1903 ;  capital, 

The  Enterprise  Manufacturing  Company, 
217  Ash;  established,  1881;  incorporated, 
1886;  capital,  $50,000. 

The  W.  H.  Evans  Building  and  Loan  As- 
sociation, con:ier  Howard  and  Mill ;  incorpo- 
rated, 1891:  capital,  $1,000,000, 

The  Ewing  Concrete  Machinery  Com- 
pany, 445  Ewing  Court;  incorporated,  1905; 
capital,  $10,000.' 

The  Faultless  Broom  and  JLanufacturing 
Company,  54  CheiTy;  incoi-porated,  1908; 
capital,  $5,000, 



The  Faultless  Rubber  Company,  281  Bluff; 
incorporated,   1900;   capital,   $325,000. 

The  Fiebeger  Heating  Company,  corner 
Lincoln  and  Forge;  incorporated,  1904;  capi- 
tal, $50,000. 

Firestone  Tire  &  Rubber  Company,  1081 
Sweitzer  Avenue;  incorporated,  (West  Vir- 
ginia), 1900;  capital,  $500,000. 

The  First  National  Bank,  16  South  Main; 
organized,  1862;  capital,  $100,000. 

The  Flanagan  Mining  Company,  27  Ar- 
cade Block;  incorporated,  (Washington) 
1903;  capital,  $100,000. 

The  George  K.  Foltz  Company,  68  South 
Main;  incorporated,   1897;   capital,   $10,000. 

The  Frank  Laubach  &  Clemmer  Com- 
pany, 80  South  Main;  incorporated,  1892; 
capital,  $30,000. 

The  Frantz  Body  Manufacturing  Company, 
corner  Stanton  Avenue  and  Getz;  incorpo- 
rated, 1898 ;  capital,  $60,000. 

The  U.  G.  Frederick  Lumber  Company,  57 
Cherry;  incorporated,  1904;  capital,  $25,000 

The  German-American  Building  &  Loan 
Association,  148  South  Howard;  incorpo- 
rated, 1896;  capital,  $1,000,000. 

The  German  American  Company,  148 
South  Haword;  incorporated,  1900;  capital, 

The  Gintz  Upholstering  Company,  14  Via- 
duct; incorporated,  1897. 

The  Globe  Sign  &  Poster  Company,  48 
East  Miller  Avenue;  incorporated,  1904;  cap- 
ital, $75,000. 

The  Glock-Korach  Company,  82  South 
Main;  incorporated,   1905;   capital,   $10,000. 

The  Goehring  Manufacturing  Company, 
65  East  Miller  Avenue;  incorporated,  (West 
Virginia)  1899. 

The  B.  F.  Goodrich  Company  Rubber 
Street;  established,  1869;  capital,"  $10,000,- 

The  Goodyear  Tire  &  Rubber  Company, 
1144  Market;  incorporated,  1898;  capi- 
tal, $1,000,000. 

The  Great  Western  Cereal  Company,  1124 
East  Market;  incorporated,  1901. 

The  Hall-Harter  Insurance  Agency  Com- 
pany,  102  South   Howard;   capital,  $50,000. 

The  Hamilton  Building  Company,  244 
Hamilton  Building;  incorporated,  1899;  cap- 
ital, $200,000. 

The  Hankel  Lumber  Company,  570  South 
Main;  incorporated,  1889;  capital,  $100,000. 

The  Hardware  &  Supply  Company,  50-52 
South  Main;  incorporated,  1905;  capital 

The  Harper  Drug  Company,  8  East  Mar- 
ket; incorporated,  1903;  capital,  $25,000. 

The  Hill  Sewer  Pipe  Company,  999  East 
Market;  organized,  1873;  capital,  $150,000. 

The  Home  Building  &  Loan  Association, 
102  South  Howard;  incorporated,  1891;  capi- 
tal, $10,000,000. 

The  Hoover  &  Sell  Company,  16  East 
Market;  incorporated,  1905;  capital,  $25,000. 

The  Hower  Building  Company,  corner 
Market  and  Canal ;  incorporated,  1905 ;  capi- 
tal, $1,000,000. 

The  Kasch  Roofing  Companv,  188  South 
Main;   incorporated,    i896;   capital,   $10,000. 

The  Keller  Brick  Company,  Cuvahoga 
Falls  Road;  incorporated,  1900;  capital 
$25,000.  ' 

The  Kile  Manufacturing  Company,  1136 
Sweitzer  Avenue;  incorporated,  1903. 

The  Kirk  Company,  25-27  South  Howard ; 
mcorporated,  1902;  capital,  $50,000. 

The  Klagfts  Coal  &  Ice  Company,  165  Ea^^t 
Mill;  established,  1879;  incorporated,  1888- 
capital,  $100,000. 

The  Kraus-Kirn  Company,  117  South 
Main;  incorporated,   1903;  capital,   $25,000. 

The  C.  J.  Lang  Clothing  Company,  18 
East  Market;  incorporated,  1905;  capital 

The  Limbert-Smith  Plumbing  Company, 
40  East  Mill;  incorporated,  1904;  capital 

The  Lodi  Oil  &  Refining  Company,  474 
Washington;  incorporated,  (West  Virginia) 
1902;  capital,  $350,000. 

The  Long  &  Taylor  Company,  corner  Main 
and  Howard;  incorporated,  1903;  capital, 

The  Long  &  Taylor  Candy  Company,  22 
South  Main;  incorporated.  1902;  capital 



The  Loomis-Moss  Coal  Company,  2(j  Cen- 
tral Office  Building ;  incorporated,  1898 ;  capi- 
tal, $100,000. 

The  LjMiian  Lumber  Company,  440  South 
Main;  incorporated,   1897;   capital,   $10,000. 

The  Mclntosh-Baum  Company,  148  South 
Howard;  incorporated,  1900;  capital,  $10,000 

The  McNeil  Boiler  Company,  96  East  Cro- 
sier; incorporated,  (West  Virginia)  1902; 
capital,  $250,000. 

The  Magnolia  Coal  Company,  444  South 
Main;  incorporated,   1899;   capital,   $60,000. 

The  Miller  Rubber  Company,  corner  Hia:h 
and  Stanton  Avenues;  incorporated,  1904; 
capital,  $25,000. 

The  Miller  Rubber  Manufacturing  Com- 
pany, corner  High  and  Stanton  Avenues;  in- 
corporated, 1898 ;  capital,  $50,000. 

Motz  Clincher  Tire  and  Rubber  Company, 
Everett  Building,  incorporated,  1905;  capi- 
tal, $50,000. 

The  I.  S.  Myers  Company,  24  South 
Main;   incorporated,   1904;   capital,  $55,000. 

The  M.  &  M.  Manufacturing  Company, 
502  South  Main;  incorporated,  1905;  capital, 

The  National  Blank  Book  and  Supply 
Companv,  132  South  Howard;  incorporated, 
1904;  capital,  $12,000. 

The  National  City  Bank,  8  South  Howard; 
incorporated,   1903;  capital,   $100,000. 

The  National  Coal  Company,  612  Hamil- 
ton Building;  incorporated,  1892;  capital, 

The  National  Water  Wheel  Governor  Com- 
pany, 303  Everett  Building;  incorporated, 
1904;  capital,  $10,000. 

Niagara  Fire  Extinguisher  Company,  430- 
438  Hamilton  Building. 

The  Northern  Ohio  Traction  and  Light 
Companv,  206  Hamilton  Building;  incorpo- 
rated, 1899;  capital,  $7,500,000. 

The  Ohio  Stoneware  Company,  227  Foun- 
tain; organized,  1881;  capital,  $50,000. 

The  M.  O'Neil  &  Company,  38-48  South 
Main;  established,  1877;  incorporated,  1892; 
capital,  $200,000. 

The  Ornamental  Iron  Work  Cornpany,  80 

Ea.'St     South;     incorporated,     1906;     capital, 

The  Peerle&s  Stamp  &  Stencil  Company, 
corner  Howard  and  Market;  incorporated, 
1906;  capital,  $10,000. 

The  People  Publishing  Company,  37 
South  Main;  incorporated,  1903;  capital, 

The  People's  Savings  Bank,  337  South 
Main;  incorporated,  1890;  capital,  $100,000. 

The  Permanent  Savings  and  Loan  Com- 
panv, 124  South  Main;  incorporated,  1894; 
capital,  $300,000. 

The  Thomas  Phillips  Company,  23  West 
Exchange;  incorporated,  1887;  capital,  $300,- 

The  Pouchot-Hunsicker  Company,  200 
South  Main ;  incorporated,  1903 :  capital, 

The  Prudential  Heating  Company,  526 
Washington ;  incorporated,  1904. 

Realty  Development  Company,  392  Albert 
Place;   incorporated,   1903;  capital,   $20,000. 

The  Renner  &  Deibel  Oil  &  Gas  Company, 
275  North  Forge ;  incorporated,  1904 ;  capi- 
tal, $20,000. 

The  Geo.  J.  Renner  Brewing  Company, 
275  North  Forge ;  incorporated,  1900 ;  capital, 

The  G.  J.  Renner  Property  Company,  275 
North  Forge;  incorporated.  1904;  capital, 

The  Robinson  Clay  Product  Company, 
1010  East  Market:  established,  1856;  incor- 
porated,  (Maine)    1902;  capital,  $2,000,000. 

The  Safety  Gas  Burner  Company,  rear  103 
Kent;   incorporated,    1904;   capital,   $10,000. 

The  S.  &  0.  Engraving  Company,  330 
South  High ;  incorporated.  1903 ;  capital, 

The  Second  National  Bank,  35  East  Mar- 
ket; organized,  1863;  capital,  $350,000. 

The  Security  Savings  Bank  Company,  328 
South  Main ;  incorporated,  1901 ;  capital, 

The  South  Akron  Banlcing  Company,  1092 
South  Main;  incorporated,  1906;  capital, 

The    Standard    Rubber    Company,    1144 



East  Market;  incorporated,  1901;  capital, 

The  Star  Drilling  Machine  Company,  474 
Washington ;  incorporated,  1889 ;  capital, 

The  Star  Mop  Wringer  Company,  930 
South  Ho^vard;  incorporated.  1906;  capital. 

The  Star  Planing  Mill  Company,  55 
Cherry;  incorporated,  1903;  capital,  $25,000. 

Stein  Double  Cushion  Tire  Company,  cor- 
ner River  and  Second  Avenues;  incorporated, 
1905;  capital.  $100,000. 

The  Summit  China  Company,  1037  Bank ; 
incorporated,  1879;  capital,  $100,000. 

The  Summit  Lumber  &  Building  Corn- 
pan  v,  44  West  State;  incorporated,  1897;  cap- 
ital, $15,000. 

The  Summit  Sewer  Pipe  Company,  887 
East  Exchange;  incorporated,  1889;  capital, 

The  Summit  Real  Estate  Company,  148 
South  Howard;  incorporated,  1903;  capital, 

The  Sumner  Company,  23  East  Exchange; 
incorporated,  1903;  capital,  $10,000. 

The  S\\-inehart  Clincher  Tire  &  Rubber 
Company,  218  North  Howard;  incorporated, 
1904;  capital,  $200,000. 

Tanner  &  Company.  10  East  Market;  in- 
corporated, 1903 ;  capital,  $20,000. 

Taplin,  Rice  &  Company,  177  South 
Broadway ;  organized  1866 ;  capital,  $150,000. 

The  XXth  Century  Heating  &  Ventilating 

Company,  192  South  Main;  incorporated, 
1901 ;  capital,  $100,000. 

The  Tyler  Company,  990  Market;  in- 
corporated, 1904;  capital,  $50,000. 

The  U.  S.  Stoneware  Company,  Annadale 
Street;  incorporated,  1885;  capital,  $25,000. 

The  Union  Printing  Ink  Company,  38 
Wesit  State;  incorporated,  1901;  capital,  $10,- 

The  Union  Rubber  Company,  123  South 
Howard;  incorporated,  1901. 

The  Unique  Theater  Company,  115  South 
Main;   incorporated,   1905;   capital,   $10,000. 

The  Upham-Brouse  Company,  comer  Mar- 
ket and  Main;  incorporated,  1896;  capital, 

The  Werner  Company,  109  North  Union; 
incorporated.  1903;  capital,  $1,300,000. 

The  West  Hill  Land  Company,  236  Ham- 
ilton Building:  incorporated.  1902;  capital, 

The  Whitman  &  Barnes  Manufacturing 
Companv,  114  East  Buchtel  Avenue;  organ- 
ized 1864;  capital,   $2,372,500. 

The  Williams  Electric  Machine  Company, 
corner  Grant  and  Morgan ;  incorporated, 
1904 ;  capital,  $100,000. 

The  Williams  Foundry  and  Machine  Com- 
pany, 56  Cherrv;  established,  1885;  incorpo- 
rated, 1901 ;  capital,  $50,000. 

The  Windsor  Brick  Company.  1011  Grant; 
incorporated,  1904;  capital,  $40,000. 

The  AA'ise  Furnace  Company,  508  Hamil- 
ton Building:  incorporated,  1904;  capital, 



History  of  the  Banks  of  Sii^mmii  County — Banks  Inadequate — Akron's  Financial  Reputa- 
tion  Akron  a  Large  Borrower — Panic  of  1904 — Clearing  House  Statement — Fu- 
ture Prosperity  Certain. 

BY   JOS.    S.   BENNEB. 

In  1845,  when  Akron  -was  a  town  of  prob- 
ably 1,500  inhabitants,  the  Bank  of  Akron,  a 
branch  of  the  Ohio  Safety  Fund  system,  was 
organized  with  a  capital  of  $50,000.  This 
was  Akron's  pioneer  bank  and  proved  a  very 
great  convenience  to  the  business  men  of  the 
surrounding  community.  It  survived  until 
1857,  when  it  went  into  liquidation,  having 
become  involved  in  the  financial  embarrass- 
ments of  the  Akron  Branch  Railroad. 

In  1855  George  D.  Bates,  with  Gen.  Philo 
Chamberlain  as  a  silent  partner,  opened  a 
private  bank  on  the  west  side  of  Howard 
Street  near  the  present  site  of  B.  L.  Dodge's 
furniture  store,  afterwards  purchasing  the  old 
Bank  of  Akron's  stand  on  the  opposite  side  of 
the  street,  and  where  under  the  name  of  Bates 
&  Co.  the  bu.siiness  was  continued  until  1863, 
when  it  was  merged  into  the  Second  National 

In  1863  the  First  National  Bank,  with  a 
capital  of  $100,000,  was  organized  with  T. 
W.  Cornell  as  president,  M.  W.  Henry,  vice 
president,   and   W.   H.   Huntington,  cashier. 

In  1867  the  City  Bank,  a  private  institu- 
tion owned  by  J.  B.  Woods,  Milton  Moore 
and  Sylvester  H.  Thompson,  was  started,  and 

this  was  organized  in  1883  into  the  City  Na- 
tional Bank. 

In  1870  the  Bank  of  Akron,  with  George 
T.  Perkins  as  president,  Alden  Gage  as  cash- 
ier, was  started,  which  in  1888  was  merged 
with  the  Second  National  Bank,  taking  that 
name,  with  a  capital  of  $275,000,  and  a  sur- 
plus of  $22,000,  and  using  the  rooms  of  the 
Bank  of  Akron  in  the  Academy  of  Music 
building,  its  present  site. 

In  1872  the  Citizens'  Savings  and  Loan  As- 
sociation was  organized,  which  in  the  panic  of 
1893  had  to  close  its  doors,  but  which  was 
soon  after  reorganized  into  the  Citizens'  Na- 
tional Bank,  which  continued  until  1903, 
when  it  was  merged  with  the  Second  National 

In  1888  the  Akron  Savings  Bank  was 
started;  in  1890  the  People's  Savings  Bank 
Company;  in  1897  the  Central  Savings  Bank 
Company;  in  1900  the  Akron  Trust  Com- 
pany, and  the  Guardian  Savings  Bank  Com- 
pany ;  in  1901  the  Dime  Savings  Bank  Com- 
pany, and  the  Security  Savings  Bank  Com- 
pany, and  in  1902  the  Dollar  Savings  Bank 

January  1,  1905,  the  Central  Savings  and 
Trust  Company  started  business,  it  being  a 
consolidation  of  the  Akron  Trust  Company 



and  the  Central  Savings  Bank  Company, 
which  latter  bank  had  some  months  before  ac- 
quired the  business  of  the  Guardian  Savings 
Bank  Company,  which  went  into  liquidation. 
The  new  bank  purchased  the  building  of  the 
Akron  Savings  Bank,  which  failed  in  April, 
1904,  and  refitted  and  remodeled  it  into  its 
present  shape. 

In  1905  was  started  the  South  Akron  Bank-  ' 
ing  Company  and  in  1907  the  Depositors' 
Savings  Bank  Company,  the  former  locating 
in  the  extreme  southern  part  of  Akron,  near 
the  street  car  barns,  and  the  latter  purchasing 
the  building  and  fixtures  of  the  Security  Sav- 
ings Bank  Company,  which  in  April,  1907, 
was  merged  with  the  People's  Savings  Bank 
Company,  across  the  street. 

In  1903  Akron  boasted  of  twelve  banks, 
vfiih  capitals  of  $1,22.5,000  and  depasits  of 
$7,300,000.  Now,  through  two  consolidations, 
two  absorption  and  one  failure,  there  are 
but  nine,  with  a  total  capitalization  of  $950.- 
000,  and  total  deposits  of  $8,200,000,  a  reduc- 
tion of  capital  of  $275,000,  with  an  increase  of 
nearly  $1,000,000  in  deposits. 

Despite  the  sensitive  feeling  still  rankling 
in  the  minds  of  many,  Akron  people  really 
have  cause  to  be  proud  of  the  record  of  her 
banks.  In  the  sixty  years  of  her  banking 
history  there  has  been  but  one  failure,  and 
that  wholly  through  mismanagement. 

We  have  read  from  time  to  time  of  bank 
embezzlements,  of  defalcations  and  rascali- 
ties of  officers,  but  Akron  has  had  none  of 
that  and  can  say  that  the  men  who  have  been 
entrusted  with  the  care  of  the  wealth  and 
sa\angs  of  her  people  are,  and  have  been  at 
all  times,  faithful  and  honest.  The  mistakes 
that  have  been  made  were  made  through  lack 
of  good  judgment  and  incapacity  only.  It  is 
indeed  a  remarkable  fact,  taking  into  con- 
sideration the  length  of  time — over  half  a 
century — the  and  culpability  of 
man.  and  the  numerous  panics  through  which 
they  have  pa.s,sed.  that  the  experience  which 
we  in  1904  went  through  is  the  sole  and  only 
one  to  which  hisrtory  can  point. 


Akron's  banks,  however,  with  all  their  $9,- 
000,000  and  more  of  resources,  are  far  from 
capable  of  taking  care  of  the  financial  needs 
of  its  manufacturing  and  mercantile  indus- 
tries. In  fact  we  would  warrant  the  assertion 
that  80  per  cent  of  the  money  required  by  the 
large  concerns  of  Akron  is  furnished  by  out- 
side banks. 

To  the  stranger  to  our  local  conditions  and 
to  the  unthinking,  such  a  statement  seems  ab- 
surd, but  it  is  true,  we  believe.  A  simple  ex- 
planation of  this  is  as  follows : 

The  largest  amount  that  any  Akron  bank 
can  legally  loan  to  any  one  concern  is  10  per 
cent  of  its  capital  stock,  which  means  the 
Second  National  Bank  can  loan  $35,000.  the 
Firet  National  Bank,  $20,000;  the  National 
City  and  the  Central  Savings  and  Trust  Com- 
pany, $10,000,  and  the  others  only  $5,000. 
This  being  the  case  and  very  few  of  these 
concerns  doing  business  at  more  than  one 
bank  in  the  city,  they  are  compelled  by  ne- 
cessity to  go  outside,  especially  when  at  cer- 
tain periods  of  the  vear  some  of  them  borrow 
individually  from  $100,000  to  $1,000,000. 

This  very  apparent  disproportion  of  the 
banking  capital  of  Akron  to  the  amount  of 
business  transacted  through  these  same  banks 
is  well  illustrated  by  the  totals  of  its  bank 
clearings  as  compared  vnth  those  of  Youngs- 
town.  Canton  and  Springfield,  its  sister  cities, 
and  their  relative  banking  capitals. 

Clearings  for 

year  ending 

Capital        Re-  July  1, 

Stock.  sources.  1907 

Akron     $    950,000     $9,800,000     |34,700,000 

Youngstown     3,250,000     20,270,000       34,491,000 

Canton     1.055,000     12,287,500       27,386,000 

Springfield    1,100,000       7,523,500       22,400,000 

As  is  shown,  Akron,  with  only  $950,000 
banking  capital,  does  business  of  $34,700,000, 
a  larger  volume  than  Youngstown.  with  $3,- 
250.000  capital,  and  more  than  twice  her  re- 
sources and  wealth:  while  Canton,  with  lar- 
ger capital,  and  25  per  cent  more  of  resources, 
does  only  $27,386,000,  or  25  per  cent  less  in 
actual  volume  of  business. 



This  unusual  condition  existing  in  a  city 
the  size  of  Akron  is  partly  accounted  for  by 
the  extraordinary  growth  and  success  of  the 
larger  industries  that  have  grown  up  in  our 
midst,  far  surpassing  our  native  wealth  and 
consequently  our  banking  resources,  and  they 
have  necessarily  been  forced  by  such  condi- 
tions to  seek  financial  aid  in  the  large  money 

Akron's  financial  reputation. 

These  same  concerns  and  their  necessitias 
have  indeed  made  Akron  very  prominent  in 
financial  circles.  Go  to  New  York,  Chicago, 
Philadelphia,  Boston,  St.  Louis,  Detroit  and 
inquire  at  the  banks  about  Akron,  what  na- 
ture of  a  place  it  is  and  what  is  its  reputa- 
tion. They  will  immediately  reply  that  they 
do  a  great  deal  of  business  with  Akron  con- 
cerns, that  it  is  a  very  enterprising,  hustling, 
manufacturing  city,  and  they  will  surprise 
you  with  the  fund  of  accurate  information 
they  possess  about  it  and  many  of  its  con- 

Akron  today  stands  financially  relatively 
stronger  than  it  ever  stood  in  its  history. 
While  its  growth,  which  has  averaged  over  60 
per  cent  each  decade,  has,  as  has  been  said, 
outstripped  its  financial  re^ourcas,  still  it  has 
prospered,  and  that  is  the  main  thing. 

But  these  same  New  York,  Chicago  and 
other  bankers,  while  praising  Akron  and  its 
concerns  now,  do  it  with  a  more  or  less  re- 
luctant grace,  for  not  a  few  of  them  have  had 
experiences  which  still  rankle  in  their  mem- 


For  the  reasons  explained,  Akron  has  been 
a  large  borrower.  But  during  the  period  of 
1900  to  1903,  when  the  boom  was  on  and 
business  of  all  kinds  was  at  its  height,  Akron 
was  no  whit  behind  in  its  quota  of  promo- 
tions; new  enterprises  were  started  by  the 
dozens;  where  one  line  of  trade  proved  a  suc- 
cess there  was  always  plenty  of  over-zealous 
promoters  to  form  new  companies  that  were 
sure  to  make  equal  profits.     The  result  was  a 

number  of  mushroom  concerns  sprang  up 
and  began  doing  business,  largely  on  bor- 
rowed capital.  The  local  conditions  with  their 
lack  of  funds,  excepting  for  established  cred- 
its, were  more  or  less  of  a  handicap,  however, 
but  they  "were  not  to  be  stopped.  Times  were 
too  good  and  money  too  plentiful  elsewhere. 
Everyone,  even  the  banks,  had  the  fever  for 
speculative  explorations  and  the  fences  of 
conservatism  were  down. 

Such  conditions  soon  provided  opportuni- 
ties for  a  number  of  persons  who  made  it 
their  basiness  to  furnish  corporations  having 
insufficient  working  capital  or  weakened  cred- 
its with  funds  for  their  needs.  For  this  they 
charged  a  commission  varying  with  the  finan- 
cial necessities  of  each  individual  concern; 
the  one  that  needed  it  the  worst  was  compelled 
to  pay  the  highest  commission. 

Banks  in  surrounding  country  communi- 
ties were  flush  with  money  and  with  no  local 
opportunities  to  lend  it,  and  they  welcomed 
gladly  anything  that  looked  like  a  good  loan. 

These  Akron  brokers,  by  assiduous  writing 
and  many  rosy  representations  of  the  worth 
of  the  various  concerns  they  were  endeavoring 
to  help,  were  thus  able,  spurred  on  by  the 
large  commissions  in  sight,  for  a  number  of 
years  to  bolster  up  their  weak-kneed  cus- 

But  the  day  of  reckoning  arrived,  as  it  must 
arrive  for  all  such. 

PANIC  OF  1904. 

When  the  financial  depression  of  1904 
struck  us  and  conservatism  became  the  rule, 
these  countrv'  banks  began  to  ask  and  then 
demand  their  money.  The  result  was  the 
failure  of  all  those  who  couldn't  provide  the 
capital  which  should  have  been  put  in  when 
first  needed,  numbering  among  these  unfor- 
tunately several  old  established  concerns  that 
had  long  been  considered  responsible,  but  who 
had  gradually  been  dropping  behind  in  the 
race  with  their  younger  and  more  ag.gressive 
competitors.  Likewise  it  caused  the  putting 
out  of  business  of  all  the  money  brokers. 

The  harm  accomplished  was  not  the  fail- 



lire  of  these  concerns,  nor  yet  in  the  loss  of 
their  business  to  Akron,  but  in  the  fact  that 
their  failures  caused  a  large  financial  loss  to 
many  of  those  outside  banks  located  all  over 
the  country,  and  who  had  for  years  been  loan- 
ing to  Akron  concerns.  These  losses,  all  com- 
ing within  a  few  months,  so  shook  their  con- 
fidence in  Akron  and  Akron  concerns  that  for 
two  years  afterward  a  borrower  from  Akron, 
no  matter  what  his  standing,  was  and  even 
is  now,  regarded  with  suspicion  and  distrust 
by  outside  city  and  county  banks. 

As  was  said  these  memories  still  rankle  with 
them,  but  we  are  glad  to  state  the  unprece- 
dented success  of  a  number  of  our  present 
concerns  has  helped  very  materially  to  re- 
deem Akron's  reputation  and  to  restore  it  to 
its  old  position. 

No<w,  in  1907,  there  are  probably  not  more 
than  two  concerns  in  the  city  who  are  not 
able  to  stand  solidly  on  their  own  financial 
basis,  and  these  two  are  not  in  a  position 
where  they  are  dependent  on  brokers.  They 
require  a  reorganization  with  larger  capital, 
and  this  will  probably  be  provided.  Many 
local  industries  report  the  largest  and  most 
pro.^erous  year  of  their  existence,  some  stat- 
ing that  the  volume  of  business  is  25  to  75 
per  cent  greater  than  any  previous  year.  To 
these  the  outlook  is  bright,  despite  the  pessi- 
mistic views  of  many.  But  the  coaservatives, 
■which  means  every  succ&ssful  banker  and  fi- 
naaicier,  regard  the  trend  of  business,  which 
has  shown  unmistakable  signs  of  reaction  the 
past  six  months,  as  the  best  remedy  that  could 
possibly  be  given  for  an  over^ervous  and  too 
prosperous  condition.  As  in  1892  and  in 
1903  prosperity  has  about  reached  the  realms 
of  fantastic  earnings  and  values,  and  it  be- 
hooves the  careful  man  to  husband  all  his  re- 
sources, to  prepare  for  a  period  when  he  may 
not  do  much  more  than  half  the  business  of 
this  year,  which  means  a  great  deal  less  profit 
and  perhaps  a  loss. 

If  such  a  period  comes  he  is  watching  for 
it  and  is  ready;  if  it  does  not  come,  then  he 
is  in  just  that  much  better  shape  to  take  ad- 
vantage of  next  year's  opportunities. 


In  the  following  statement  of  the  clearings 
of  Akron,  since  the  organization  of  the  clear- 
ing house,  can  be  seen  the  effect  of  a  panic  or 
financial  depression : 

March  1  to  December  31,  1892,  $11,056,- 
000;  for  the  vear  1893,  $9,896,000;  1904,  $9,- 
717,000;  1895,  $13,779,000;  1896,  $13,074,- 
000;  1897,  $3,274,000;  1898,  $16,260,000; 
1899,  $20,368,000;  1900,  $23,794,000;  1901, 
$28,059,000:  1902,  $34,578,000;  1903,  $37,- 
310,000;  1904,  $29,357,000;  1905,  $27,630,- 
000;  1906,  $30,615,000;  January  1  to  July  1, 
1907,  $18,094,000;  Januar\'  1  to  Julv  1,  1906, 

It  appears  that  the  clearing  house  started 
its  records  March  1,  1892,  so  that  in  the  year 
1892  only  ten  months'  business  is  recorded. 
This  amounted  to  over  $11,000,000.  But  next 
year  when  the  panic  struck  the  country,  and 
in  1894  business  decreased — -figuring  the  year 
1892  as  a  possible  $13,250,000— at^least  $3,- 
300,000,  nearly  25  per  cent. 

'During  the  years  1895-6-7  business  re- 
mained apparently  at  a  standstill,  with  $13,- 
000,000  each  year,  but  in  1898  it  picked  up 
and  gained  steadily  until  1903,  reaching  a 
maximum  of  $37,000,000.  a  gain  of  nearly  30 
per  cent  in  six  years,  which  is  surely  a  great 

But  again  in  1904  came  a  financial  depres- 
i-iion  which  lasted  two  years,  then  a  large  gain 
in  1906,  with  a  .still  larger  one  in  1907,  the 
first  six  months  of  1907  showing  $18,000,000, 
against  $14,000,000  in  the  same  period  of 

The  clearing  house  reports  show  the  actual 
amount  of  bu.sine.s.s  as  represented  by  the 
checks  of  the  customers  of  the  various  banks 
that  pass  through  the  clearing  hoase.  It 
does  not  represent  the  total  amount  of  busi- 
ness done  through  the  banks,  as  each  does  a 
large  amount  in  currency  over  its  own  coun- 
tei^,  but  it  serves  as  a  record  which  show.? 
substantially  and  as  near  as  can  be  obtained, 
the  total  amount  of  business  transacted  for 
purposes  of  comparison  year  by  year  or  with 
other  cities,  and  answers  every  purpose. 




Akron's  prosperity  is  certain  now.  Slack 
times  may  come  and  even  a  panic,  but  her 
concerns  and  her  banks  have  demonstrated 
their  ability  to  stand  the  test  and  will  live 
through  them  and  com©  out  stronger  than 

While  working  out  this  prosperity,  however, 
Akron's  business  men  of  the  last  generation 
have  developed  a  peculiarity  which  it  behooves 
some  of  us  to  sit  down  and  think  over.  In 
the  huiry-skurry  of  an  aggressive,  competi- 
tive business  life,  in  the  fight  for  the  profits 
that  at  first  came  so  slowly,  but  later  came 
pouring  into  their  laps  they  became  so  en- 
grossed in  the  game  that  they  forgot,  or  grew 
to  care  nothing  for  all  other  interests  but  their 
own.  While,  as  before  said,  in  benefiting 
themselvas  they  more  or  less  helped  to  bene- 
fit their  city,  still  what  the  city  got  was  really 
nothing  compared  to  the  real  results  that 
might  have  been  obtained  had  they  given 
but  a  small  part  of  their  thoughts  and  ener- 
gies to  helping  the  growth  and  prosperity  of 

When  approached  to  take  a  part  in  some 
public  enterprise  or  matter  important  to  the 
city,  the  excuse  was  always:  "We  are  too 
busy;  cannot  get  away.  What  is  our  city 
council  and  board  of  ptiblic  service  for?  Let 
them  look  after  such  matters,"  etc. 

By  all  this  is  meant,  Akron  has  been  woe- 
fully lacking  in  public-spirited  men — busi- 
ness men,  successful  bankers  and  manufac- 
turers who  would  take  enough  time  and  in- 
terest away  from  their  own  aff'airs  to  give  to 
the  welfare  of  their  city. 

The  result  Ls  we  have  no  chamber  of  com- 
merce nor  any  kind  of  an  association  of  busi- 
ness men,  such  as  all  progressive  cities  main- 
tain, to  look  after  the  financial  and  industrial 
interests  of  the  community.  Such  matters  for 
years  have  been  left  to  take  care  of  them- 
selves ;  what  comes  our  way,  all  well  and  good, 
if  we  get  nothing  or  just  miss  something  fine 
that  we  might  have  secured  by  a  little  per- 
sonal effort,  it  does  not  matter  much — no  one 
seems  to  care. 

Another  thing  Akron  is  lacking  in  is  in- 
di\'idual  wealth.  We  have  very  few  million- 
aires. What  wealth  w^e  can  boast  of  is  owned 
by  our  rich  corporations.  But  these  same  cor- 
porations are  fast  making  wealth  for  their 
stockholders,  and  there  is  growing  up  among 
us  a  number  of  young,  aggressive,  prosperous 
business  men  who  are  the  main  guiding  hands 
of  these  concerns  and  who  in  a  very  few  years 
will  be  millionaires.  Let  us  hope  when  they 
do  come  into  their  wealth  they  will  use  it, 
not  as  their  forefathers  before  them  have 
done,  selfishly  and  fooli-shly,  but  in  a  wise, 
public-spirited  way,  which  is  the  way  of  the 
truly  rich  and  truly  great. 




Schools  for  the  children  has  always  been  a 
matter  of  prime  concern  to  the  American  peo- 
ple. Before  state  government  was  formed  in 
the  territory  of  which  the  preisent  State  of 
Ohio  was  a  part,  the  Continental  Congress 
provided,  in  the  organic  law  for  the  govern- 
ment of  this  ten-itory,  that  "Schools  and  the 
means  of  education  shall  forever  be  encour- 
aged." The  constitution  formed  in  1802, 
under  which  Ohio  was  admitted  to  the  Union 
in  1803,  contains  the  following  provisions: 
"Religion,  morality  and  knowledge,  being  es- 
sentially necessary  to  good  government  and 
the  happiness  of  mankind,  schools  and  the 
means  of  education  shall  forever  be  encour- 
aged by  legislative  provision  not  inconsistent 
with  the  rights  of  conscience.  ...  No 
law  shall  be  pa.ssed  to  prevent  the  poor  in  the 
several  counties  and  townships  within  this 
State  from  an  equal  participation  in  the 
schools,  academies,  colleges  and  universities 
within  this  State,  which  are  endowed  in  whole 
or  in  part  from  the  revenue  arising  from  do- 
nations made  by  the  United  States  for  the 
support  of  schools  and  colleges :  and  the  doors 
of  said  schools,  academies  and  universities 
shall  be  opened  for  the  reception  of  scholars, 
students  and  teachers  of  every  grade,  without 
any  distinction  or  preference  whatever,  con- 
trary to  the  intent  for  which  said  donations 
were  made." 

In  1851.  a  new  constitution  was  adopted, 
superseding  that  of  1802.  In  this,  the  main 
featiires  of  the  first  constitution  on  the  sub- 
ject of  education  are  reaffirmed,  with  the  ad- 
dition of  this  explicit  statement : 

"The  General   Assemblv   shall  make  such 

provisions,  by  taxation  or  otherwise,  as,  with 
the  income  arising  from  the  school  trust  fund, 
will  secure  a  thorough  and  efficient  system  of 
common  schools  throughout  the  State ;  but  no 
religious  or  other  sect  or  sects  shall  ever  have 
any  exclusive  right  to,  or  control  of,  any  part 
of  the  school  funds  of  the  State." 

Thus  in  half  a  century  there  seems  to  have 
been  an  advance  from  encouragement  of 
schools  to  a  distinct  demand  for  a  thorough 
and  efficient  system  of  schools  throughout  the 

In  the  early  survey  and  disposition  of  Ohio 
lands,  liberal  reservations  were  made  for  the 
support  of  common  schools;  and  it  has  been 
thought  that  the  tardiness  of  the  legislature 
in  caiTving  out  the  requirements  of  the  con- 
stitution regarding  education  was  in  large 
measure  due  to  the  prevalent  expectation  that 
the  revenue  arising  from  the  lands  donated 
by  Congress  would  be  adequate  for  the  main- 
tenance of  free  schools.  Legislative  action  in 
the  earlier  years  of  the  State's  history  was 
confined  mainly  to  the  passage  of  acts  pro- 
viding for  the  leasing  of  the  school  lands, 
and  the  incorporation  of  seminaries  and  other 
private  institutions  of  learning.  No  action 
was  had  looking  in  the  direction  of  the  es- 
tabli.shment  of  a  system  of  free  schools  by 
means  of  State  or  local  taxation.  It  soon 
became  apparent,  however,  that,  in  existing 
conditions,  wild  lands  could  not  be  made  to 
produce  large  revenue.  The  trea.sury  of  a 
school  district  sometimes  contained  not  more 
than  ten  dollars  for  the  support  of  a  school 
for  an  entire  year. 

These  conditions  compelled  a  resort  to  pri- 



vate  enterprise  and  private  means  in  order 
that  the  pioneer  j'outh  of  the  State  might 
enjoy  the  simplest  rudiments  of  a  common 
school  education.  Almost  every  community 
had  its  select  school  or  private  academy.  And 
it  is  worthy  of  note  that  there  was  a  differ- 
ence between  these  pioneer  schools  in  north- 
eastern Ohio  and  those  in  the  southwestern 
paii,  of  the  State.  The  latter  section  was  set- 
tled by  people  from  Virginia,  Kentucky  and 
the  Carolinas,  whose  appreciation  of  educa- 
tional privileges  was  far  below  that  of  the 
settlers  of  the  Western  Reserve,  who  were 
from  the  New  England  states,  where  common 
schools  were  at  that  time  far  in  advance  of 
those  in  any  other  part  of  the  country.  One 
historian  says  that  educational  sentiment  in 
the  southern  section  was  at  a  low  ebb.  The 
few  schools  that  were  established  were  taught 
by  cripples,  worn  out  old  men  and  women, 
physically  unable  or  constitutionally  too  lazy 
to  scotch  hemp  or  spin  flax :  while  on  the 
Western  Reserve  at  an  early  day  schools  were 
in  a  thriving  condition.  Many  of  the  pioneers 
of  this  section  were  men  of  liberal  culture  in 
the  best  schools  and  colleges,  and  the  status 
of  the  teacher  was  on  an  equal  footing  with 
that  of  the  physician  and  the  minister. 

The  first  general  school  law  for  Ohio  was 
enacted  by  the  legislature  in  1S21.  This  was 
revised  and  improved  in  1825.  It  provided 
for  the  division  of  every  township  into  school 
districts,  and  for  the  levying  of  taxes  to  build 
school-houses  and  maintain   schools. 

Taxation  for  the  support  of  common 
schools  met  with  determined  opposition  from 
the  outset.  The  man  whose  ample  means 
enabled  him  to  pay  for  the  education  of  his 
own  children,  saw  no  justice  in  his  being 
compelled  to  assist  in  providing  for  the  edu- 
cation of  his  neighbors'  children.  Hence  it 
was  that  for  many  years  legislative  enact- 
ments providing  school  funds  by  taxation 
were  hedged  about  with  .«uch  restrictions  and 
limitations  as  to  make  the  funds  so  provided 
wholly  inadequate.  It  was  not  until  after  the 
adoption  of  the  general  law  of  lcS,5.'^  thfit  tui- 
tion in  all  the  common  school*  of  the  State 
was  altogether  free.    Prior  to  that  time,  it  was 

the  connnon  practice  to  pay  the  teacher  a 
stipulated  sum  from  the  public  fund  of  the 
district  and  authorize  him  to  collect  from  the 
parents  of  his  pupils  one  or  two  dollars  per 
pupil  for  a  term  of  three  months. 

In  1835,  Portage  Township  contained  seven 
school  districts  and  seven  schools,  including 
two  in  the  village  of  Akron,  the  public  schools 
of  the  village  being  then  under  the  jurisdic- 
tion of  the  township  and  being  conducted  in 
all  respects  like  country  schools.  Mr.  S.  A. 
Lane,  in  his  history  of  Akron  and  Summit 
County,  tells  of  teaching  one  of  these  schools 
in  the  winter  of  1835-6.  He  received  $11 
a  month  and  "boarded  around."  Less  than 
half  the  salary  was  paid  from  the  public 
money  of  the  district,  the  balance  being  raised 
by  an  assessment  pro  rata  on  those  attending 
the  school. 

In  the  decade  following,  there  was  consid- 
erable  of  school  youth  in  the  village, 
new  buildings  of  moderate  pretensions  were 
erected,  and  additional  teachers  were  em- 
ployed ;  but  the  attendance  at  the  public 
schools  fell  short  of  the  expectations  of  their 
more  ardent  supporters.  In  1845,  the  at- 
tendance was  scarcely  350  out  of  a  total 
enumeration  of  school  youth  of  twice  that 
number.  Some  were  not  kept  in  school  be- 
cause of  the  rate  bills  by  which  the  public 
funds  had  to  be  supplemented.  Others  gave 
preference  to  the  more  select  private  schools 
which  flourished  at  that  period. 

These  private  or  select  schools  were,  for  the  part,  the  result  of  individual  enterprise. 
For  example,  on  July  27.  1836.  Mrs.  Susan 
E.  Dodge  announces  in  a  local  paper  that  on 
the  first  day  of  August  she  will  open  a  school 
at  the  corner  of  Main  and  Exchange  Streets 
for  young  ladies  and  misses,  in  which  read- 
ing, writing  and  spelling  ^\^ll  be  taught  for 
$2.50  a  term  of  eleven  weeks;  grammar, 
geography  and  arithmetic,  $3.50.  In  another 
paper  is  the  announcement  that  "on  .January 
3,  1838,  a  .select  school  will  be  opened  at  the 
corner  of  Middlebi;ry  and  High  Streets,  under 
the  superintendence  of  Miss  M.  E.  Hubble, 
of  New  York,  where  pupils  will  receive  in- 
struction  in   all  branches   usuallv  taught  in 



our  eastern  female  seminaries.  Tuition  per 
quarter,  $3.00  to  $5.00,  according  to  studies 
pursued.  Music,  including  use  of  piano, 

Besides  such  schools  as  these,  dependent 
solely  upon  individual  enterprise,  there  were 
others  with  more  formal  organization  and 
backed  by  leading  citizens.  One  called  the 
Akron  High  School  was  under  the  manage- 
ment of  a  board  of  trustees  consisting  of  lead- 
ing citizens  of  Akron  and  vicinity,  with  S. 
L.  Sa^^'t•ell,  a  graduate  of  an  eastern  college, 
as  principal  instructor.  This  school  flour- 
ished about  1838,  but  it  was  not  long-lived. 
In  1845,  a  stock  company  was  formed  for 
the  organization  of  a  permanent  high  school 
to  be  known  as  "The  Akron  Institution."  A 
charter  was  procured,  which  authorized  the 
conferring  of  degrees,  with  Simon  Perkins, 
Eliakim  Crosby,  Edwin  Angel,  Henry  W. 
King,  James  R.  Ford,  Lucius  V.  Bierce  and 
Samuel  A.  Wheeler  as  corporators.  The 
stockholders  affected  an  organization,  and  a 
board  of  trustees  was  elected;  but  it  docs  not 
appear  that  any  measures  were  taken  look- 
ing toward  the  founding  of  such  a  school  as 
the  charter  contemplated.  It  is  not  improb- 
able that  the  enterprise  was  over-shadowed 
.  by  the  approach  of  a  popular  movement  in 
the  interest  of  Akron's  public  school  system 
■ — a  movement  which  resulted  in  the  enact- 
ment of  what  has  ever  since  been  known  as 


This  law  not  only  gave  form  and  substance 
to  Akron's  system  of  graded  union  schools, 
but  it  became  the  pattern  after  which  the 
graded  school  system  of  the  State  of  Ohio 
was  in  large  mea.sure  modeled. 

From  the  beginning,  there  had  been  those 
among  Akron's  leading  citizens  who  main- 
tained that  the  wealth  of  the  State  should 
educate  its  children.  Opposed  to  this  doc- 
trine were  most  of  the  childless  property 
owners  and  many  of  the  larger  tax-payers. 
The  issue  was  joined  and  the  discussion  went 
on.  At  length,  in  May.  1846,  a  large  and 
enthusiastic  meeting  of  citizens  was  held,  at 

which  a  committee  was  appointed  to  take  into 
consideration  our  present  educational  pro- 
visions and  the  improvement,  if  any,  which 
may  be  made  therein. 

Rev.  Isaac  .Jennings,  then  pa.stor  of  the 
Congregational  Church,  was  chairman  of  this 
committee.  He  took  a  deep  interest  in  the 
movement,  and  gave  much  time  and  thought 
to  collecting  information,  maturing  plans  and 
formulating  and  elaborating  the  report  which 
was  submitted  to  an  adjourned  meeting  of 
citizens  some  months  later.  It  has  been 
claimed  that  Mr.  Jennings  was  the  father  and 
founder  of  the  Akron  school  system,  and  that 
"whatever  credit  and  distinction  Akron  may 
have  for  being  the  first  to  adopt  the  principle 
of  free  graded  schools  in  Ohio  is  due  to  him." 
The  committee's  report.,  submitted  to  an  ad- 
journed meeting  in  November,  1846,  was 
unanimously  approved  and  adopted  by  the 
meeting,  and  a  committee  consisting  of  R.  P. 
Spalding,  H.  W.  King,  H.  B.  Spellman  and 
L."V.  Bierce  was  appointed  to  secure  the  nec- 
essary legislation.  This  committee  embodied 
the  recommendations  of  the  report  in  a  bill 
which  was  enacted  into  a  law  by  the  Legisla- 
ture, February  8,  1847.  The  chief  provisions 
of  the  law  are  as  follows: 

1.  All  the  school  districts  of  the  village 
are  united  into  one,  known  as  the  "Akron 
School  District." 

2.  A  board  of  education  consisting  of  six 
members,  two  elected  each  year,  is  empowered 
to  establish  schools,  build  schoolhouses,  em- 
ploy teachers,  receive  and  disburse  funds, 
make  necessary  rules  and  regulations  for  the 
government  of  the  schools,  etc. 

3.  Sufficient  primary  schools  are  to  be  .so 
located  within  the  district  as  best  to  accom- 
modate the  pupils  of  that  department:  and 
one  grammar  school  centrally  located  is  to 
be  open  to  all  the  school  youth  of  the  district 
who  satisfactorily  complete  the  work  of  the 
primary  schools. 

4.  The  town  council  is  charged  with  the 
duty  of  levying  on  the  property  of  the  dis- 
trict an  annual  tax  of  five  mills  on  the  dollar 
to  .supplement  the  amount  received  from  the 
State  and  other  sources.     This  tax  lew  was 



subsequently   reduced   to   four   mills,   in   re- 
sponse to  the  clamor  of  the  taxpayers. 

5.  The  town  council  is  ako  required  to 
appoint  three  school  examiners  to  examine 
teachers,  grant  certificates  and  maintain  su- 
pei-\'isory  oversight  of  the  instruction  and  dis- 
cipline of  the  schools. 

6.  Provision  is  made  for  the  thorough 
classification  of  all  the  pupils,  "as  the  best 
good  of  the  schools  may  seem  to  require." 

The  new  plan  was  promptly  inaugurated, 
and  met  with  the  approval  of  a  majority  of 
the  people.  The  board  was  fortunate  in  se- 
curing the  services  of  M.  D.  Leggett,  late  Com- 
missioner of  Patents  at  Washington,  as  head 
teacher  and  siiperintendent,  at  an  annual 
salary  of  $500.  His  two  assistants  in  the 
upper  department  received  $150  and  $200 
respectively,  and  the  primary  schools  were 
taught  by  young  women,  at  $3.50  a  week. 

In  its  first  annual  report,  the  board  ex- 
pressed its  satisfaction  with  the  success  of  the 
new  system.  There  were  large  increase  of 
attendance  and  better  instruction,  at  a  cost 
considerably  less  than  under  the  old  regime. 
Nearly  200  pupils  were  enrolled  in  the  gram- 
mar school  and  880  in  the  primary  schools, 
some  of  whom  resided  without  the  district. 

These  gratifying  results  were  not  secured 
without  strong  opposition  from  some  of  the 
taxpayers.  It  was  a  sore  grievance  to  them 
that  their  property  should  be  taxed  for  the 
education  of  their  neighbors'  children.  The 
clamor  here  and  elsewhere  was  such  as  to 
lead  the  legislature  to  reduce  the  State  levy 
for  school  purposes,  and  the  local  levy  was 
kept  at  the  minimum.  The  rapid  growth  of 
the  schools  made  new  schoolhouses  and  addi- 
tional teachers  necessary.  The  state  of  the 
board's  treasury  compelled  the  exercise  of  an 
economy  bordering  on  parsimony.  The 
grammar  school  had  to  be  suspended  for  a 
time,  and  the  valuable  services  of  Mr.  Leg- 
get,  the  superintendent,  were  dispensed  with 
for  want  of  money  to  pay  him  an  adequnte 

Despite  the  unfavorable  conditions,  the 
schools  steadily  increased  numericallv  and 
gained  in  popular  regard.    In  1849,  Mr.  and 

Mrs.  C.  H.  Palmer  took  chai'ge  of  the  gram- 
mar school,  under  an  engagement  for  two 
years,  at  a  joint  annual  salary  of  $600.  Mr. 
Palmer's  health  failing  before  the  expiration 
of  his  engagement,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  E.  B.  Olm- 
stead  were  employed  at  a  joint  salary  of  $50 
a  month,  to  teach  a  high  grade  primary  or 
secondary  school,  which  took  the  place  of  the 
grammar  school. 

Meantime,  the  board  had  purchased  a  lot 
containing  about  two  and  a  half  acres,  front- 
ing on  Mill  Street  between  Summit  and 
Prospect  Streets.  On  this  a  two-story  brick 
building  70  by  50  feet  was  erected,  at  a  cost 
of  $9,250.  This  building  contained  two 
ku-ge  school-rooms,  each  with  a  seating  ca- 
pacity of  150  pupils,  and  each  having  two 
recitation  rooms  attached.  It  was  dedicated 
with  appropriate  ceremonies  October  13, 
1853.  The  upper  room  with  its  recitation 
rooms  was  occupied  by  the  high  school,  in 
charge  of  Mr.  Samuel  F.  Cooper  and  two 
assistant  teachers.  The  grammar  school  oc- 
cupied the  lower  room  with  its  recitation 
rooms,  under  Miss  Codding  and  two  assist- 

In  1856-7,  Mr.  H.  B.  Fo.ster,  of  Hudson, 
a  graduate  of  Western  Reserve  college,  served 
for  a  short  time  as  principal  of  the  high 
school  and  superintendent  of  all  the  schools; 
but,  declining  a  re-engagement,  Mr.  Olmstead 
was  employed  to  take  his  place,  and  Mr.  J. 
Park  Alexander  was  put  in  charge  of  the 
grammar  school  at  $35  a  month. 

In  a  report  about  this  time,  the  board  de- 
plores the  evils  resulting  from  frequent 
changes  of  superintendents  and  teachers,  ex- 
presses the  conviction  that  the  employment 
of  the  cheapest  teachers  is  not  the  most  eco- 
nomical, and  maintains  that  such  liberal  com- 
pensation should  be  paid  superintendent  and 
teachers  as  to  secure  the  highest  ability  and 
skill  in  every  department.  In  the  same  re- 
port, the  of  running  the  schools  for 
the  ensiling  year,  "including  incidentals,"  is 
estimated  at  $4,200.  Manifestly,  the  board 
shows  ^^^sdom  in  its  efl^ort  to  prepare  the  pub- 
lic mind  for  the  payment  of  better  salaries. 
It  shows  wisdom,  too.  in  its  expressed  deter- 



mination  "to  employ  no  teachers  in  the  Akrou 
schools  but  those  of  ripe  age,  ample  experi- 
ence, successful  tact  and  good  common  sense." 

In  1857,  a  change  was  made  in  the  organi- 
zation making  permanent  provision  for  a  sec- 
ondary grade  between  the  primary  departr 
ment  and  the  grammar  school.  A  general 
scheme  of  studies  was  outlined  for  the  differ- 
ent departments.  Reading  and  spelling  and 
general  practical  oral  lessons  were  assigned 
to  the  primary  department;  to  these  writing 
was  added  for  the  secondary  grade ;  pupils 
in  the  grammar  school  must  be  taught  to 
read  and  spell  the  fourth  reader  fluently, 
master  the  first  half  of  Stoddard's  Intellectual 
Arithmetic,  Tracy's  and  Stoddard's  "Practi- 
cal" as  far  as  interest,  the  general  definitions 
in  grammar,  Colton  and  Fitch's  Modern 
School  Geography  with  map-drawing,  daily 
practice  in  writing,  and  declamation  and 
composition  one  hour  each  week;  for  the 
high  school,  .practice  dn  intellectual  arith- 
metic, the  more  advanced  subjects  of  written 
arithmetic,  English  grammar,  including  pars- 
ing; geography  and  mapdrawing,  philosophy, 
history,  physiology,  algebra,  chemistry,  as- 
tronomy, geometry,  botany,  declamation  and 
composition,  with  practice  in  reading,  spell- 
ing and  wTiting. 

By  resolution  of  the  board,  all  the  teachers 
were  authorized  but  not  required  to  read  a 
short  passage  of  Scripture  and  repeat  the 
Lord's  Prayer  with  the  pupils,  without  note 
or  comment,  at  the  opening  of  school  each 

Latin  and  Greek  were  taught  in  the  high 
school  spasmodically,  the  board  sometimes 
approving  and  sometimes  declaring  that  "a 
good  practical  English  education  is  all  that 
any  one  has  a  right  to  expect  or  exact  at  the 
hands  of  a  generous  public." 

In  the  first  ten  years  of  Akron'.*  graded 
school  system,  the  supervision  of  the  schools 
was  more  nominal  than  real.  Five  or  six 
different  superintendents,  so  called,  had  been 
employed,  but  their  time  was  so  fully  taken 
up  with  teaching  in  the  department  under 
their  immediate  charge  that  an  occasional 
hurried  visit  to  the  other  schools  wa."  all"  that 

was  possible,  and  this  to  little  purpose.  The 
necessity  for  more  efficient  supervision  be- 
came more  and  more  manifest.  "The  schools 
had  not  at  all  times  maintained  the  prestige 
they  at  first  enjoyed,  nor  the  pre-eminence  to 
which  they  were  entitled  as  the  pioneer  free 
graded  schools  of  Ohio."  The  idea  of  super- 
vision was  a  gradual  growth.  While  the  su- 
perintendent continued  to  act  as  principal 
of  the  high  school,  he  was  given  an  assistant 
capable  of  taking  charge  of  the  high  school 
temporarily  in  his  absence.  A  little  later,  a 
separate  principal  of  the  high  school  was  em- 
ployed, the  superintendent  continuing  to 
teach  a  portion  of  his  time,  conducting  his 
recitations  in  a  class-room.  In  1870,  the  su- 
perintendent was  relieved  from  all  regular 
class-room  work,  and  thereafter  gave  his  en- 
tire time  to  the  work  of  supervision. 

About  1854,  and  for  some  years  following, 
a  plan  was  operated  for  increasing  interest 
and  improving  the  teaching,  which  seems  to 
merit  mention.  Observation  schools  or  teach- 
ers' institutes  were  conducted  every  Saturday 
morning  in  term-time,  in  the  presence  of  all 
the  teachers,  members  of  the  board  and  others 
interested.  One  teacher,  by  previous  ap- 
pointment, holds  a  session  of  her  school,  giv- 
ing lessons  or  conducting  exercises  in  one  or 
more  subjects.  After  dismissal  of  the  pupils, 
lectures  and  discussions  follow.  We  find  the 
board  expressing  approval,  and  saying  that 
the  plan  "worked  admirably." 

The  next  superintendent  in  order  was  Mr. 
T.  C.  Pooler,  a  teacher  of  experience,  from 
the  State  of  New  York.  He  received  a  salary 
of  $1,000.  Besides  acting  as  principal  of  the 
high  school,  it  wa*  required  by  the  rules  of 
the  board  to  visit  each  school  at  least  once 
in  four  weeks,  and  advise  and  direct 
the  teachers  in  regard  to  classifying 
and  disciplining  their  schools.  After 
three  years  of  service,  he  declined  a  re- 
engagement,  and  was  succeeded  in  Septem- 
ber, 1860,  by  Mr.  I.  P.  Hole.  Like  most  of 
his  predecessors,  Mr.  Hole  sers'ed  in  the 
double  capacity  of  superintendent  and  prin- 
cipal of  the  high  school.  His  snlars"^  was 
fixed  at  $900  at  first,  but  in  the  course  of  his 



eight  years'  term  of  service  it  was  increased 
from  time  to  time  until  it  reached  $1,500. 
This  increase  in  salary  was  no  doubt  in  large 
measure  due  to  the  increased  cost  of  living 
which  prevailed  in  the  time  of  the  Civil  War ; 
but  it  seems  fair  to  infer  that  there  was  in 
it  also  an  expression  of  approval  and  endorse- 
ment of  Mr.  Hole's  work.  There  is  abundant 
evidence  that  he  was  a  capable,  industrious 
and  efficient  worker.  His  term  was  a  period 
of  growth.  The  village  of  Akron  had  become 
a  prosperous  little  city  of  nearly  10,000  peo- 
ple The  youth  of  school  age  had  increased 
from  less  than  700  in  1846  to  3,000.  The 
schools  had  become  crowded.  Enlarged  school 
accommodations  had  become  a  necessity.  To 
meet  this  need  the  board  issued  bonds  to  the 
amount  of  $15,000,  and  made  an  addition  of 
four  rooms  to  the  high  school  building.  Each 
of  these  rooms  had  a  seating  capacity  of  80 
or  90  pupils  and  a  recitation  room  attached 
These  new  rooms  were  occupied  by  the  sec- 
ondary schools  and  the  overflow  from  the 
grammar  school.  Each  of  these  rooms  had  a 
principal  teacher  and  one  assistant,  while  the 
high  school  and  grammar  school  had  each  a 
principal  and  two  assistants.  The  primary 
schools  were  housed  in  small  one-room  build- 
ings, so  located  as  to  be  most  accessible  to  the 
little  ones. 

Tardiness  and  irregularity  of  attendance 
constituted  a  source  of  annoyance  and 
hindrance  from  the  first  organization  of  the 
schools.  To  correct  these  evils  the  board  from 
time  to  time  resorted  to  various  devices.  At 
one  time  the  expedient  was  tried  of  closing 
the  doors  against  tardy  pupils,  shutting  them 
out  until  recess.  This  caused  a  good  deal  of 
irritation  and  dissatisfaction  without  curing 
the  evil.  In  1864  the  board  adopted  a  rule 
authorizing  the  suspension  of  pupils  for  three 
absences  in  one  month,  pupils  so  suspended 
being  required  to  make  application  for  resto- 
ration at  a  subsequent  meeting  of  the  board. 
This  rule  is  said  to  have  resulted  in  improved 
attendance.  In  1847-8- the  percentage  of  at- 
tendance was  55^4  in  the  primary  schools  and 
88  in  the  grammar  schools,  while  in  1866  the 

attendance  reached  90  per  cent  in  all  the 

The  statute  under  which  the  free  graded 
school  system  of  Akron  was  organized  con- 
tained a  provision  for  the  periodical  visitation 
of  the  schools  by  persons  appointed  by  the 
council  and  mayor.  There  seems  to  be  in 
this  provision  some  recognition  of  the  neces- 
sity of  supervision  in  a  system  of  public 
schools  An  unpaid  school  visitor  was  a  cheap 
•■substitute  for  an  expert  salaried  superintend- 
ent. In  its  eleventh  annual  report  the  board 
calls  attention  of  the  council  to  this  feature 
of  the  law,  saying  that  "while  exclusive  con- 
trol of  the  schools  is  given  to  the  board  of 
education,  the  school  visitor  might  be  the 
means  of  bringing  to  the  aid  of  the  board  the 
best  light  and  the  highest  intelligence  on  the 
subject  of  education,  with  all  improved 
methods  of  instruction,  discipline  and  man- 
agement of  schools" 

Some  such  visitors  were  appointed.  The 
board's  fifteenth  annual  report  contains  the 
report  of  R.  0.  Hammond,  Esq.,  as  school 
visitor,  in  which  he  commends  warmly  and 
censures  sharply.  Among  other  I'ecommenda- 
tions,  he  urges  regular  and  thorough  instruc- 
tion in  vocal  music.  "This,  in  my  judgment," 
he  says,  "should  be  taught  in  our  schools  as 
a  component  part  of  daily  instruction.  I  mean 
that  the  principles  of  music  should  be  taught 
— taught  as  a  science.  In  this  way.  at  a 
small  expense,  singers  with  well  cultivated 
voices,  able  to  read  music  readily,  may  be 
fitted  for  the  choir,  the  concert  and  the  par- 

The  tables  accompanying  the  reports  of  Mr. 
Hole  as  superintendent  show  that  the  at- 
tendance in  the  grades  below  the  high  school 
steadily  increased,  while  the  attendance  at  the 
high  .'school  steadily  diminished.  This  fall- 
ing off  in  the  attendance  at  the  high  school 
arrests  our  attention,  and  we  naturally  inquire 
for  the  cause.  We  discover  that  early  in  Mr. 
Hole's  administration  the  course  of  study  for 
the  high  school  was  expanded  into  a  four- 
years'  course,  and  was  made  to  include  nearly 
all  the  studies  of  a  college  course  save  the 



classics.  Among  the  requirements  were  such 
studies  as  political  economy,  logic,  moral 
science,  mental  philosophy,  evidences  of 
Christianity,  astronomy,  domestic  economy 
and  geology.  The  first  graduation  from  the 
high  school  occurred  in  1864.  There  was  at- 
that  time  but  one  graduate.  Miss  Pamela  H. 
Goodwin,  and  up  to  and  including  1868, 
there  had  been  but  fifteen  graduates. 

The  high  school  at  that  time  may  have 
been  ideal  in  its  organization  and  appoint- 
ments, but  manifestly  it  was  not  meeting  the 
popular  demand.  The  records  for  one  term 
show  an  average  attendance  of  four  males  and 
twenty-one  females.  A  complaint  not  unfre- 
quently  heard  was  to  the  effect  that  after 
spending  so  long  a  time  in  completing  the 
high  school  course  of  study,  those  who  wished 
to  go  to  college  were  compelled  then  to  seek 
admission  to  a  preparatory  school  to  secure  fit- 
ness for  college  entrance  This  touches  the 
important  question  of  the  harmonizing  and 
adaptation  of  high  school  and  college  courses 
of  study — a  question  much  discussed  in  re- 
cent years,  with  profit  to  both  high  schools 
and  colleges. 

About  the  time  we  are  now  considering,  a 
great  deal  of  diflSculty  was  experienced  in  the 
management  of  the  grammar  school.  The 
room  occupied  was  large  and  often  much 
crowded,  sometimes  containing  two  hundred 
or  more  pupils,  and  it  was  not  easy  to  secure 
either  man  or  woman  equal  to  the  task  of 
handling  such  a  school.  Of  this  department 
we  find  the  president  of  the  board  saying  in 
a  printed  report:  "Its  fortunes  have  been  as 
checkered  as  those  of  some  of  the  many  who 
have  taught  or  kept  it,  being  by  turns  a 
small  success  and  a  great  failure."  Fortu- 
nately, school  authorities  have  grown  wiser 
than  to  attempt  to  conduct  schools  in  that 

In  1868,  after  a  term  of  service  of  eight 
years,  Mr.  Hole  declined  re-election,  and  in 
June  of  that  year  he  and  all  the  teachere  asso- 
ciated with  him  in  both  the  high  and  gram- 
mar departments  retired. 


The  school  year  opening  in  September, 
1868,  was  the  beginning  of  a  new  period  in 
the  history  of  the  Akron  schools.  It  was  a 
period  of  change,  revival,  progress.  Akron 
was  now  a  city.  Its  growth  and  promise  had 
brought  in  new  men,  and  with  new  business 
prosperity  and  success,  larger  and  more  lib- 
eral views  prevailed.  In  order  to  have  a  full 
understanding  of  this  period,  it  seems  desir- 
able to  notice  some  things  not  primarily  con- 
nected with  Akron  schools. 

In  the  summer  of  1867,  an  educational  re- 
vival started  in  Cleveland,  which  soon  spread 
throughout  and  beyond  Ohio.  While  it  is 
probable  that  the  work  done  in  the  Cleveland 
schools  in  that  day  was  not  below  the  preva- 
lent standard  of  the  time,  the  impression  pre- 
vailed that  something  better  was  attainable. 
It  was  under  the  impulse  of  this  impression 
that,  in  June,  1867,  two  of  Cleveland's  prin- 
cipals, Henry  M.  James  and  Samuel  Find- 
ley,  with  the  approval  of  the  board  of  educa- 
tion, made  a  pilgrimage  to  the  normal  school 
at  Oswego,  New  York,  in  search  of  new  light. 
As  a  result  of  this  pilgrimage,  a  corps  of  in- 
structors from  the  Oswego  Normal  School 
came  to  Cleveland  in  the  following  August 
and  held  a  teachers'  institute  for  one  week. 
Those  compasing  this  body  of  educational 
missionaries  were  Professors  Krusi  and 
Poucher,  Mrs.  Mary  Howe  Smith,  and  Misses 
Lathrop,  Cooper  and  Seaver.  The  fame  of 
this  movement  having  reached  Cincinnati, 
the  president  of  the  Cincinnati  school  board 
came  to  Cleveland  and  persuaded  the  same 
corps  of  instnictors  to  do  missionary  work  in 
Cincinnati  the  following  \feek. 

It  was  about  this  time  that  that  stalwart 
educational  reformer.  Andrew  J.  Rickoff.  was 
called  to  succeed  Dr.-  Anson  Smyth  in  the 
superintendency  of  the  Cleveland  schools,  and 
it  was  in  the  midst  of  the  session  of  this  in- 
.stitute  that  he  entered  upon  the  duties  of  the 
po!5ition.  These  two  events,  the  coming  of 
the  Oswego  missionaries,  and  the  coming  of 
.Andrew  J.  RickofT,  mark  the  beginnings  of 
an  educational  revival  which  extended  bevond 



the  limits  of  the  city  of  Cleveland,  and  be- 
yond the  limits  of  Ohio,  and  which,  we  may 
not  doubt,  is  still  a  living  educational  force. 

Something  of  the  bearing  of  these  events 
upon  the  educational  interests  of  Akron  may 
be  understood  when  it  is  known  that,  a  year 
later,  Samuel  Findley,  one  of  the  two  Cleve- 
land principals  who  made  the  pilgrimage  to 
Oswego,  was  called  to  the  superintendency  of 
the  Akron  schools  at  a  salary  of  $2,500.  Prior 
to  his  engagement  in  Cleveland,  he  had  been 
engaged  in  the  schools  of  Xenia  and  Colum- 
bus, Ohio,  and  during  his  last  year  in  Cleve- 
land he  had  some  part  in  the  work  of  recon- 
struction undertaken  by  Superintendent 
Rickoff  in  the  Cleveland  schools.  The  period 
of  his  superintendency  of  the  Akron  schools 
was  fifteen  years. 

At  the  time^of  Superintendent  Findley's 
call  to  Akron  several  specially  strong  teach- 
ers were  also  employed.  Of  these,  Mrs.  N.  A. 
Stone,  a  woman  of  strong  cliaracter  and  lib- 
eral culture,  was  made  principal  of  the  high 
school,  and  Miss  E.  A.  Herdman,  a  graduate 
of  Monmouth  College  (111.),  was  made  prin- 
cipal of  the  grammar  department.  Great 
credit  is  due  to  these  two  ladies  for  the  high 
degree  of  success  attained  by  their  respective 
departments.  Mrs.  Stone's  salary,  at  first 
$1,200,  was  afterwards  increased  to  $1,400; 
Miss  Herdman's  sakry  start-ed  at  $900,  and 
was  soon  after  increa.sed  to  $1,000. 

The  school  syst&m  at  this  time  consisted  of 
eleven  primary  schools  hou.sed  in  eleven  small 
one-room  buildings,  and  the  high  school, 
grammar  school  and  secondary  schools  in  the 
one  central  brick  building. 

The  school-;  opened  in  September,  1868, 
with  twenty-three  teachers  besides  the  sup?!"- 
intendent,  who,  for  the  time  being,  heard 
two  or  three  daily  recitations  in  the  high 
school.  It  is  to  be  noted  in  this  connection 
that  in  this  year  there  were  but  forty-one  pu- 
pils pursuing  high  school  studies.  As  a  mat- 
ter of  expediency,  the  pupils  of  the  A  gram- 
mar grade  occupied  the  upper  room  with  the 
high  school  pupils,  and  were  taught  by  high 
school  teachers. 

No  radical  changes  in  cla.ssification,  course 

of  study,  or  methods  of  instruction,  were  made 
at  the  opening.  The  schools  were  started  in 
their  accustomed  grooves,  and  changes  were 
made  from  time  to  time  as  occasion  seemed  to 

The  fii'st  matter  of  importance  to  which  the 
superintendent  directed  his  attention  was  the 
classification  of  the  primary  schools.  A  loose 
classification  had  prevailed  in  these  schools, 
so  that  in  most  of  them  there  were  six  or 
seven  diff'erent  grades  or  classes  of  pupils, 
ranging  from  beginners  to  third  reader  classes. 
Of  course,  it  was  impossible  for  the  teachers 
to  secure  the  best  results  under  such  condi- 
tions. There  were  obstacles  in  the  way  of 
remedying  the  evils,  chief  of  which  were  the 
extended  territory  and  scattered  population  of 
some  portions  of  the  city.  Proper  classifica- 
tion would  necessitate  the  separation  of  chil- 
dren of  the  same  family  who  had  hitherto  at- 
tended the  same  school,  and  in  many  eases 
would  require  them  to  go  a  greater  distance 
to  school.  But  it  was  believed  that  the  ad- 
vantages to  be  gained  would  far  more  than 
counterbalance  these  inconveniences,  and 
the  city  was  divided  into  six  primary-school 
districts  instead  of  eleven,  giving  to  each  dis- 
trict two  schools,  with  one  exception.  In  one 
of  two  schools  was  placed  all  the  more 
advanced  pupils  of  both,  and  in  the  other  all 
the  le.«s  advanced  of  both,  reducing  each 
school  to  half  its  former  number  of  grades, 
and  nearly  or  quite  doubling  the  teaching 
force  without  any  increase  in  the  number  of 
teachers  or  any  additional  expense. 

From  this  time  (1868)  onward,  the  fol- 
lowing general  classification  has  prevailed  in 
the  Akron  schools: 

Primary  grades,  four  years. 

Grammar  grades,  four  years. 

High  school  grades,  three  or  fonr  yemrs. 


In  the  autumn  of  1868  the  course  of  study 
for  all  grades  below  the  high  school  was  thor- 
oughly revised.  The  course  was  divided  into 
yearly  steps  or    grades,    and    the    work    for 



each  grade  was  prescribed  in  detail,  thus  set- 
ting up  a  standard  of  attainment  for  teach- 
ers and  pupils. 


Four  or  five  years  later  the  course  of  study 
was  broken  into  semi-annual  steps,  and  pro- 
motions were  made  semi-annually  instead  of 
once  a  year.  This  made  the  classification 
much  moi-e  flexible.  Because  of  the  shorter 
steps,  .strong,  bright  and  industrious  pupils 
could  and  often  did  overtake  the  next  grade 
ahead,  and  pupils  who  failed  of  promotion 
found  the  fall  to  the  next  grade  below  much 
more  endurable  than  when  they  were  com- 
pelled to  fall  back  an  entire  year. 

When  the  semi-annual  plan  was  firet 
adopted,  there  was  some  apprehension  that  it 
might  work  mischief  when  it  came  to  the 
high  school.  It  would  double  the  number 
of  classes,  and  necessitate  the  employment  of 
more  teachers.  But  the  problem  solved  itself. 
As  population  grew,  high  school  attendance 
increased,  until  ere  long  it  would  have  been 
necessarj'  to  break  the  annual  classes  into  sec- 
tions for  purposes  of  recitation  alone.  Thus, 
almost  of  necessity,  came  to  pass  semi-annual 
promotions  and  graduation  in  the  high 
school,  and  so  the  practice  is  unto  this  day, 


The  revised  course  of  study  provided,  al- 
most exclusively,  for  oral  teaching  in  the  pri- 
mary grades,  or  first  four  years  of  the  course. 
The  reader  was  about  the  only  book  used  in 
these  gi'ades.  The  spelling  book  was  dis- 
carded in  all  grades.  Instead  of  wasting  time 
over  long  columns  of  words  without  moaning 
to  the  pupils,  the  plan  was  to  secure  thorough 
drill  in  the  spelling  of  words  within  the  pu- 
pils' vocabulary,  each  being  held  accountable 
for  the  correct  spelling  of  all  the  words  he 

There  were  daily  oral  lessons  in  number 
from  the  start,  but  no  text-book  in  arithme- 
tic was  used  until  the  fourth  or  fifth  vear. 

Fii"st  lessons  in  geography  were  also  oral,  a 
primary  text-book  being  introduced  about  the 
fifth  year. 


On  the  recommendation  of  the  superintend- 
ent, the  daily  sessions  of  the  schools  were 
shortened.  The  school  day  for  all  gi-ades  had 
been  six  hours.  With  the  adoption  of  oral 
and  objective  methods  of  instruction,  came  a 
necessity  for  shorter  hours,  for  the  sake  both 
of  pupils  and  teachers.  For  the  children 
of  the  first  and  second  years  there  were  pro- 
vided two  daily  sessions  of  two  hours  each. 
For  all  other  grades  there  was  a  morning  ses- 
sion of  three  hours  and  an  afternoon  session 
of  two  hours.  There  was  no  perceptible 
diminution  in  the  amount  of  work  accom- 
plished, and  both  teachers  and  pupils  mani- 
fested greater  vigor  and  interest  in  the  work. 


We  have  seen  that  for  considerable  time 
the  high  school,  with  its  protracted  and  heavy 
course  of  study,  did  not  seem  to  meet  the 
popular  demand.  Few  pupils  seemed  disposed 
to  remain  long  enough  to  complete  the  course 
and  graduate.  With  a  view  to  popularizing 
the  school  and  securing  larger  attendance,  the 
course  of  study  was  revised,  the  more  ad- 
vanced studies  were  eliminated,  and  the  whole 
was  reduced  to  a  three-years'  course.  The  ef- 
fect of  this  was  immediate.  Seventeen  pupils 
graduated  in  1872,  whereas  the  largest  num- 
ber of  graduates  in  any  previous  year  was 
five.  And  in  the  six  years  ending  in  1875, 
the  number  attending  the  high  school  in- 
creased 234  per  cent,  while  the  increase  in  all 
the  .schools  for  the  same  period  was  only  50 
per  cent. 

Another  measure  which  added  considerably 
to  the  interest  of  the  high  school  and  proved 
of  permanent  value,  was  the  organization  of 
tm^o  literary  societies,  one  for  each  sex,  known 
as  the  Academic  and  Philomathean  societies. 
Friday  afternoons  were  devoted  to  the  ses- 
sions of  these   societies,    under   the   general 



oversight  of  the  principal  and  teachers.  Each 
society  adopted  a  constitution,  elected  its  own 
officers  and  prepared  and  carried  out  its  own 
program.  The  program  usually  consisted  of 
essays,  declamations,  debates,  reports  of  crit- 
ics, miscellaneous;  etc.  Many  of  the  members 
gained  considerable  facility  in  extempore 
speaking,  and  most  gained  more  or  less 
familiarity  with  parliamentary  usage.  Some 
have  testified  in  after  years  that  the  best 
part  of  their  high  school  training  came  from 
the  Friday  afternoons  in  the  literary  society. 
These  societies  have  existed  for  almost  forty 
years,  and  are  still  successfully  operated. 


A  feature  of  the  school  management  at 
this  period  was  the  almost  exclusive  employ- 
ment of  women.  At  one  time  no  man  was 
employed  in  the  department  of  instruction, 
except  the  superintendent.  In  the  annual  re- 
port for  1874-5  are  found  these  statements: 
"The  testimony  of  all  familiar  with  the 
schools  is  that  the  discipline  has  been  uni- 
formly better  under  the  management  of 
women  than  formerly  when  under  masculine 
rule.  .  .  .  The  experiment  we  have  made 
for  several  years  of  employing  none-  but 
women  as  teachers  has  been  eminently  suc- 

Whatever  may  have  seemed  to  be  the  teach- 
ing of  this  experiment,  it  is  noticeable  that 
as  the  system  has  grown  in  size  and  become 
more  stable  in  its  appointments,  men  and 
women  have  been  employed  as  principals  and 
high  school  teachers  in  about  equal  numbers, 
with  little,  if  any,  discrimination  in  salaries, 
as  between  the  sexes. 


It  was  about  the  year  1870  that  vocal  music 
was  made  a  part  of  the  regular  course  of  in- 
struction in  the  schools  of  Akron.  No  doubt, 
there  had  been  from  the  beginning  more  or 
less  of  practice  in  singing  school  songs.  But 
after  the  subject  was  given  its  place  in  the 
list  of  required  branches,  thoroughly  graded 

music  lessons  were  given  daily,  beginning  in 
the  lowest  primary  grades  with  the  simplest 
exercises  in  distinguishing  and  making  musi- 
cal sounds,  and  advancing  by  regular  grada- 
tion to  the  practice  of  classic  music  in  the 
high  school.  Opposition  arose.  A  good  many 
people,  among  them  some  membere  of  the 
board,  looked  upon  the  movement  as  a  waste 
of  time  and  effort.  They  believed  musical 
talent  a  special  gift,  possessed  only  by  the 
favored  few  in  sufficient  degree  to  make  its 
cultivation  desirable.  Opposed  to  this  view 
was  that  of  those  who  maintained  that  the 
Creator  has  distributed  musical  talent  among 
men  about  as  generally  as  he  has  mathe- 
matical talent,  and  that  any  pei-son  who  has 
the  ordinary  vocal  organs,  with  power  to  use 
them  so  as  to  make  the  varying  tones  used  in 
common  conversation,  may  learn  to  sing  with 
as  much  facility  as  he  learns  to  read.  We  find 
the  superintendent  saying,  after  the  experi- 
ment had  been  continued  four  or  five  years, 
that  among  the  pupils  of  the  lower  grades, 
who  have  been  carefully  trained  from  the 
time  of  their  entrance  at  school,  we  find  none 
unable  to  learn  to  sing. 

In  view  of  the  agitation  of  the  subject  and 
the  opposition  developed  in  some  quarters,  it 
w'as  deemed  desirable  to  know  what  rank  the 
subject  of  vocal  music  held  in  the  school  sys- 
tems of  other  cities,  and  the  estimation  in 
which  it  was  held  by  leading  educators  of  the 
country.  Accordingly,  a  list  of  questions  was 
mailed  to  the  superintendents  of  leading  cities 
throughout  the  country,  to  which  over  a  hun- 
dred replies  were  received.  About  four-fifths 
of  the  cities  and  towns  responding  reported 
that  vocal  music  was  inchided  among  the  re- 
quired branches  of  the  regular  course  of  in- 
struction, and  that  the  results  in  music  were 
about  equal  to  those  attained  in  other 
branches.  There  was  great  imanimity  of  sen- 
timent among  the  superintendents  as  to  the 
value  of  music  as  a  branch  of  .study  in  public 
schools.  From  such  responses  as  these  there 
was  no  dissent:  H.  P.  Wilson,  Superintend- 
ent Public  Instruction,  State  of  Minnesota: 
"It  should  be  taught  in  every  grade  of  schools, 
as  it  is  in  Pnis.sia."    John  B.  Peaslee.  Cincin- 



nati:  "It  is  almost  indispensable."  Daniel 
Worley,  Canton,  Ohio:  "For  discipline,  cul- 
ture and  general  influence  upon  pupils,  I 
place  a  very  high  estimate  upon  it."  J.  L. 
Pickard,  Chicago:  "Its  value  cannot  be  over- 
estimated." Edward  Smith,  Syracuse,  New 
York :  "I  would  as  soon  recommend  the  dis- 
continuance of  any  other  branch."  William 
T.  Harris,  St.  Louis,  now  National  Commis- 
sioner of  Education,  AVashington,  D.  C. :  "I 
consider  it  of  great  importance  for  its  moral 
effect  in  softening  the  dLsposition  and  render- 
ing it  teachable,  and  in  cultivating  the  higher 
sentiments."  A.  M.  Gow,  Evansville,  In- 
diana: "It  is  invaluable  to  the  individual, 
to  the  school  and  to  society." 

The  board  was  very  fortunate,  at  the  out- 
set, in  securing  Mr.  W.  L.  Glover  as  music 
master.  Besides  high  attainment  in  his 
specialty  and  great  skill  in  the  work  of  in- 
struction, he  has  everywhere  and  always  ex- 
hibited true  manliness  and  strength  of  char- 
acter. No  other  person  has  had  so  long  a 
term  of  service  in  connection  with  the  Akron 


The  question  of  German  in  public  schools 
has  received  more  or  less  consideration  in  the 
board  and  in  the  community  from  time  to 
time.  In  1877  the  question  came  before  the 
board  in  the  form  of  a  petition  from  citizens, 
asking  that  the  German  language  be  given  a 
regular  place  in  the  course  of  study.  The 
matter  was  referred  to  a  committee  consist- 
ing of  three  members  of  the  board,  two  citi- 
zens outside  of  the  board  and  the  superin- 
tendent of  instruction.  Deepl)^  sensible  of  the 
importance  and  delicacy  of  the  subject,  the 
committee  entered  upon  its  investigation  in 
the  spirit  of  candor,  and  with  the  determina- 
tion to  reach,  if  po.«sible,  a  conclusion  based 
solely  upon  the  merits  of  the  case.  By  means 
of  personal  conference  with  leading  citizens, 
by  visiting  neighboring  cities  which  have 
.made  provision  for  instruction  in  the  German 
language,   by     correspondence    with     college 

presidents  and  with  superintendents  of  in- 
struction in  all  the  more  important  cities  and 
towns  of  this  State,  by  examination  of  various 
.school  reports,  and  by  full  and  free  discus- 
sion of  the  subject  in  its  various  phases,  the 
committee  sought  to  gain  a  comprehensive 
and  correct  -view  of  the  whole  question. 

As  was  to  be  expected,  the  investigations  re- 
vealed great  diversity  of  sentiment  on  the  sub- 
ject, ranging  all  the  way  from  strong  opposi- 
tion to  the  introduction  of  German  into  any 
grade  of  our  public  schools,  to  a  strong  desire 
to  see  it  introduced  into  every  grade.  And 
this  divei^ity  of  sentiment  was  found  no  less 
among  educators  and  others  who  have  made 
the  subject  a  special  study,  than  among  those 
who  have  bestowed  but  little  thought  on  the 

After  many  meetings  and  much  discussion, 
majority  and  minority  reports  were  submitted. 
The  majority  report,  signed  by  four  mem- 
bers of  the  committee,  may  be  thus  sum- 
marized :  The  study  of  the  German  language 
should  be  pursued  in  the  schools  of  this  coun- 
try for  purposas  of  higher  culture,  by  those 
who  seek  a  liberal  education,  rather  than  for 
purpases  of  practical  utility,  by  those  whose 
means  and  opportunities  can  afford  them  only 
a  limited  education.     We  conclude: 

I.  The  German  language  may.  with  pro- 
priety, be  made  an  elective  study  in  the 
higher  grades  of  our  public  schools. 

II.  It  is  inexpedient  to  provide  instruc- 
tion in  German  for  the  piipils  in  the  lower 

These  conclusions  were  well  sustained  in 
the  report  by  terse  and  cogent  reasoning. 

The  minority  reported  to  the  effect  that  it 
is  inexpedient  and  impracticable  to  introduce 
the  study  of  the  German  language  into  any 
of  the  grades  of  our  public  schools. 

These  reports  were  received  and  printed  in 
full  in  the  thirty-first  annual  report  of  the 
board  of  education.  No  formal  action  was 
taken  at  once,  but  the  policy  advocated  in  the 
majority  report,  has  prevailed  in  the  schools 
ever  since. 




This  subject  has  received  considerable  at- 
tention from  time  to  time.  The  following 
was  on©  of  the  standing  mles  of  the  board 
for  a  good  many  years:  "It  shall  be  a  duty 
of  the  first  importance,  on  the  part  of  teach- 
ers, to  exercise  constant  supervision  and  care 
over  the  general  conduct  of  their  scholars, 
and  they  are  specially  enjoined  to  avail  them- 
selves of  every  opportunity  to  inculate  the 
observance  of  correct  manners,  habits  and 

The  syllabus  of  instruction  at  one  time 
made  this  provision,  under  the  head  of 
morals  and  manners:  "Inculate  reverance 
and  love  for  God  as  the  father  of  all,  obe- 
dience to  parents  and  teachers,  and  a  kind  and 
forgiving  spirit  toward  brothers  and  sisters 
and  schoolmates.  Memorize  verses  and  max- 
ims. Use  Bible  and  other  stories  to  illustrate 
principles  in  morals  and  manners." 

We  find  frequent  allusions  to  the  subject 
in  the  printed  reports  of  boards  and  super- 
intendents. In  the  twenty-fourth  annual  re- 
port, issued  in  1871,  occurs  this  passage: 
"Moral  and  intellectual  culture  are  insepar- 
able. ...  Of  the  two,  the  former  has  the 
higher  claim  to  a  place  in  any  system  of  pop- 
ular education,  since  it  is  far  more  important 
to  society  that  its  members  po.ssess  hearts  of 
love  to  God  and  man  than  that  they  be  giants 
in  intellect.  But  it  is  idle  to  talk  about  mak- 
ing the  in.'^truction  in  the  schools  purely  secu- 
lar. We  could  not  do  it  if  we  would.  Ten- 
der and  impressible  as  are  the  hearts  of  the 
young,  every  teacher  cannot  but  exert  over 
the  moral  nature  of  his  pupils  an  influence 
either  good  or  bad.  A  silent  unconscious  in- 
fluence goes  out  from  the  inner  life  and  char- 
acter of  the  teacher  which  cannot  be  meas- 

"It  remains  for  us  to  .see  that  a  healthy, 
moral  influence  permeates  all  the  instruction 
and  all  the  discipline  of  the  schools.  And 
this  can  be  done  without  any  infringement  or 
violation  of  the  principle  of  religious  liberty. 
It  does  not  require  the  teaching  of  creeds  or 
catechisms,  nor  the  inculcation  of  the  pecu- 

liar dogmas  of  any  sect.  Nor  do  I  believe  it 
requires  the  enforced  reading  of  the  Bible  in 
schools.  Better  than  the  Bible  in  schools  is 
its  spirit  in  the  heai-ts  of  the  teachers.  Bible 
reading  in  public  schools  should  not,  in  my 
opinion,  be  enforced,  neither  should  it  be  pro- 
hibited by  either  State  or  local  enactment." 
The  question  of  prohibiting  the  use  of  the 
Bible  in  the  schools  was  once  before  the  board. 
After  considerable  discussion,  it  was  laid  on 
the  table,  where  it  still  rests. 


In  the  twenty-fourth  annual  report  (year 
1870-71),  the  superintendent  makes  mention 
of  this  subject.  It  had  been  the  practice  for 
some  time  to  conduct  monthly  examinations 
in  all  the  grades.  This  had  become  burden- 
some to  the  teachers,  and  the  number  of  ex- 
aminations was  reduced  to  two  each  term. 
This  seemed  sufficient  to  keep  up  the  pupils' 
interest,  and  to  test  the  thoroughness  of  the 
instruction.  About  85  per  cent  of  all  the  pu- 
pils examined  were  promoted. 

The  same  subject  receives  attention  in  the 
thirty-first  annual  report,  as  follows: 

Regular  examinations  were  held  every  tenth 
week,  making  four  in  the  year,  and  two  gen- 
eral promotions  were  made,  namely,  at  the 
middle  and  at  the  close  of  the  year.  There 
are  thus  two  examinations  for  each  promotion. 
Before  commencing  the  examination  imme- 
diately preceding  each  promotion  of  pupils, 
the  teachers  have  been  required  to  report  a 
list  of  the  names  of  their  pupils,  together  with 
an  estimate  of  the  attainments  and  capabili- 
ties of  each.  The  promotion  of  a  pupil  is 
thus  made  to  depend  on  the  result  of  two  ex- 
aminations, taken  in  connection  with  his 
teachers'  estimate  of  his  fitness. 

The  plan  of  semi-annual  promotion  in  our 
schools  has  been  productive  of  good  results. 
It  affords  better  classification,  and  more  fully 
adapts  the  instruction  to  the  wants  of  all 
classes  of  pupils.  The  shorter  intervals  be- 
tween grades  afford  better  facilities  for  the 
brighter  and  stronger  pupils  to  advance  ac-  . 
cording  to  their  attainments  and  abilities,  and, 



at  the  same  time,  it  is  better  for  those  who  fail 
of  promotion,  permitting  them  to  go  over 
again  the  work  of  a  half  year  only,  instead 
of  throwing  them  back  an  entire  year. 

At  the  middle  of  the  school  year  promo- 
tions were  made  as  follows,  high  school  not 
included : 

Whole  number  examined 1924 

Number  ^ot  promoted   245 

Per  cent  of  promotions   86.3 

Number  advanced  two  grades 44 

Number  withdrawn  because  not  promoted.      4 

At  the  close  of  the  year  the  promotions  in 
all  grades  below  the  high  school  were  as  fol- 

Whole  number  examined 1840 

Number  not  promoted    147 

Per  cent  of  promotions 92 

Number  withdrawn  because  not  promoted      2 

It  is  a  noticeable  fact  that  the  average  age 
of  pupils  not  promoted  exceeds  that  of  thase 
of  same  grade  promoted. 


The  village  of  Middlebury  became  a  part 
of  the  city  of  Akron  by  annexation  in  1872, 
adding  four  schools  and  four  teachers  to 
Akron's  system,  besides  a  considerable  addi- 
tion to  the  high  school.  About  the  same  time, 
the  statute  was  so  altered  as  to  enlarge  the 
board  of  education  to  twelve  members.  From 
its  first  organization  under  the  Akron  school 
law  to  this  time,  the  board  consisted  of  six 
members,  two  elected  at  large  each  year.  Un- 
der the  later  statute  the  board  consisted  of  two 
members  from  each  ward,  one  elected  each 
year.  The  city  having  six  wards,  the  board 
consisted  of  twelve  members.  When,  a  few 
years  later,  the  number  of  wards  was  increased 
to  eight,  the  board  had  sixteen  members. 

This  was  a  gain  in  quantity,  but  a  loss  in 
quality.  TVTien  two  men  were  chosen  each 
year  from  the  city  at  large,  representative 
men  were  usually  chosen — men  of  enlarged 
views,  but  when  each  ward  chose  its  man  to 
represent  it,  it  seemed  to  be  the  small  poli- 
tician's opportunity.  Men  of  small  caliber 
and  little  fitness  were  often  able  to  push  them- 

selves in.  A  change  in  the  spirit  and  policy 
of  the  board  was  soon  apparent.  Personal  and 
local  interests  often  prevailed  against  the  gen- 
eral good.  Fortunately,  a  recent  revision  of 
the  statute  has  virtually  restored  former  con- 


The  necessity  of  well  qualified  teachers  for 
the  schools  was  the  burden  of  nearly  every  re- 
port in  the  period  now  under  consideration. 
It  is  declared  to  be  the  most  important  of  all 
.subjects  connected  with  public  education. 
"The  selection  of  teachers  is  the  vital  point  in 
our  common  school  system.  .  .  .  The  neces- 
sity of  employing  untrained  and  inexperienced 
teachers  is  the  greatest  evil  with  which  we 
have  to  contend.  .  .  .  The  loss  of  time  to 
the  pupils,  to  say  nothing  of  the  idle  and 
vicious  habits  formed,  during  the  apprentice- 
ship of  our  young  girl  teachers,  is  a  serious 
evil,  and  I  often  wonder  at  the  patience  of  the 
pupils  and  their  parents  under  it.  .  .  . 
T  have  little  hope  of  further  progre.«s  until 
some  decided  steps  are  taken  in  this  matter." 

Measures  were  considered  from  time  to 
time  in  mitigation  of  the  evil  complained  of. 
At  one  time  we  find  the  superintendent  sug- 
gesting, "as  the  least  that  we  should  do  under 
our  present  circumstances,  that  our  young 
graduates,  who  desire  to  teach,  be  required, 
before  receiving  appointments,  to  spend  at 
least  one  year  in  the  study  of  pedagogy,  in- 
cluding the  human  powers  and  the  means 
and  methods  of  their  development  and  train- 
ing, in  the  more  minute  and  thorough  study 
of  the  common  branches  with  reference  to 
teachig  them,  and  in  such  observation  of  the 
best  methods  of  teaching  and  such  practice 
under  experienced  teachers  as  our  own  schools 
might  afford."  This  seems  like  groping  in 
the  right  direction — groping  which,  a  few 
years  later,  resulted  in  a  well-equipped  nor- 
mal school.  Meanwhile,  so  great  seemed  the 
need,  resort  was  had  to  a  temporary  expedient, 
which  had  the  merit  of  originality  and  sim- 
plicity, and  which  gave  promise  of  good  re- 
sults. A  new  building  of  eight  rooms  was 
converted  into  a  quasi-training  school.     Sev- 



eral  young  ladies,  graduates  of  the  high 
school,  without  experience  in  teaching,  were 
employed  at  a  nominal  salai-y,  and  set  to  teacli- 
ing.  Over  them  was  placed  a  teacher  of  expe- 
rience and  approved  skill  and  ability  to  direct 
their  work  day  by  day  .  The  plan  was  inexpen- 
sive and  met  with  favor  to  the  extent  that  it 
was  subsequently  adopted  in  another  build- 
ing. It  was  with  the  same  end  in  view  that  a 
little  later  a  woman  of  marked  ability  and 
success  in  teaching  was  employed  as  super- 
visor of  primary  instruction.  All  these  efforts 
to  secure  better  teachers  and  improve  the 
teaching  tended  in  the  same  direction,  name- 
ly, the  establishing  of  a  normal  department  as 
a  permanent  part  of  the  city  school  system. 


A  characteristic  of  the  period  of  Akron 
school  history  now  under  consideration  was 
an  improved  and  improving  moral  tone. 
There  was  a  general  toning  up  all  along  the 
line.  Citizens  spoke  of  the  improved  bearing 
of  the  pupils  on  the  street.  There  was  more 
prompt  and  regular  attendance.  For  exam- 
ple, with  1,541  pupils  enrolled  in  the  school 
j^ear  ending  in  June,  1869,  there  were  6,006 
case?  of  tardiness  reported;  with  3.005  pupils 
enrolled  for  year  ending  June,  1880,  there 
were  1,223  cases  of  tardiness.  There  was  less 
of  severity  and  more  of  gentleness  in  the  gov- 
ernment of  the  schools.  It  became  a  rare 
thing  for  any  case  of  discipline  to  be  brought 
before  the  board  of  education.  These  gains 
were  largely  due  to  the  high  character  of  the 
teachers  employed.  It  is  a  rare  thing  to  find 
so  much  strength  and  goodness  of  character 
in  a  corps  of  public  school  teachers. 

Mrs.  N.  A.  Stone,  already  mentioned,  con- 
tinued in  charge  of  the  high  school,  with 
marked  ability  and  success,  until  1873,  a  pe- 
riod of  five  years.  Of  her  a  leading  member 
of  the  Akron  bar  .«aid  that  she  had  the  intel- 
lect of  a  great,  strong  man,  and  the  heart 
of  a  refined,  gentle  woman. 

Mrs.  Stone  retired  for  a  year  of  rest  and 
travel,  and  was  succeeded  by  Miss  Maria  Par- 
sons, who   was  eminently   faithful  and  emi- 

nently successful.  Too  much  cannot  be  said 
in  her  praise.  Under  her  management  the 
high  school  continued  to  grow  in  interest  as 
well  as  in  numbers.  After  seven  yeare  of  very 
exhausting  labor,  she  declined  re-election,  and 
was  succeeded  by  Wilbur  V.  Rood,  the  first 
man  called  to  the  position  since  Superintend- 
ent I.  P.  Hole.  Mr.  Rood  was  not  a  man  of 
great  physical  strength,  but  he  conducted  the 
school  with  a  good  degree  of  success  for  eigh- 
teen yeai's.  Just  as  he  was  completing  the 
work  of  his  eighteenth  year,  only  two  or  three 
days  before  commencement,  he  was  suddenly 
called  home.  His  years  of  service  in  the 
Akron  high  school  were  characterized  by 
great  faithfulness.  Well  done,  good  and 
faithful  servant,  is  the  verdict  in  his  case. 

Miss  E.  A.  Herdman,  who  became  prin- 
cipal of  the  senior  grammar  school  in  the  au- 
tumn of  1868,  and  managed  it  with  phenome- 
nal success,  continued  in  chai'ge  of  that  de- 
partment, with  the  same  eminent  success  that 
marked  her  first  year,  until  the  spring  of 
1874,  when  she  retired  on  account  of  ill 
health,  and  died  in  November  following.  Her 
strength  of  character,  combined  with  fervent 
affection  and  genial  humor,  gave  her  great 
power  over  her  pupils.  She  governed  by  the 
strength  of  her  own  personality,  rather  than 
by  the  infliction  of  pains  and  penalties.  Miss 
Herdman  was  succeeded  by  Miss  Kate  Ur- 
ner,  and  she  by  Miss  Josephine  A.  Newberry. 
These  two  last  named  were  strong  and  suc- 
cessful teachers. 


It  was  about  1874  that  four  lads  from  the 
Akron  high  .school  pa.ssed  the  entrance  exam- 
ination and  were  admitted  to  Western  Reserve 
College  at  Hudson,  Ohio.  These  are  proba- 
bly the  first  students  prepared  for  college  in 
the  Akron  high  school.  They  prepared  in 
Greek  under  Miss  Oburn,  one  of  the  assist- 
ants in  the  high  school,  in  part  out  of  regular 
school  hours.  Three  of  the  four  completed 
the  college  course  and  were  graduated  with 

Sub-sequently,    an     advantageous     arrange- 



ment  was  effected  with  Buchtel  College, 
whereby  high  school  students  wishing  to  pre- 
pare for  college  were  admitted  to  the  regu- 
lai-  preparatory  Greek  classes  in  the  college 
■nathout  cost,  the  Greek  thus  acquired  being 
accepted  as  an  equivalent  for  such  part  of  the 
high  school  course  as  might  be  agreed  upon. 
This  arrangement  continued  in  force  for  a 
good  many  years  and  proved  mutually  advan- 
tageous to  high  school  and  college,  as  well  as 
to  those  students  who  availed  themselves  of 
the  privilege. 

After  fifteen  years  of  continuous  service, 
Superintendent  Findley  declined  a  re-elec- 
tion and  retired.  His  term  began  in  1868 
and  ended  in  1883,  starting  with  twenty- 
two  teachers  and  ending  with  sixty-two. 
Within  this  period,  two  hundred  and  eighty- 
nine  pupils  were  graduated  from  the  high 
school,  making  a  total  of  three  hundred  and 
four,  including  fifteen  graduated  prior  to  1869 
The  following  named  two-story  brick  build- 
ings were  erected,  nearly  all  the  small,  frame 
buildings  previously  used  having  been  aban- 
doned: Bowen,  Crosby,  Perkins,  Howe,  Al- 
len, Spicer,  Kent,  Henry.  These  buildings 
contained  at  first  from  four  to  eight  rooms 
each.  They  have  .since  been  enlarged  by  ad- 
ditions, one  containing  eighteen  rooms;  sev- 
eral others,  twelve  rooms. 

PROF,  fraunfelter's  superintendency. 

Elias  Fraunfelter  entered  upon  the  super- 
intendency of  the  Akron  schools  in  Septem- 
ber, 1883.  After  three  years  of  service  in  the 
Union  army,  he  taught  in  Vermillion  Insti- 
tute and  Savannah  Academy,  subsequently 
filling  the  chair  of  mathematic  in  Buchtel 
College  for  ten  years.  He  filled  the  office  of 
superintendent  very  acceptably  for  fourteen 
years,  being  compelled  to  retire  on  account 
of  failing  health,  and  dying  soon  after. 

Owing  to  the  fact  that  no  report,  in  form 
to  be  pre.ser\'ed,  was  published  in  the  time  of 
his  term  of  service,  no  very  full  nor  detailed 
account  of  Superintendent  Fraunfelter's  ad- 
ministration can  be  here  given.  No  radical 
changes  were  inaugurated  at  the  outset  nor. 

indeed,  at  any  time.  The  same  general  or- 
ganization of  the  schools,  the  same  classifi- 
cation and  the  same  principles  and  methods 
of  instruction  in  vogue  in  recent  years  were 
continued.  There  was  no  disposition  to  make 
changes,  merely  for  the  sake  of  change.  The 
period,  as  a  whole,  was  one  of  harmony  and 
success.  The  school  system  grew  rapidly 
amd  maintained  a  high  place  in  public  esti- 

new  high  school  and  other  new 

The  need  of  more  school  rooms  had  been 
frequently  brought  to  the  attention  of  the 
board.  Many  of  the  schools  w^ere  over- 
crowded. It  had  been  shown  that  to  as.sign 
to  each  teacher  only  a  suitable  number  of 
pupils  w^ould  require  the  employment  of 
twenty  additional  teachers,  and  the  providing 
of  a  corresponding  number  of  additional 
school  rooms.  And  besides,  the  unsuitable- 
ness  of  the  rooms  occupied  by  the  high  school, 
the  very  defective  heating  and  ventilation  of 
the  entire  high  ,«chool  building,  and  its  close 
proximity  to  railroads,  mills,  depot,  etc.,  ren- 
dered it  very  unfit  for  school  purposes. 

The  location  and  construction  of  a  new 
high  school  building  had  been  under  consid- 
eration for  some  time,  but  the  matter  was 
taken  up  in  earnest  in  1883.  Conflicting  in- 
terests, and  diversity  of  opinion,  both  as  to 
location  and  character  and  style  of  .stnicture. 
caused  considerable  delay.  A  lot  was  selected 
and  puroha.sed  at  a  cost  of  $19,000.  A  con- 
tract for  the  erection  of  the  building  was  en- 
tered into  in  1885,  and  the  whole  was  com- 
pleted and  ready  to  occupy  in  September. 
1886.  The  entire  cost,  including  heating  ap- 
paratus and  •  furniture,  was  about  $135,000. 
Besides  twelve  commodious  school  rooms  \A'ith 
their  appurtenances,  there  were  a  large  as- 
sembly room,  offices  for  the  board  of  educa- 
tion, the  superintendent  of  instruction,  the 
high  school  principal,  clerk  of  the  board, 
truant  officer,  etc.,  teachers'  parlor  and  rooms 
for  literary  societies,  library,  museum,  etc. 

When  first  occupied  the  new  building  con- 



tained,  besides  the  high  school,  a  consider- 
able number  of  upper  grade  grammar  school 
pupils,  but  it  was  not  long  until  the  entire 
building  was  required  for  the  high  school,  and 
provision  had  to  be  made  elsewhere  for  the 
grammar  school  pupils.  At  the  present  time 
(1907)  the  high  school  has  outgrown  the 
building,  and  a  large  addition  is  almost  com- 

Other  new  buildings  erected  in  this  period 
are  those  known  as  the  Grace,  the  Leggett 
and  the  Bryan. 


Near  the  end  of  the  old  century  the  course 
of  study  in  the  high  school  was  restored  to 
a  four-years'  course.  This  was  done  in  re- 
sponse to  the  requirements  of  the  Ohio  Col- 
lege Association.  A  committee  of  college  men 
had  visited  the  high  schools  of  the  State,  and 
proposed  to  admit  to  college,  without  exami- 
nation, students  from  those  high  schools 
whose  course  of  study  and  teaching  were 
found  to  be  of  sufficiently  high  grade.  The 
Akron  high  school  was  thus  placed  in  the 
list  of  accredited  schools.  It  w^as  felt  that 
the  reduction  to  a  three-years'  course  had  ac- 
complished its  purpose  of  popularizing  the 
school  and  building  it  up  in  numbers. 


About  the  same  time  steps  were  taken  in 
the  direction  of  manual  training.  Special 
teachers  were  employed,  and  the  girls  received 
lessons  in  cooking  and  sewing,  and  the  boys, 
in  wood-working.  The  work  a.lo'ng  these 
lines  was  conducted  with  considerable  inter- 
est for  a  time,  but  the  interest  waned,  and  the 
work  was  discontinued,  with  a  view  to  being 
resumed  later  with  better  equipment. 


Various  remedies  had  been  proposed  from 
time  to  time  for  the  evils  growing  out  of  the 
adoption  of  text-books  for  use  in  the  schools. 
It  was  even  propped  that  the  State    should 

secm'e  copyrights  and  jjublish  all  the  books 
necessary  to  supply  the  schools.  A  law  was 
enacted  requiring  boards  of  education  to  pur- 
chase the  books  at  wholesale  and  sell  them 
to  the  pupils  at  cost.  This  plan  was  followed 
in  the  Akron  schools  for  a  time,  but  it  had 
many  drawbacks,  and  was,  on  the  whole,  un- 
satisfactory. At  length,  a  law  was  passed 
granting  to  boards  of  education  the  option  of 
adopting  the  free  text-book  plan.  Akron  was 
among  the  first  to  adopt  the  plan :  First,  as 
applicable  to  all  grades  below  the  high  school. 
This  proving  satisfactory,  the  high  school  was 
subsequently  included,  so  that,  at  this  writ- 
ing, the  text-books  used  in  all  grades  of  the 
schools  are  purchased  and  held  as  the  prop- 
erty of  the  board  and  furnished  for  free  use 
by  the  pupils.  The  plan  has  decided  advan- 
tages, and  gives  general  satisfaction. 


There  seems  to  be  an  ebb  and  flow  in  the 
management  of  schools  as  in  most  human  af- 
fairs. There  was  a  time  when  it  seemed  that 
writtcin  examinations  might  prove  the  specific 
for  most  of  the  ailments  of  school  manage- 
ment. At  one  time  the  president  of  the 
Akron  board  of  education  suggested  the  sub- 
stitution of  written  examinations  for  the 
daily  recitation  in  all  grades  above  the  pri- 
mary. But  in  the  period  now  under  consid- 
eration, about  1890,  we  find  it  announced  a^ 
a  "valuable  advance,"  that  "formal  examina- 
tions for  promotion"  have  been  dispensed 
with,  that  promotions  are  made  on  the  rec- 
ommendation of  the  teachers  and  principals 
of  the  several  schools,  and  that  "the  plan  has 
so  far  worked  most  admirably."  The  pendu- 
lum has  since  swung  back.  Examinations 
.still  have  a  place  in  the  Akron  schools. 


The  supply  of  qualified  teachers  for  the 
schools  has  continued  to  engage  the  attention 
of  school  officials  through  all  the  years.  Al- 
most every  conceivable  expedient  has  been 
tried   for  providing    the    necessary    training 



without  undue  expense.  One  of  the  latest  ex- 
periments was  the  employment  of  one  student 
teacher  for  each  building  to  be  in  daily  at- 
tendance, and  to  act  as  substitute  in  ca.«e  of  the 
absence  of  a  regular  teacher,  from  sickness  or 
other  cause.  At  length,  in  1896,  a  normal 
training  department  of  the  city  schools  was 
established.  A  two-years'  course  of  study  was 
prescribed,  with  practice  under  a  critic 
teacher.  The  school  was  a  success  from  the 
start.  It  wa.s  not  long  after  the  opening  of 
the  school,  when  twenty-five  of  its  graduates 
were  emploj'ed  as  teachers  in  the  schools 
within  a  single  year.  This  is  undoubtedly 
a  wise  measure — one  having  in  it  much  of 
promise  to  the  schools  of  the  city. 


About  this  time  a  law  was  passed  requir- 
ing compulsory  attendance  at  school.  The 
taxpayers'  money  was  forcibly  taken  to  main- 
tain schools  for  the  education  of  the  children. 
It  is  right  to  see  that  the  end  sought  be  not 
defeated  by  the  indifference  or  waywardness 
of  the  children,  or  the  negligence  or  cupidity 
of  their  parents.  Of  necessity  there  must  be 
a  tniant  officer  to  enforce  the  law.  Perhaps 
the  following  report  of  that  officer  for  a  year 
will  give  a  fair  idea  of  the  working  of  the 
law : 

Visits  made  at  schools 473 

Visits  made  at  homes   1450 

Pupils  sent  for    1323 

Absentees  brought  to  school 170 

Truants    apprehended    and    brought    to 

school    54 

Pupils  under  14  caused  to  attend  school .    162 
Pupils  between  14  and  16  caused  to  at- 
tend school    33 

Notices  served  on  parents 223 

Pupils  excused  on  physician's  certificate.      39 

Pupils  moved  from  the  city 101 

Reported  to  poor  director  for  shoes 231 

Reported  to  poor  director  for  clothing.  .      54 
Pupils  withdrawn  and  engaged  at  regu- 
lar employment  169 

Pupils  under  14  caused  to  be  discharged 
from  shops  and  sent  to  school 64 

Pupils  brought  before  the  mayor 24 

Parents  prosecuted 21 

Pupils  sent  to  reform  school 4 

Notices  served  on  truants 79 

Dealers  prosecuted  and  fined    for   selling 

cigarettes  and  tobacco  to  minors. ...  3 
Children   placed   in    charitable    institu- 
tions    37 


About  1895  a  law  was  passed  authorizing 
women  to  vote  at  school  elections  and  to  hold 
any  school  office,  except  that  of  State  Com- 
missioner of  Common  Schools.  At  the  first 
election  following  this  enactment  a  consid- 
erable number  of  Akron  women  registered  as 
voters  and  their  ballots,  and  two  women 
were  regularly  nominated  and  elected  mem- 
bers of  the  board  of  education,  namely,  Mrs. 
Miner  Allen  and  Mrs.  0.  L.  Sadler.  They 
were  representative  women,  well  qualified  for 
the  duties  of  the  office.  Mrs.  Allen  had 
taught  in  the  schools  for  several  years  quite 
successfully.  Both  women  served  faithfully 
and  efficiently  for  the  full  term  of  two  years, 
at  the  end  of  which  time,  Mrs.  Sadler  declined 
to  be  a  candidate  for  re-election.  Mrs.  Allen 
was  renominated,  but  lacked  a  few  votes  of 
re-election.  Since  that  time,  no  woman's 
name  has  been  presented  as  a  candidate  for 
the  office,  and  few  women  have  claimed  the 
privilege  of  voting.  Interest  in  the  move- 
ment seems  to  have  died  a  natural  death. 


In  this  period,  pupils  were  graduated  from 
the  high  school  as  follows: 

1884    35  1891    69 

1885    49  1892    74 

1886    56  1893    72 

1887    59  1894    85 

1888    62  1895    107 

1889    48  1896    75 

1890    65  1897    62 



Total  in  Superintendent  Fraunfelter's 

term     918 

Total  from  the  beginning 1222 

Total  number  of  teachers  employed  in 
all  the  schools  in  1897,  including 
principals  and  special  teachers 137 

Total  number  of  pupils  enrolled  in  all 
departments  for  year  1890-1901 ....    5283 

Total  expenditures  for  year  1890-1901, 
including  $25,000  for  a  new 
building    $11 1,581 


A  feature  of  Superintendent  Fraunfelter's 
administration  deserving  of  .special  mention 
was  the  supplying  of  every  grade  below  the 
high  school  and  above  the  lower  primary 
grades,  with  suitable  reading  matter,  in  addi- 
tion to  the  regular  reader  of  the  grade ;  .-o 
that  each  pupil  in  every  half-year  grade  had 
from  two  to  four  good  books  to  be  read  in 
class,  under  the  teacher's  direction  and  in- 
struction— books  of  story,  travel,  biography, 
general  literature,  etc.  This  was  a  great 
gain.  Something  in  this  direction  had  been 
attempted  in  previous  years,  by  inducing  pu- 
pils to  subscribe  for  children's  and  youth's 
magazines.  But  this  was  only  partially  suc- 
cessful. There  was  great  gain  when  the  board 
purchased  well  diosen  books  in  quantity,  and 
lent  them  to  the  pupils  without  cost. 

Through  the  stimulus  of  interest  and  infor- 
mation, the  pupils  more  readily  gained  the 
ability  to  read  independently  and  fluently. 
They  acquired  much  useful  information.  But 
above  all,  by  being  introduced  to  good  au- 
thors, many  learned  to  love  good  reading  and 
laid  the  foundation  of  a  taste  for  the  best  in 


On  the  retirement  of  Dr.  Fraunfelter,  Mr. 
R.  S.  Thomas  was  called  from  the  superin- 
tendency  of  the  public  schools  of  Warren. 
Ohio,   to   take   charge   of  the   Akron   schools. 

He  took  up  the  work  in  September,  1897,  and 
held  the  position  for  three  years. 


It  was  about  this  time  that  night  schools 
were  established  for  the  benefit  of  youth  of 
school  age  whose  circumstances  would  not  al- 
low their  attendance  at  the  regular  daily  ses- 
sions of  the  schools,  but  who  yet  desired  to 
gain  some  education.  In  some  cases,  foreign- 
ers embraced  this  opportunity  of  gaining  a 
knowledge  and  use  of  our  language.  Me- 
chanical drawing  was  sometimes  taught  in 
these  .schools,  but  students  usually  paid  for 
their  tuition  in  this  subject. 


A  movement  looking  in  the  direction  of 
kindergartens  was  started  under  Mr.  Thomas' 
superintendency.  Schools  known  as  "transi- 
tion schools"  were  organized  in  some  of  the 
buildings.  Into  these  were  admitted  children 
between  the  ages  of  five  and  six  years,  for 
whom  instruction  was  provided  which  par- 
took more  or  less  of  the  nature  of  kindergar- 
ten exercises,  designed  to  mark  the  transition 
between  the  home  and  the  school.  These 
seemed  to  serve  a  good  purpose,  and,  in  a 
short  time,  very  naturally  grew  into  fully 
equipped  kindergartens. 


A  feature  of  this  period  was  an  effort  to 
do  things  in  another  way,  to  avoid  monotony. 
to  keep  out  of  the  ruts.  There  was  also  a 
slaekening  of  the  tension,  a  le.<s  rigid  adher- 
ence to  classification  and  course  of  study,  and 
an  attempt  at  greater  lil>erty  and  originality 
in  the  teaching.  There  was  .seeming  good  in 
the  end  sought,  but  the  inevitable  tendency 
was  to  confusion  and  slackne.=s.  The  suc- 
ceeding administration  found  readjustment, 
and  the  restoration  of  former  conditions  in 
large  measure,  essential  to  the  best  interests 
of  the  schools. 




There  seems  to  have  been  a  considerable 
falling  off  in  the  number  of  graduates  in  the 
three  yeare  of  Mr.  Thomas'  administration. 
It  is  noticeable,  too,  that  the  records  contain 
no  mention  of  mid-year  graduation.  A  good 
class  was  graduated  at  the  end  of  each  half- 
yeafl',  from  1886  to  1897.  Why  the  practice 
of  mid-year  graduation  was  intermitted  in 
these  three  years,  does  not  appear.  The  rec- 
ords show  the  following  graduations: 

In  June,  1898   30 

In  June,  1899    24 

In  June.  1900   18 

The  falling  off  may  be  accounted  for  in 
part  by  the  change  from  a  three-year  to  a 
four-year  course  of  study. 

Mr.  E.  H.  Birney  succeeded  Mr.  Rood  in 
the  principalship  of  the  high  school,  and  held 
the  position  for  two  years. 

THE    SUPERINTENDENCY    OF    DR.    H.    V.    HOTCH- 

It  was  in  the  last  year  of  the  old  century 
that  Dr.  H.  V.  Hotchki-ss  was  called  from 
the  superintendency  of  the  schools  of  Mead- 
ville,  Pennsylvania,  to  take  charge  of  the 
Akron  schools.  His  work  in  Akron  began  in 
September  of  that  year.  This  work,  for  con- 
siderable time,  consisted,  in  large  measure,  of 
reconstniction  and  reorganization.  Many  va- 
cancies in  the  teaching  force  had  to  be  filled, 
among  them  the  principalship  of  the  high 
school  and  one  other  principalship.  Territory 
recently  annexed  to  the  city  had  to  be  dis- 
tricted, and  the  pupils  a-s-^igned  and  classified. 
An  elaborate  syllabus  of  instruction  had  been 
prepared  and  printed  in  1897;  but  ver>^  little 
attempt  was  made  at  any  time  to  follow  it, 
and  at  length  it  was  wholly  ignored.  Confu- 
sion reigned  in  all  the  grades,  but  espe- 
cially in  the  high  school.  The  labor  involved 
in  bringing  order  out  of  this  confusion  ^\-as 
very  perplexing  and  very  great.  But  it  was 
soon    manifest  that  the  new   superintendent 

and  his  helpers  understood  their  business. 
Order  was  at  length  restored,  and  the  schools, 
in  every  department,  have  ever  since  contin- 
ued to  run  smoothly  and  prosperously. 

STATUS   IN   1901. 

These  statistics,  gleaned  from  the  annual 
report  for  the  year  ending  August  31,  1901, 
give  a  fair  view  of  conditions  then  existing: 

Total  expenditures  (including 
building  and  grounds,  and 
bonds  redeemed,  $83,643.97)     $249,471.68 

Enumeration   of   school   youth 11,877 

Average  monthly  enrollment 7,361 

Average  monthly  enrollment  in  high 

school    698 

Whole  number  teachers  employed  .  .  .  190 
High  school  teachers — 'men  9,  women 

13,  total    22 

Teachers  in  elementary  schools — men 

13,  women  155,  total 168 

High  School  graduates — boys  19,  girls 

21,  total    40 

Number  of  Kindergartens 8 

Kindergarten  children  enrolled   240 


A  large  share  of  space  in  the  report  is 
devoted  to  the  course  of  study — a  discussion 
of  the  advantages  in  a  large  system  of  schools, 
of  a  clearly  defined  published  course,  and  its 
underlying  principles.  Four  courses  of  study 
are  prescribed  for  the  high  school,  namely, 
the  Latin  course,  the  Gennan  course,  the 
business  course,  and  the  manual  training 
course.  These  courses  are  printed  side  by 
side,  with  directions  and  suggestions  to  aid 
parents  and  pupils  in  making  choice  of  the 
course  to  be  pursued. 

The  same  subject  is  continued  in  the  report 
for  the  next  year,  more  especially  with  refer- 
ence to  the  schools  below  the  high  school. 
The  "course  of  study  and  manuals  of  instruc- 
tion" provided  "outlines  the  work  to  be  done, 
and  enumerates  many  of  the  principles,  laws 



and  methods  by  which  it  is  to  be  accom- 
plished." In  the  weekly  teachers'  meetings, 
conducted  by  the  principals  in  the  several 
buildings,  a  considerable  portion  of  the  time 
is  spent  in  a  critical  study  of  the  provisions 
of  the  course  of  study.  Grade  meetings  are 
also  conducted  by  the  superintendent,  in 
which  the  aim  is  to  make  clear  and  familiar 
to  the  teachers  the  prescribed  work  grade  by 
grade — the  aim  and  purpose  of  all  which  is 
to  make  txue  artists  of  the  teachers. 


From  the  annual  report  for  the  year  ending 
August  31,  1902,  it  is  learned  that  the  su- 
perintendent gave  much  consideration  to  the 
perfecting  of  the  organization  of  the  schools 
in  every  department,  to  the  end  that  the 
highest  efficiency  may  be  attained  with  the 
least  expenditure  of  money  and  effort.  With 
a  million  dollars  invested  in  school  buildings 
and  their  furnishing  and  equipment,  and  the 
annual  expenditure  of  one-fourth  of  a  mil- 
lion dollars  on  account  of  the  schools,  or 
thirteen  hundred  dollars  for  every  school  day, 
or  more  than  two  hundred  and  twenty-five 
dollars  for  every  hour  of  every  school  day, 
the  necessity  for  the  best  organization  of  all 
the  forces  is  apparent  from  a  financial  stand- 
point. The  superintendent  thus  presents  the 
moral  phase: 

"The  element  of  organization  is  a  miglity  factor 
In  rendering  school  management  effective  for  the 
moral  training  of  the  pupils  who  come  under  its 
influence.  A  system  of  schools  which  insists  that 
pupils  attend  school  every  session;  that  they  he 
punctual  at  all  exercises;  that  they  conduct  them- 
selves in  an  orderly  and  quiet  manner  in  coming 
and  going;  that  they  restrain  themselves  from 
whispering,  and  thereby  disturbing  others;  that 
they  be  considerate  of  the  rights  and  privileges  of 
others;  that  they  be  respectful,  not  only  toward 
teacher,  but  toward  fellow-pupils  as  well;  that 'they 
be  industrious,  accurate,  neat  and  painstaking — 
such  a  system,  it  thoroughly  organized  and  strictly 
administered  during  the  six  to  twelve  years  of 
the  school  life  of  the  child,  when  habits  are 
formed,  will  go  a  long  way  toward  the  develop- 
ment of  those  habits  of  conduct  which  constitute 
the  basis  of  good  citizenship   in  the  republic." 

As  examples  of  this  organization  for  effi- 

ciency the  following  are  given  in  the  report: 
"Upon  the  last  day  of  the  school  year,  every 
teacher  in  the  city  knows  just  where  she  will 
Work  during  the  next  school  year;  what  grade  or 
grades  of  pupils  she  will  teach;  the  number  of 
pupils  in  her  room,  barring  transfers  and  with- 
drawals, and  the  names  of  those  pupils.  Every 
pupil  is  told  just  what  his  work  will  be  next  term. 
In  every  school  room  are  placed  the  books  and 
supplies  necessary  for  the  use  of  the  teacher  and 
pupils  at  the  opening  of  the  term  in  September. 
The  course  of  study  tells  each  teacher  what  her 
class  has  done,  and  what  they  are  expected  to 
do  within  the  term  that  they  are  to  be  under 
her  instruction.  '  She  will  be  able,  therefore,  to 
plan  her  work  so  that  within  ten  minutes  from 
the  opening  of  school  upon  the  first  day  every 
pupil  shall  be  at  work  upon  lessons  that  are  to 
be  learned  by  him  within  the  term." 

"The  present  system  of  ordering  and  distribut- 
ing stationery  supplies  is  also  a  great  saver 
of  time,  money  and  labor.  Early  in  June,  the  su- 
perintendent makes  a  sheet,  stating  in  tabular 
form  the  quantity  of  each  kind  of  supplies  needed 
for  each  building  in  the  city.  These  aggregates 
are  combined  in  a  circular  letter  asking  for  bids. 
These  letters  are  sent  to  manufacturers,  jobbers, 
and  dealers  all  over  the  eastern  part  of  our  coun- 
try. Early  in  June  the  bids  which  have  been  re- 
ceived, are  opened  and  tabulated,  and  the  contracts 
for  furnishing  the  several  kinds  of  supplies  are 
let  to  the  lowest  and  best  bidders.  The  result  is 
that  we  are  buying  our  stationery  supplies  as 
cheaply,  probably,  as  any  dealer  in  the  country, 
and  very  much  more  cheaply  than  most  school  dis- 
tricts can  buy  them.  When  the  contracts  have  been 
let,  the  orders  are  placed  In  such  a  way  that  the 
shipper  packs  the  goods  in  separate  bundles,  mark- 
ing each  bundle  to  the  building  to  which  it  Is  to 
be  delivered.  In  this  way,  the  supplies  are  de- 
livered directly  from  the  factory  to  the  school 
buildings  where  they  are  to  be  consumed;  there- 
by saving  the  labor,  time  and  expense  of  much 


Reference  is  made  elsewhere  to  the  sub- 
ject of  free  text-books.  In  January,  1901, 
the  Board  of  Education  entered  completely 
upon  the  plan  of  furnishing  all  textrbooks 
and  school  supplies  free  to  the  children  in  ele- 
mentary schools.  Beginning  with  the  school 
year  1905-06,  the  free  text-book  system  was 
extended  to  the  high  school.  Thereafter, 
everything  needed  by  the  child  to  pursue  his 
siudies  in  any  of  the  public  schools  of  the  city 
was  furnished  free. 




Under  the  superintendency  of  Dr.  Hotch- 
kiss,  all  the  principals  were  relieved  from 
the  duty  of  supervising  and  teaching  separate 
school  rooms  as  regular  teachers.  It  did  not 
seem  wise,  as  a  business  enterprise,  to  employ 
men  and  women  as  principals  at  principals' 
salaries,  and  then  confine  them  to  separate, 
single  school  rooms  and  require  them  to  per- 
form the  work  of  the  grade  teacher,  which 
ought  to  be  performed  for  the  salary  of  such 
a  teacher.  Principals  are  expected  to  teach 
almost  constantly.  Their  work,  however,  is 
to  be  with  teachers,  with  small  groups  of 
pupils,  and  occasionally  with  schools.  Each 
principal  is  held  responsible  for  the  progress, 
not  only  of  his  schools  as  a  whole,  but  of 
the  individuals  in  them.  If  there  is  a  single 
pupil,  or  a  small  group  of  pupils  in  any 
grade,  especially  strong  and  capable  of  mov- 
ing forward  into  the  next  grade  with  a  little 
wise  help,  it  is  the  principal's  business  to  give 
such  help  and  to  make  such  promotion.  If 
there  are  individual  pupils,  or  small  groups 
of  pupils,  who  find  the  work  a  little  too  diffi- 
cult, but  who  might,  with  some  individual 
help  of  the  right  kind,  at  the  right  time, 
maintain  their  positions  in  the  several  grades, 
it  is  the  principal's  business  to  ascertain  that 
fact  and  to  .give  the  help  needed. 


The  kindergartens,  fifteen  in  number,  are 
now  as  much  a  part  of  the  city  school  system 
as  any  other  school.  They  constitute  the  con- 
necting link  between  the  home  and  the  pri- 
mary school.  It  has  been  the  fault  of  many 
advocates  of  the  kindergarten  to  seek  to  pre- 
serve the  mysticism  and  symbolism  of  its 
founders  and  early  exponents,  and  to  claim 
for  it  a  special  and  mysterious  merit.  The 
later  tendency  is  to  modernize  and  American- 
ize the  kindergarten,  bringing  it  into  closer 
touch  with  the  work  of  the  primary  school. 
The  Akron  kindergartens  have  been  consider- 
ably modified  since  thev  were  first  made  a 

part  of  the  city  school  system;  and  the  ten- 
dency is  in  the  direction  of  still  further  modi- 
fication, to  bring  them  more  completely  into 
harmony  with  the  school  system  of  which 
they  are  a  part. 


The  course  of  study  and  training  extends 
through  two  years.  "In  the  first  year  the 
students  study  educational  psychology  with 
special  reference  to  the  science  and  art  of 
teaching;  the  general  principles,  laws  and 
methods  of  teaching,  or  those  principles,  laws 
and  methods  which  govern  all  teaching  pro- 
cesses; special  methods  of  teaching  all  the 
several  common  English  branches;  the  his- 
tory of  education.  During  the  second  year 
of  the  course  the  .student  teachers  continue 
their  study  of  methods  and  principles  of 
teaching  and  apply  them  in  actual  teaching. 
Four  schools  of  four  different  grades  are 
taught  by  the  student  teachers,  under  the 
constant  direction,  aid  and  criticism  of  two 
expert  teachers  known  as  critic  teachers.  By 
this  arrangement  of  the  normal  course,  one 
year  is  given  to  the  theory  of  teaching  and 
one  year  to  the  practice  of  that  theory  in 
actual  teaching  under  expert  direction  and 
criticism.  The  results  of  the  training  given 
young  women  in  the  normal  school  have  been 
satisfactory  in  a  high  degree.  Young  women, 
after  completing  the  course  in  the  normaJ 
school,  know  not  only  what  it  is  to  teach 
school,  but  how  to  teach  school.  In  short, 
most  of  them  are  good  teachers. 

"The  normal  school  is  a  blessing  to  those 
young  women  of  the  city  who  -uash  to  be- 
come teachers;  for  by  it  any  graduate  of  the 
high  school,  without  expense,  is  enabled  to 
get  as  good  professional  training  as  is  given 
in  the  first  class  normal  schools  of  the 

The  normal  school  is  maintained  and  op- 
erated without  additional  expense  to  the  city. 
It  is  true  that  two  critic  teachers  are  em- 
ployed at  a  higher  salary  than  that  paid  to 
the  regular  teachers  in  the  grades,  but  with 



these  two  critic  teachers  and  the  student 
teachers  in  training,  the  city  is  able  to  care 
for  four  schools,  for  which  it  would  be  nec- 
essary to  employ  four  teachers  at  the  salaries 
provided  for  by  the  schedule  of  salaries. 

The  superintendent  maintains  that  there  is 
no  course  of  study  of  two  years'  duration  that 
any  young  woman  who  has  graduated  from 
the  high  school  could  take  that  would  do  her 
more  good  as  a  means  of  broad  culture  than 
the  normal  school  course,  even  though  she 
were  never  to  teach  a  day  after  graduation 
from  the  normal  school. 


The  High  School,  some  time  since,  out- 
grew its  building.  In  1906,  the  Board  pro- 
vided for  the  erection  of  an  annex.  This 
annex  is  expected  to  afford  additional  room 
for  the  accommodation  of  the  increased  at- 
tendance in  the  high  school,  as  well  as  facili- 
ties for  physical  training  in  the  gymna.sium ; 
manual  training  for  the  boys;  domestic 
science  and  ai"t  for  the  girls,  and  shorthand 
and  typewriting  for  those  pupils  taking  the 
commercial  coui-se. 

The  courses  of  study  in  the  high  school 
were  changed  in  April,  1907,  to  conform  to 
the  provisions  in  the  new  annex.  The  new 
courses  are  four — the  Latin,  the  German,  the 
commercial  and  the  manual  training.  Ac- 
cording to  the  revi.?ed  courses,  all  boys,  as  a 
part  of  their  first  year's  work,  will  take  car- 
pentry three  double  periods  per  week,  and 
drawing  two  double  periods  per  week;  all 
girls  will  take  cooking  and  sewing  three  dou- 
ble periods  per  week,  and  drawing  two  double 
periods  per  week.  At  the  end  of  the  first 
year,  all  boys  in  the  courses  offering  the  Ger- 
man language,  will  have  an  opportunity  to 
decide  whether  they  will  take  the  manual 
training  course,  or  one  of  the  other  two 

The  manual  training  course  is  planned  to 
give  the  boys  who  take  it  a  thorough  high 
school  education  in  the  German  language  and 
literature,  natural  sciences,  mathematics  and 

history,  and,  in  addition,  to  give  them  the 
elements  of  all  of  a  half-dozen  different 
trades.  It  is  believed  that  at  the  completion 
of  the  manual  training  course,  boys  will  have 
sufficient  skill  to  secure  credit  for  from  two  to 
three  yeai"s  upon  an  apprenticeship  in  any 
one  of  a  half<lozen  trades. 


Since  1900,  new  schoolhouses  have  been 
completed  as  follows:  The  Perkins  normal 
school  building,  in  1901 ;  the  Miller  school, 
in  1901 ;  the  Lane  school,  in  1903 ;  the 
Fraunfelter  school,  in  January,  1905;  the 
Samuel  Findley  school,  in  1906 ;  the  high 
.school  annex,  in  1907. 

Present  Status  (1907). 

Board  of  Education  consists  of  seven  mem- 

Number  of  school  buildings 17 

Total  enrollment  of  pupils 9425 

Number  of  teachers  employed  235 

High  school  enrollment   961 

Teachers  in  high  school   25 

Total  number  of  high  school  graduates 

(including  class  of  June,  1907) 1790 



Zion's  Evangelical  Lutheran  Church,  sit- 
uated on  South  High  Street,  has  maintained 
its  own  palish  school  almost  from  its  organi- 
zation. When  the  congregation  was  small, 
the  pastor  was  also  the  parish  teacher.  At 
the  present  time,  there  is  an  enrollment  of 
200  pupils  in  three  departments,  taught  by 
three  male  teachers,  whose  salai'ies  range 
from  $500  to  $600.  The  expense  is  borne  by 
the  parish.  A  small  tuition  fee  is  charged, 
the  amount  thus  raised  being  .supplemented 
by  suliscriptions  as  for  other  parish  expenses. 
The  branches  taught  are:  Religion  (cate- 
chism and  Bible  lessons  in  German) ;  Read- 
ing (German  and  English)  ;  Vocal  Music; 
Grammar  (German  and  English)  ;  Arithme- 



tic  (mostly  in  English)  ;  Composition  (Ger- 
man and  English)  ;  Penmanship;  Geography 
and  U.  S.  History  (in  English).  The  chil- 
dren of  the  congregation  attend  the  parish 
school  from  their  sixth  or  seventh  year  until 
the  age  of  fourteen,  when  they  are  given  a 
certificate  of  scholarship,  and  may  then  enter 
the  public  schools  for  a  higher  education.  In 
their  fourteenth  year,  they  are  confirmed  and 
become  full  members  of  the  church. 

German  Lutherans  believe  in  an  education 
for  their  children  that  will  train  not  only 
the  mind,  but  the  heart  and  conscience  as 
well.  The  public  school  deals  with  the  minds 
of  the  children,  inculcates  patriotism,  and 
prepares  for  American  citizenship,  and,  for 
these  ends,  may  be  sufficient ;  but  it  is  outside 
the  sphere  of  the  State  to  inculcate  the  teach- 
ings of  scripture  pertaining  to  the  soul's  sal- 
vation. It  is  not  the  function  of  the  public 
school  to  teach  the  Christian  creed,  the  ten 
commandments,  the  rites  of  baptism  and  the 
Lord's  supper.  To  do  these  things  is  the 
sacred  duty  of  Christian  parents  and  the 
Christian  church.  And  German  Lutherans 
believe  these  obligations  are  best  fulfilled  by 
the  parochial  school,  and  they  are  ready  to 
make  any  sacrifice  to  maintain  it.  They  ask 
and  expect  no  aid  from  the  public  school 
fund.  It  is  not  the  duty  of  the  State  to  sup- 
port parochial  schools.  That  sacred  obliga- 
tion devolves  upon  Christian  parents  and  the 
Christian  church. 


The  parish  school  of  St.  Vincent  De  Paul's 
Catholic  Church  was  established  in  1853,  in  a 
small  frame  building  on  Green  Street.  It  was 
removed  to  the  fine  two-story  brick  building 
on  Maple  Street  in  1893.  This  building  con- 
tains seven  school  rooms,  in  which  are  en- 
rolled about  300  pupils.  Besides  religious  in- 
struction in  all  the  grades,  the  course  of  study 
includes  the  branches  usually  taught  in  the 
public  schools,  the  course  for  the  highest 
grade  including  the  usual  high  school 
branches,  such  as  algebra,  geometry.  Latin, 
rhetoric,  etc. 

St.  Mary's  branch  of  this  church  erected  70 
buildings  on  South  Main  Street  and  organized 
pai'ish  schools  in  1887.  There  are  now  about 
300  pupils  in  attendance,  and  a  corps  of  six 
teachers.  The  course  of  study  is  identical 
with  that  pursued  at  St.  Vincent's  school. 

St.  Bernard's  Parochial  School,  situated  on 
the  corner  of  Broadway  and  Center  Streets, 
was  built  in  1887.  Prior  to  this  period  school 
was  taught  for  some  years  in  a  small  house 
adjoining  the  old  St.  Bernard's  Church,  and 
later  four  large  rooms  in  the  basement  of  said 
church  were  used  for  school  purposes. 

The  present  building  is  a  brick  structure 
and  contains  eight  large  classrooms  and  a 
spacious  auditorium.  "The  cost  of  building, 
equipments,  etc.,  is  estimated  at  $50,000.  Un- 
til 1893,  St.  Bernard's  School  was  taught  by 
the  Sistere  of  Notre  Dame.  Since  then  the 
school  is  in  charge  of  the  Sisters  of  St.  Domi- 
nic. There  are  475  pupils  in  attendance, 
ranging  in  age  from  6  to  15  years.  The 
school  is  divided  into  primarj'  and  grammar 
departments  and  a  senior  grade.  The 
branches  taught  are:  Reading,  arithmetic, 
orthography,  penmanship,  composition,  lan- 
guage, English  grammar,  geography,  United 
States  history,  Bible  and  church  history, 
physiology,  algebra,  civil  government,  ele- 
ments of  geometry,  elementary  bookkeeping, 
business  correspondence. 

German  reading  and  writing  is  taught  in 
all  the  grades.  All  pupils  are  required  to 
study  the  Catechism  of  Christian  doctrine, 
though  they  are  at  liberty  to  choose  to  take 
this  branch  in  either  language. 

No  tuition  is  required  from  pupils  belong- 
ing to  the  parish ;  but  parents  are  expected  to 
furnish  the  books. 

All  pupils  who  have  completed  the  Senior 
grade  are  awarded  a  diploma  of  graduation. 
This  school  aims  at  the  Christian  training  of 
youth,  not  only  offering  them  every  opportu- 
nity for  obtaining  a  good  and  solid  educa- 
tion in  all  the  common  English  branches,  but 
endeavoring  mainly  to  develop  those  nobis 
traits  of  Chri.stian  manhood  and  womanhood 



which  constitute  the  high  distinction  of  the 
lionored  Catholic  citizen. 

The  Sacred  Heart  Academy,  on  South 
Broadway,  conducted  by  the  Sisters  of  St. 
Dominic,  was  began  in  1904.  The  Academy 
has  four  departments:  Primary,  Grammar, 
Commercial  and  Academic.  depart- 
ments embrace  all  the  branches  of  a  thorough 
practical  education.  The  commercial  course, 
coveiing  two  years,  includes  reading  and 
spelling,  commercial  arithmetic,  commercial 
law,  penmanship,  business  correspondence, 
bookkeeping,  stenography,  typewriting  and 
English  grammar. 

Tuition  includes  Latin,  German,  needle 
work  and  embroidery.  The  Academy  affords 
ample  facilities  to  students  who  desire  to  de- 
vote particular  attention  to  the  study  of  mu- 
sic, drai\'ing  and  painting.  Special  attention 
is  given  to  drawing,  crayon  and  pastel,  oil 
painting,  china  decoration,  and  tapestry 

Difference  in  creed  or  religious  belief  is  no 
bar  to  the  admission  of  any  pupil  who  is  will- 
ing to  conform  to  the  lailcs  of  the  institution. 


At  the  time  of  tbe  adoption  of  the  "Articles 
of  Confederation,"  when  the  States  ceded  their 
lands  northwest  of  the  Ohio  River  to  the  gen- 
eral government,  Connecticut  reserved  that 
portion  of  her  territory  lying  next  west  of 
Pennsylvania,  forty  leagues  in  length.  This 
tract  has  since  been  known  as  the  Connecticut 
Western  Reserve.  On  this  tract.  Western  Re- 
serve College  was  established  by  its  early  set- 
tlers for  the  promotion  of  sound  learning  and 
religion  in  their  midst,  and  to  extend  their 
good  influences  over  the  new  country  to  the 
south  and  west. 

The  first  movement  toward  the  founding 
of  a  college  on  the  Western  Reserve  was  made 
in  1801,  when  a  petition  for  a  charter  was 
.sent  to  the  territorial  legislature,  numerously 
signed  by  the  settlers  and  by  many  of  the 
landowners  residing  in  Connecticut.  The 
prayer  of  the  petitioners  was  not  granted  at 

that  time.  In  1803,  after  the  admission  of 
Ohio  into  the  Union  as  a  State,  the  petition 
was  renewed  and  a  charter  was  granted  to  the 
"Erie  Literary  Society"  with  full  college 
powers.  Under  this  charter,  an  academy  was 
opened  at  Burton  in  1806,  with  the  expecta- 
tion that  it  should  be  expanded  into  a  college 
as  fast  as  circumstances  would  warrant. 

In  1822,  the  Grand  River  and  Portage 
presbyteries  undertook  to  raise  a  fund  to  aid 
young  men  in  preparing  for  the  Christian 
ministry,  and  placed  this  fund  in  the  hands 
of  a  board  of  managers.  These  managers, 
under  direction  of  their  presbyteries,  entered 
into  a  compact  with  the  trustees  of  the  Erie 
Literary  Society,  whereby  a  theological  de- 
partment was  to  be  added  to  the  academy  at 
Burton.  This  arrangement,  after  trial,  prov- 
ing unsatisfactory,  the  connection  was  dis- 
solved in  1824,  and  the  managers  at  once 
began  efforts  to  establish  a  college  elsewhere. 
The  academy  at  Burton  continued  under  its 
charter  until  1834,  when  it  ceased  to  exist  as 
a  chartered  school.  Eleven  hundred  and 
thirty  a(?res  of  land  donated  to  the  Literary 
Society  by  William  Law,  of  Connecticut,  in 
1806,  on  condition  that  the  college  be  estab- 
lished and  continue  at  Burton,  reverted  to 
his  heirs  in  1841. 

The  pi'esbyteries,  reinforced  by  the  addition 
of  the  new  presbytery  of  Hui"on,  appointed 
four  commi.s.sioners  each,  to  locate  the  new 
college,  directing  them  to  "take  into  view  all 
circumstances  of  situation,  moral  character, 
facility  of  communication,  donations,  health, 
etc."  The  town  of  Hudson  was  selected  as 
combining  the  greatest  advantages,  the  peo- 
ple of  the  town  subscribing  $7,1  nO  to  secure 
the  location,  besides  the  donation  by  Mr. 
David  Hudson  of  160  acres  of  land  for  a 

The  date  borne  by  the  charter  is  Febniary 
7,  1826.  The  corporators  were  George  Swift 
and  Zalmon  Fitch,  of  Tnimbull  County; 
Caleb  Pitkin,  Elizur  Wright,  John  Seward, 
jr.,  Benjamin  Fenn,  .Joshua  B.  Sherwood  and 
David  Hudson,  of  Portage  Countv;  Stephen 
T.  Bradstreet  and  Simeon  Woodruff,  of  Cuva- 



hoga  County;  Henry  Brown  and  Harmon 
Kingsbury,  of  Lorain  County — all  ministers 
own  members  of  the  Presbyterian  or  the  Con- 
gregational Church.  These  twelve  men  con- 
stituted the  Board  of  Trustees,  a  close  cor- 
poration with  full  power. 

The  objects  proposed  by  the  founders  were 
"to  educate  pious  young  men  as  pa.stors  for 
our  destitute  churches,"  "to  preserve  the  pres- 
ent literary  and  religious  character  of  the 
State  and  redeem'  it  from  future  decline,"  "to 
prepare  competent  men  to  fill  the  cabinet,  the 
bench,  the  bar,  and  the  pulpit." 

The  clergymen  among  the  founders  were, 
most  of  them,  graduates  of  Yale  College,  the 
others,  of  Williams  and  Dartmouth ;  the  lay- 
men were  from  Connecticut,  reared  under  the 
shadow  of  Yale.  It  thus  came  about  that 
these  famous  colleges  were  the  models  upon 
which  Western  Reserve  College  was  con- 

The  trustees  held  their  first  meeting  in  the 
township  of  Hudson,  on  the  fii-st  Wednesday 
of  March,  1S26,  as  provided  in  the  charter, 
took  immediate  steps  for  the  erection  of  a 
college  building,  and  before  the  close  of  the 
year,  organized  a  freshman  class. 

When  the  college  started,  its  entire  re- 
sources were  only  about  $10,000,  contributed 
mostly  in  small  sums,  by  numerous  donors. 
Its  sole  dependence  for  the  means  of  support 
and  growth  was  the  liberality  and  devotion  of 
the  friends  of  religion  and  learning  in  the 
new  settlements,  and  in  the  older  States  from 
which  the  people  here  had  come. 

The  college  received  no  aid  at  any  time 
from  the  government,  either  State  or  na- 
tional, in  any  form,  except  a  partial  release 
from  taxation.  With  the  exception  of  $13,000 
received  in  the  years  1845  to  1848,  from  "The 
Society  for  the  Promotion  of  Collegiate  and 
Theological  Education  at  the  West,"  its  funds 
all  came  from  private  individuals  interested 
in  the  advance  of  "religion,  morality  and 
knowledge,"  The  largest  single  donation 
ever  received  is  $10,000,  The  whole  number 
of  .«iingle  donations  is  nearly  five  thousand, 
and   the   total    amount    of   donations,   up   to 

1876,  is  $387,040,  Much  of  this  was  con- 
tributed for  current  expenses,  when  the  col- 
lege income  was  insufficient.  The  estimated 
value  of  property  and  endowment  before  the 
removal  to  Cleveland  was  $300,000. 

The  first  president  of  the  college  was  Rev. 
Charles  Backus  Storrs.  He  became  president 
in  1830,  at  the  age  of  thirty-six.  He  died 
September  15,  1833.  Rev.  George  Edmund 
Pierce,  D.  D.,  succeeded  to  the  presidency  in 
1834,  and  retired  from  that  office  in  1855. 
"Under  his  administration  the  college  took 
its  place  for  thoroughness  and  completeness 
among  the  best  in  the  land.  .  .  ,  He 
gathered  about  him  a  wise  and  able  faculty. 
He  enlarged  and  beautified  the  grounds, 
erected  an  observatory  and  three  college  build- 
ings, and  gathered  a  valuable  apparatus  for 
instruction."  Rev.  Henry  Lawrence  Hitch- 
cock, D.  D.,  became  president  in  1855,  re- 
signed in  1871,  but  remained  as  professor  in 
the  college  until  his  death,  which  occurred 
July  6,  1873.  "He  removed  all  the  encum- 
brances of  the  college,  and  added  to  its  perma- 
nent fund  more  than  $175,000."  On  the  re- 
tirement of  Dr.  Hitchcock  in  1871,  the  va- 
cancy was  filled  by  the  promotion  of  Rev. 
Carroll  Cutler,  D.  D.  The  college  was  re- 
moved to  Cleveland  in  1882.  Dr.  Cutler  re- 
signed the  presidency  in  1886. 

A  system  of  manual  labor  in  connection 
•with  the  college  was  advocated  by  the  founders 
as  early  as  1823.  In  1829,  the  trustees  pro- 
vided a  farm,  a  cooper  shop,  carpenter  shop, 
wagon  shop,  and  cabinet  shop,  and  estab- 
lished a  system  of  labor.  The  whole  scheme 
was  unpopular  with  the  students  and  proved 
a  failure.  Some  lingering  remnants  of  the 
enterprise  remained  until  1852. 

Under  an  amendment  of  the  charter,  a 
medical  department  was  established  in  Cleve- 
land, in  1844.  Twelve  hundred  and  fifty-five 
students  in  this  department  received  the  de- 
gree of  Doctor  of  Medicine  prior  to  1876. 

A  theological  department  was  a  part  of  the 
original  plan  of  the  founders,  and  a  com- 
plete course  of  theological  instruction  was 
given  from  1831  to  1852.     It  was  suspended 



on  account  of  financial  embarrassment,  and 
not  resumed.  One  hundred  and  one  theo- 
logical students  pursued  their  professional 
studies  here. 

From  1838  onward,  facilities  were  provided 
for  post-graduate  work  on  the  part  of  any 
graduate  desiring  to  pursue  special  studies  in 
any  of  the  departments  included  in  the  col- 
lege course.  The  number  availing  them- 
selves of  these  opportunities  was  never  large. 

A  preparatory  department  was  connected 
with  the  college  from  the  first.  This  was 
designed  to  be  only  temporary,  but  it  was 
found  necessary  to  'maintain  it.  After  the 
college  was  removed  to  Cleveland,  the  pre- 
paratory department  was  maintained  at  Hud- 
son for  several  years,  under  the  name  of  The 
Western   Reserve  Academy. 

Western  Reserve  College  was  for  a  time  a 
oo-educational  institution.  In  his  inaugural 
address  in  1872,  President  Cutler  announced 
that  the  doors  of  the  college  were  open  to 
women  as  well  as  men.  Thereafter,  a  num- 
ber of  young  women  attended  the  regular 
college  classes,  both  before  and  after  the  re- 
moval to  Cleveland.  Al  the  annual  com- 
mencement in  1888,  the  trustees  formally 
decided  against  co-education ;  and  "the  girls 
were  unceremoniously  turned  out."  Provi- 
sion 'was  made  for  them,  however,  in  a  sep- 
arate department,  known  as  the  Woman's 
College.  The  number  of  students  in  attend- 
ance was  never  large,  the  number  in  all  de- 
partments, including  preparatory,  rarely  ex- 
ceeding 120.  The  highest  number  in  the 
college  department  in  any  one  year  was  78, 
in  1869.  The  firet  gi-aduating  class  (1830) 
contained  four  young  men.  The  largest  num- 
ber of  graduates  from  the  college  in  any  one 
year  was  eighteen,  in  1872.  These  statistics 
apply  only  to  the  period  prior  to  the  removal 
to  Cleveland. 


Rev.  Samuel  Bissel,  founder  and  proprie- 
tor of  Twinsburgh  Institute,  was  graduated 
at. Yale  College  in  1823.     He  studied  theol- 

ogy, and  in  1825  was  licensed  in  Connecticut 
to  preach  the  gospel.  In  the  spring  of  1828. 
he  came  to  Twinsburgh  to  take  charge  of  the 
Presb}4erian  Church,  to  which  he  had  been 
called.  In  the  autumn  of  that  year,  he  fitted 
up  with  seats  a  rude  log  house,  which  had 
been  built  for  a  shoe  shop,  and  invited  all 
youth  of  suitable  age  to  attend  school,  those 
able  and  willing  being  expected  to  pay  tui- 
tion at  the  rate  of  two  dollars  per  quarter. 
About  forty  young  people  responded,  and  the 
little  room  was  packed.  In  1831,  a  house 
was  built  for  the  two-fold  purpose  of  a  church 
on  Sabbath  and  a  school  on  week  days.  In 
1837,  Mr.  Bissell  erected  a  house  20  by  35 
feet,  in  which  he  held  school  forty  weeks  in 
the  year,  divided  into  three  regular  terms. 
Additions  were  made  from  time  to  time  to 
this  building  and  to  the  dwelling  hard  by, 
a  two-story  building  used  for  a  tavern  was 
purchased,  and  two  other  buildings  three 
stories  high  were  erected.  The  number  of  stu- 
dents increased  to  300,  with  at  least  fifty 
boarders,  requiring  seven  teachers  to  give  in- 
structions in  the  cla.ssics,  mathematics,  Ger- 
man, French  and  musdc,  besides  all  the  usual 
branches  of  an  English  education.  No  char- 
ter was  ever  obtained,  no  appropriations  of 
public  money  were  ever  received.  Board  and 
tuition  were  low  at  best,  and  many  students 
attended  who  paid  little  or  nothing.  None 
were  turned  away  for  want  of  means.  In 
the  course  of  time,  receipts  fell  short  of  ex- 
penditures. A  debt  of  $6,000  accunnilated. 
A  portion  of  the  buildings  were  sold  to  pay 
the  indebtedness,  leaving  a  balance  in  hand 
of  only  $300. 

These  embarrassments,  the  general  im- 
provement of  the  public  schools,  and  the 
breaking  out  of  the  Civil  War,  conspired  to- 
gether to  reduce  the  attendance  and  diminish 
the  income. 

In  1868,  Mr.  Bissell,  at  the  age  of  seventy, 
found  himself  without  means  and  with  very 
scanty  income,  but  with  indomitable  will  and 
tenacity  of  purpose.  He  resolved  to  erect  a 
new  stone  building,  two  stories  high,  77  feet 


by  33.     He  borrowed    $1,500    and    received  went  on  slowly,  but  in  the  course  of  time 

some    aid    from   former    pupils    and    other  it  was  sufficiently  advanced  to  provide  for  100 

friends.     Mr.   Bissell  did  most  of  the  work  students.    Mr.  BLssell's  own  estimate  was  that 

with  his  own  hands,  save  cutting  and  laying  not    less    than    6,000    students    received   in- 

the  stone  and  the  plastering.     Without  any  struction    in    Twinburgh    Institute,    among 

previous  knowledge  of  carpentry,  he  framed  them  more  than  200  Indian  youth,  from  sev- 

and  erected  a  self-supporting  roof;  he  made  eral  different  tribes,  east  and  west.     This  re- 

and   put  up   doors,    ceiling  and   casing;   he  markable  man  died  in  1895,  at  the  age  of 

laid  floors  and   built  stairways.     The   work  ninety-eight. 



BY   KEV.    AXIiKEW    WILLSON,   D.    D. 

For  majiy  years  the  need  of  an  institution 
of  learning  had  been  recognized  by  the  pro- 
gressive ministers  and  laymen  of  the  Univer- 
salist  Church.  During  1865,  and  the  early 
months  of  1866,  Ohio  was  canvassed  for  Lom- 
bard University  at  Galesburg,  111.,  and  the 
Buckeye  State  contributed  $20,000  toward  an 
endowment  of  $100,000.  That  canvass  in- 
tensified the  desire  for  a  school  in  Ohio  under 
the  management  of  the  Universalist  denomi- 

At  the  Ohio  convention,  held  at  Mt.  Gilead, 
in  June,  1867,  as  chairman  of  the  Committee 
on  Education,  Rev.  Andrew  Willson  prepared 
and  presented  a  report  urging  the  establish- 
ment of  an  academy  for  both  sexes.  The  re- 
port was  unanimously  adopted.  The  Com- 
mittee on  Education,  of  which  Mr.  Willson 
was  again  chairman,  was  instructed  to  prepare 
a  plan  for  a  state  school  and  report  the  same 
at  the  next  annual  convention  to  be  held  in 
Dayton  in  June  of  1868.  After  corresponding 
with  the  leading  ministers  and  prominent  lay- 
men in  the  state,  Mr.  Willson  prepared  and 
presented  a  somewhat  elaborate  plan  and  made 
$50,000  the  minimum  sum  to  be  pledged  be- 
fore the  beginning  of  the  work.  Mr.  Will- 
son  rather  surprised  the  convention  by  stat- 
ing that  no  place  could  secure  the  school  for 
less  than  $1 0.000.  He  wa?  finally  assured  that 
Kent  would  give  that  amount. 

The  report  was  unanimously  adopted.  Dur- 
ing that  year  several  towns  seriously  consid- 
ered the  question  of  obtaining  the  school.  The 
principal  competitors  were  Kent.  Mt.  Gilead 
and  Oxford. 

By  June,  1869,  when  the  Ohio  convention 
met  at  McConnellsville,  the  thought  of  a  col- 
lege had  found  favor  with  many  of  the  most 
interested.  The  trustees,  Eevs.  Andrew  Will- 
son,  H.  L.  Canfield,  J.  S.  Cantwell,  J.  W. 
Henly  and  0.  F.  Haymaker,  and  the  Commit- 
tee on  Education,  Revs.  B.  F.  Eaton  and  E. 
L.  Rexford,  were  intsructed  "to  proceed  to  -es- 
tablish a  denominational  school  in  the  state, 
whenever  a  suitable  location  may  be  secured 
and  requisite  funds  pledged." 

In  November,  1869,  at  a  joint  meeting  of 
the  Board  of  Trustees  and  Committee  on  Edu- 
cation held  at  Springboro,  Rev.  H.  F.  Miller, 
then  financial  secretary'  of  Smithson  College, 
Indiana,  was  invited  to  become  general  finan- 
cial secretary  of  the  Board  and  Committee. 
He  accepted  the  office  and  began  work  the 
first  of  the  following  January. 

At  this  time  Kent  and  Mt.  Gilead  were 
earnest  com])etitors  for  the  college.  The  lat- 
ter place  was  centrally  located,  but  not  finan- 
cially as  strong  as  Kent.  Against  the  latter 
there  was  a  strong  prejudice  on  account  of  its 
reputation  of  unhealthfulness.  When  Mr. 
Willson  found  that  Kent,  where  he  was  then 
pastor,  was  not  likely  to  win,  he  threw  his  in- 
fluence in  favor  of  Akron.  He  was  the  first 
to  call  the  attention  of  the  citizens  of  this 
city  to  the  proposed  institution,  and  urge  the 
importance  and  advantages  to  the  place  in 
which  it  might  be  located. 

In  September  of  1867  the  Western  Reserve 
A.ssociation  of  Universalists  was  held  in  Ak- 
ron. A  special  car  conveyed  the  Kent  peo- 
ple, and  Brimfield,  Windsor  and  other  places 



sent  large  delegations.  The  enthusiasm  of 
that  meeting  quickened  much  interest  and 
touched  John  R.  Buchtel.  Although  he  had 
made  his  will,  when  he  clearly  sa-w  the  op- 
portunity of  founding  a  college,  he  was  not 
slow  in  grasping  its  meaning  and  its  impor- 
tance to  the  cause  of  education. 

However,  to  him  the  opportunity  did  not 
fully  a  appear  until  early  in  1870.  Mr.  Willson 
and  Mr.  Miller  had  investigated  the  condition 
in  Akron,  interviewed  prominent  citizens,  in- 
cluding Mr.  Buohtel,  without  satisfactory  re- 
sults. They  did  not  succeed  in  arousing  suffi- 
cient interest  to  justify  large  expectations  of 
locating  the  college  in  that  city.  After  visit- 
ing several  places  and  investigating  their  of- 
fers, Mr.  Miller  decided  in  favor  of  Mt. 
Gilead,  a  centrallv  located  town  in  Morrow 
County.  January  9,  1870,  Rev.  H.  L.  Can- 
field  preached  in  .\kron  and  on  the  evening 
of  that  day  several  friends  met  at  the  residence 
of  Avery  Spicer  and  earnestly  discussed  the 
question  of  the  location  of  the  college.  All 
present  felt  that  Akron  was  the  place.  The 
next  day  Mr.  Canfield  wrote  the  financial  sec- 
retary to  again  visit  Akron  before  finally  de- 
ciding the  question  of  location.  Mr.  Miller 
replied  that  he  had  already  called  a  meeting 
of  the  truste&s  of  the  convention  and  its  Edu- 
cational Committee  to  meet  at  Columbus  to 
decide  the  important  question.  The  meeting 
was  held  but  no  decision  was  reached.  A  com- 
mittee fwas  appointed  to  accompany  Mr.  Mil- 
ler to  Akron  and  reinvestigate  the  situation. 
Rev.  Geo.  Messenger,  an  old  friend  of  Mr. 
Buchtel's,  gave  his  strong  influence  and  the 
committee  was  satisfied  that  Akron  was  the 
right  place  for  the  institution.  This  was  of- 
fered the  city  on  the  condition  that  the  sum 
of  $60,000  should  be  pledged.  The  offer  was 
promptly  accepted,  Mr.  Buchtel  pledging 
$6,000  for  a  building  fund  and  $2.5.000  as  nn 
endowment  when  the  college  should  be  estab- 

As  the  records  were  burned  when  the  col- 
lege building  was  destroyed,  it  is  impossible 
to  recall  the  names  of  all  of  the  original  sub- 
.«!cribers.  On  the  list  were  the  following:  J. 
H.     Pendleton,     Ferd     Schumacher,    Aver\' 

Spicer,  Geo.  Steese,  S.  M.  Burnham,  J.  T. 
Trowbridge,  M.  W.  Henry,  E.  P.  Green,  Geo. 
T.  Perkins,  Geo.  W.  Grouse,  N.  D.  Tibbals, 
A.  C.  Voris,  J.  Park  Alexander,  Geo.  Cogg- 
shell,  Talmon  Beardsley,  Lewis  Miller,  L.  V. 
Bierce,  J.  Sumner,  Wm.  Buchtel,  Dr.  Childs, 
Jerry  Long,  W.  B.  Doyle,  Brewster  Bros.,  M. 
J.  Atwood,  Frank  Adams,  James  Christy, 
John  Christy,  John  Burton,  John  Wolf,  Thos. 
Willey,  C.  Howe,  Richard  Howe,  J.  B.  Lane, 
S.  A.  Lane,  M.  T.  Cutter,  J.  B.  Woods,  Chas. 
Bonstead,  John  Seiberling. 

Having  decided  in  favor  of  Akron,  the  next 
important  question  was  where  to  erect  the 
building.  The  trustees  of  the  Ohio  conven- 
tion, accompanied  by  citizens  of  the  city,  spent 
some  time  visiting  diff^erent  sections  and  con- 
sidering offers  from  various  parties.  The  re- 
sult was  the  selection  of  the  old  cemetery 
grounds.  The  decision  has  never  been  re- 

On  the  31st  day  of  May,  1870,  the  Board 
of  Trustees  and  Committee  on  Education  met 
at  the  Court  House  in  Akron  at  10  a.  m. 
Trustees  present:  Rev.  J.  S.  Cantwell,  H.  L. 
Canfield,  J.  W.  Henley  and  Andrew  Willson 
and  Mr.  0.  F.  Haymaker;  Committee  on  Edu- 
cation, Revs.  B.  F.  Eaton  and  E.  L.  Rexford. 
Rev.  H.  F.  Miller,  financial  secretary,  stated 
that  the  citizens  of  Summit  County  had  com- 
plied with  the  terms  of  the  Trustees  and  Com- 
mittee on  Education.  On  motion  of  Rev.  B. 
F.  Eaton,  it  was  unanimously  voted  to  locate 
the  college  in  Akron  and  to  authorize  Rev,  H. 
F.  Miller,  W.  Spaulding,  Geo.  Messenger, 
Henry  Blandy,  J.  R.  Buchtel.  Hon.  N.  D. 
Tibbals,  E.  P.'  Green.  Col.  George  T.  Perkins, 
.Tames  Lantz  and  George  Steese,  together  with 
the  Trustees  and  Committee  on  Education  to 
act  as  corporators. 

By  what  name  shall  the  college  be  known? 
This  was  a  deeply  interesting  and  important 
question  and  was  earnestly  discussed  by  the 
Trustees  and  Committee  on  Education.  Some 
favored  naming  it  Murray  Centennial  Col- 
lege, others  Buchtel  UniversaH«t  College.  Mr. 
Buchtel  was  invited  to  attend  the  meeting  and 
express  his  opinion.  Honestly  and  frankly 
he  said  "name  it  what  you  like.    The  college 



is  yours,  not  mine.  It  shall  have  my  hearty 
support.  If  prospered,  I  expect  to  give  it  one 
hundred  thou.sand  dollai's."  Then  it  was 
unanimously  voted  to  name  the  child  of  the 
Ohio  Universalist  convention  Buchtel  College, 
in  honor  of  the  man  who  financially  most  loy- 
ally aided  it  in  its  infancy. 

All  necessary  legal  measures  were  taken,  the 
corporation  adopted  articles  of  association, 
also  a  seal ;  elected  a  board  of  trustees,  became 
a  "Body  Corporate"  and  then  delivered  all  the 
propert}'  into  the  hands  of  the  trustees.  This 
board  then  organized  by  electing  Hon.  John 
R.  Buchtel,  president;  Hon.  Sanford  M. 
Burnham,  secretary,  and  Hon.  George  W. 
Grouse,  tre^asurer.  The  services  of  Rev.  H.  F. 
Miller  as  financial  secretary  were  secured,  to 
date  from  January  1,  1870. 

During  the  first  week  in  June  the  Ohio 
Universalist  Convention  was  held  at  Kent. 
The  attendance  was  unusually  large.  In  this 
centennial  year  of  the  Universalist  Church  in 
America,  the  college  occupied  a  prominent 
place  in  the  thoughts  of  all  delegates  and  vis- 
itors. The  action  of  the  Trustees  and  the 
Committee  on  Education  was  earnestly  in- 
dorsed amid  great  enthusiasm.  The  follow- 
ing resolutions  were'  unanimously  adopted : 

Resolved,  That  this  convention  joyfully  rec- 
ognize the  succass  of  the  friends  of  Universal- 
ism  in  their  efforts  to  establish  a  denomina- 
tional institution  of  learning  in  this  State; 
that  we  appreciate  the  magnificent  gift  of  our 
friend  and  brother,  Hon.  John  R.  Buchtel, 
of  Akron,  for  this  object  and  pledge  to  him 
our  cordial  co-operation  to  make  the  enter- 
prise so  generously  aided  a  complete  suc- 

Resolved,  that,  haA'ing  confidence  in  tihe 
man,  in  his  honor,  rectitude,  integrity,  in  his 
disinterestedness  in  this  friendly  gift,  in  the 
positive  manly  virtues  of  his  life  and  the  ex- 
ample which  his  history  affords  to  the  stnig- 
gling  youths  of  our  country,  we  gratefully 
recognize  the  wisdom  which  gives  the  institu- 
tion his  name,  and  that  will  hereafter  enable 
us  to  rank  Buchtel  College  among  the  proud- 
est monuments  of  our  centennial  year. 

Under  the  able  management  of  Rev.  H.  F. 

Miller,  efliciently  aided  by  Revs.  J.  S.  Cant- 
well,  editor  of  the  Star  in  the  West,  Andrew 
Willson,  H.  L.  Canfield,  B.  F.  Eaton,  R.  T. 
Polk  and  many  others,  the  canvass  for  funds 
Avas  successfully  pushed.  The  people  had  a 
mind  to  give,  and  preparations  for  erecting 
a  suitable  building  were  speedily  commenced. 
T.  W.  Silloway,  of  Boston,  was  employed  a^ 
architect  and  in  due  time  Noah  Carter,  of 
Akron,  was  engaged  to  superintend  the  work 
of  the  building. 

On  the  4th  of  July,  1871,  was  laid  the  cor- 
ner stone  bearing  the  inscription,  "Centenary 
of  Universalism  in  Americ'a,  1870."  In  the 
presence  of  a  great  multitude,  Horace  Greeley 
gave  an  address  on  "Human  Conceptions  of 
God  as  They  Affect  the  Moral  Education  of 
Our  Race."  In  the  evening  a  reception  in 
honor  of  Mr.  Greeley  was  held  at  the  home  of 
Hon.  John  R.  Buchtel. 

The  trustees^  of  the  college  appointed  a  com- 
mittee, of  which  Hon.  Henry  Blandy  was  a 
member,  to  select  a  president  for  the  institu- 
tion. As  Mr.  Blandy  had  business  engage- 
ments in  New  England,  he  was  instructed  to 
confer  with  leading  scholars  in  the  denomina- 
tion and  if  possible  report  the  name  of  some 
well-qualified  man  for  that  responsible  posi- 
tion. On  his  return  he  reported  that  Rev.  S. 
H.  McCoUester,  D.  D.,  had  been  highly  rec- 
ommended and  that  he  would  visit  Akron  in 
March  of  1872.  The  promi.?ed  visit  was  made 
and  resulted  in  the  engagement  of  Dr.  McCol- 
lester,  who  moved  to  Akron  the  first  of  June 
of  that  year. 

By  this  time  the  chapel  was  nearly  finished 
and  in  it  was  held  the  Ohio  Universali.'st  Con- 
vention. This  was  a  memorable  session  for 
the  college.  There  were  present  delegates 
from  nearly  all  the  churches  in  the  State  and 
great  interest  was  manifested  in  the  new  insti- 
tution. Early  in  the  year  Rev.  H.  F.  Miller 
resigned  his  position  as  financial  secretary  and 
retired  the  first  of  April.  Rev.  D.  C.  Tom- 
linson  was  then  employed  to  fill  the  vacancy, 
and,  under  his  leadership,  assisted  by  Rev.  J. 
S.  CantwcU  and  others,  about  $17,000  was 
pledged  for  the  college.  Subscriptions  varied 
in  amount  from  $1,000  to  $1.50  by  a  little 



girl,  Lillie  Snell,  of  Dayton.  The  cost  of  fur- 
nishing each  room  was  estimated  at  $60,  and 
the  person  or  church  paying  that  sum  had  the 
privilege  of  naming  the  room.  Pledges  for 
furnishing  nearly  all  the  rooms  were  made  be- 
fore the  close  of  the  convention.  To  furnish 
a  room  in  the  name  of  Rev.  I.  D.  William- 
son, D.  D.,  one  of  the  ablest  and  most  exten- 
sively known  of  the  pioneer  ministers,  a  hat 
collection  was  successfully  taken. 

On  the  building  and  furni.shings  between 
$160,000  and  $200,000  had  been  expended. 
The  following  description  was  given  in  the 
first  catalog  i.ssued.  "The  college  building  is 
two  hundred  and  forty  feet  long,  fifty-four 
feet  wide  and  five  stories  high.  Its  style  of 
architecture  combines  the  Doric,  Gothic  and 
Norman.  It  is  a  grand  structure  of  symmetri- 
cal and  harmonious  proportions.  Its  rooms  for 
lectures,  apparatus,  cabinets,  music  and  stu- 
dents, including  the  dining  room  and  gymna- 
sium, are  light,  airy  and  amply  furnished 
with  modern  and  most  improved  conven- 
ience. The  building  is  w^armed  by  steam. 
st*am,  lighted  by  gas  and  supplied  by  water. 
The  site  of  the  college  is  high,  affording  from 
its  obser\'atory  one  of  the  most  extensive  and 
delightful  prospects  in  Ohio."  Under  the  su- 
pervision of  Julius  Sumner  the  spacious 
grounds  had  been  laid  out  artLstically  and  re- 
ceived the  admiration  of  all  visitors. 

There  was  great  rejoicing  when,  on  the 
11th  day  of  September,  1872,  the  college  doors 
were  open  for  students.  On  the  first  day  ninety 
were  enrolled.  The  next  day  the  number 
reached  127,  and  during  the  year  a  total  of 
217.  The  faculty  consisted  of  Rev.  S.  H.  Mc- 
Collester,  D.  D., 'president;  N.  White,  A.  M., 
professor  of  ancient  languages;  S.  F.  Peck- 
ham,  .profes.sor  of  natural  sciencas ;  Miss  H.  F. 
Spaulding,  professor  of  English  literature; 
Carl  P.  Kolbe,  professor  of  modern  languages ; 
A'lfreid  WeLsh,  A.  B.,  professor  of  mathe- 
matics; H.  D.  Person,  professor  in  normal 

The  Akron  Beacon  said:  "A  more  auspi- 
cious beginning  or  a  better  augury  of  the  com- 
mencement of  a  grand  and  pro.^perous  career 

was  not  expected  even  by  the  most  sanguine 
of  the  friends." 

The  college  was  dedicated  September  20, 
1872.  On  this  memorable  occasion  President 
McCollester  was  assisted  by  home  talent  and 
by  Rev.  Paul  Kendcll  of  Lombard  University; 
Rev.  J.  E.  Forraster,  D.  D.,  of  Chicago ;  Rev. 
L.  J.  Fletcher,  of  New  York,  who  represented 
the  Universalist  Gencra.l  Convention,  and  by 
Mrs.  Caroline  A.  Soule,  author  of  the  Dedica- 
tion hymn.  The  architect,  T.  W.  Silloway, 
made  a  brief  address  and  delivered  the  keys 
to  the  trustee.  On  behalf  of  the  trustees,  Hon. 
Henry  Blandy  expressed  satisfaction  with  the 
w"ork  and  accepted  the  keys.  The  congrega- 
tion then  sang  the  following  Dedication 
hymn,  written  by  Mrs.  Caroline  A.  Soule: 


A  hundred  years  of  our  story- 
Had  garnered  their  heavy  sheaves, 

Harvests  of  valor  and  glory, 
As  brilliant  as  Autumn  leaves! 

And   tenderly   then   the  reapers 
Of  this  golden,  precious  grain, 

Chanted  the  dirge  of  the  sleepers 
In  a  soft  and  solemn  strain. 

The  dirge  was  only  for  sleepers, 

As   its   music  died  away, 
There  rose  from  the  voice  of  reapers 

The  song  of  an  op'ning  day. 
Like    martyrs    crowding    the    altar. 

All  pledging  themselves  anew 
In    work    of   love    ne'er   to    falter 

Which  their  hands  may  find  to  do. 

And  now  we  review  the  story. 

As  we  gather  in  our  sheaves! 
Harvests  of  valor  and  glory. 

And  crown  them  with  laurel  leaves! 
Father  Almighty!    we  pray  Thee 

To  bless  this  work  of  our  hands. 
And  may  it  shed  unceasingly 

Bright  radiance  o'er  all  lands! 

Whei'e  error  bindeth  its   tetters, 

Where  sloth  holdeth  prey  in  chain. 
May  soldiers  of  science  and  letters 

Their   triumph   and   honors   gain! 
From  North  and  South  we  will  call  them — 

The  sons  of  our  sainted  sires; 
From   East  and  West   we   will  draw   them 

To  kindle  these  sacred  fires! 



As  the  years  shall  tell  their  story. 

And  reapers  harvest  the  grain. 
In  the  flush  of  each  year's  glory 

Our   loved  will   meet   here   again  I 
Blessing  Founder  of  this  College, 

Praising   our    Father   above 
For   his   bestowals   of   knowledge, 

And    treasures    of    Infinite    Love! 

Rev.  S.  H.  McCollester,  D.  D.,  was  then  in- 
stalled president.  Hon.  John  R.  Buchtel, 
president  of  the  Board  of  Trustees,  conduct- 
ing the  service.  Hon.  Henry  Blandy  then 
presented  the  keys  to  President  McCollester 
who  gave  his  inaugural  address  on  "The  Edu- 
cational Demand  of  the  Nation." 

On  the  first  Sunday  after  the  college  was 
opened.  Rev.  James  H.  Herron,  of  the  Erie 
M.  E.  Conference,  preached  in  the  chapel,  and 
froim  that  time  regular  Sunday  services  were 
held  by  Dr.  McCollester,  or  substitutes.  To 
him  belongs  the'credit  of  the  organization  of 
the  Universalist  Church  that  was  intended  to 
furnish  a  religious  home  for  all  who  desired  a 
denominational  place  of  worship.  He  also  or- 
ganized the  educational  work  and  placed  it 
upon  a  solid  foundation..  Day  and  night  he 
labored  for  the  succass  of  the  institution  and 
gave  generously  of  his  means  for  its  support,. 

For  some  time  the  attendance  was  encour- 
aging. Money  was  generously  contributed 
and  the  institution  seemed  on  the  highway  to 
great  prosperity,  when  a  dark  cloud  settled 
over  the  financial  affairs  of  our  country  and 
threatened  many  enterprises  with  speedy  de- 
struction. This  cloud  is  known  as  the  panic 
of  1873.  lis  full  force  was  not  felt  by  the 
college  until  a  year  or  so  later.  It  was  this 
trying  ordeal  that  tested  the  loyalty  of  the 
professed  friends.  It  was  then  demonstrated 
that  John  R.  Buchtel  was  truly  reliable. 

In  the  spring  of  1875  Rev.'  D.  C.  Tomlin- 
son  resigned  the  office  of  financial  secretary. 
Soon  the  Executive  Committee  sought  the 
services  of  Rev.  Andrew  Willson,  then  pastor 
of  the  churches  at.  Kent  and  Brimfield.  After 
being  persistently  urged,  in  the  following  De- 
cember Mr.  Willson  accepted  the  responsible 
position,  which  he  held  till  June.  1878.  Dur- 
ing thi.s  period  the  college  passed  through  its 
most  tr^nng  financial  experience.    Only  John 

R.  Buchtel  and  the  financial  secretary  knew 
how  nearly  it  came  to  olosing  ifc  doors.  In 
debt  nearly  $50,000,  a  large  portion  to  banks 
at  10  per  cent  interest,  it  was  no  easy  tiisk  to 
prevent  notes  going  to  protest.  All  the  bank- 
ers were  as  patient  as  their  rules  would  per- 
mit, and  no  note  was  ever  protested.  While 
money  for  the  debt  was  earnestly  sought, 
special  attention  had  to  be  given  to  securing 
funds  for  the  payment  of  interest  and  regu- 
lar current  expenses.  By  1878  financial  confi- 
dence was  measurably  restored,  and  the  col- 
lege having  passed  safely  through  its  severe 
ordeal,  began  to  .plan  for  more  aggre-sive 
work  to  meet  the  indebtedness  and  increase 
the  endow^ment. 

In  the  time  of  pressing  need  many  besides 
John  R.  Buchtel  and  wife  had  a  mind  to 
work  and  give.  Rev.  and  Mrs.  George  Mes- 
senger had  endowed  the  mental  and  moral 
philosophy  professorship;  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
John  Hilton,  the  chair  of  modern  language,*; 
Mrs.  Chloe  Pierce,  of  Sharpsville,  Pennsyl- 
vania, had  given  $10,000  for  the  chair  of  Eng- 
lish literature,  and  the  balance  of  $10,000 
had  been  nearly  all  subscribed  by  many  don- 
ors. Twenty-five  scholarships  of  $1,000  each, 
fifteen  of  them  drawing  interest,  had  been  es- 
tablished by  the  following  donors:  James 
Pierce,  Elijah  Drury,  Mrs.  Mary  C, 
Roosa,  James  F.  Davidson,  Betsey  Thomas. 
John  Perdue,  Eli  M.  Kennedv,  John  K. 
Smith,. N.  S.  Olin,  John  B.  Smith,  Candia 
Palmer,  George  W.  Steele,  Mrs.  George  W. 
Steele,  Mrs.  Betsy  Dodge,  Brice  Hilton,  John 
Loudenback,  John  Espv,  Joseph  Hidv,  Sr,, 
Rev,  H.  P.  and  Mrs.  D".  E.  Sage,  Mrs.'  E.  V. 
Stedraan,  Mrs.  Henry  Boszar,  E.  F.  Louden- 
back,  IT.  D.  Loudenback,  Thomas  Kirby,  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  Isaac  Kelly. 

To  help  meet  interest  and  current  expenses 
generous  contributions  were  made  by  Rev.  S. 
H.  McCollester,  D.  D.,  Joy  H.  Pendleton, 
Ferd.  Schumacher,  Avery  Spicer,  J.  T.  Trow- 
bridge, .ludge  N.  D.  Tibbals.  M.  W.  Henry, 
S.  M.  Burnham,  Col.  George  T.  Perkins,  Gen. 
A.  C.  Voris.  E.  P.  Green,  Esq.,  George  Steese, 
Hon.  George  W,  Crouse,  I,  Park  Alexander, 
.Tonas  and  Frank  Pierce,  of  Sharp«ville,  Penn- 




iP"      : 


JF     i 




,  \ 

wi    \ 






sylvania;  Thomas  Espy,  of  Kenton,  Ohio;  W. 
H.  Slade,  Columbus,  Ohio;  Rev.  C.  L.  Ship- 
man,  Girard,  Pennsylvania;  0.  F.  Haymaker, 
Kent,  Ohio;  Edmunt  Stearns,  Olmstead, 
Ohio;  E.  L.  Litchfield,  Conneautville,  Penn- 
sylvania; Rev.  H.  L.  Canfield,  Rev.  Andrew 
Willson  and  many  others.  Nearly  all  the 
professors  and  teachers  voluntarily  donated  a 
part  of  their  salaries. 

In  June,  1878,  Rev.  Andrew  Willson  re- 
signed as  secretary  and  ex-officio  financial 
secretary.  Rev.  H.  F.  Miller  succeeded  him 
for  a  few  months.  In  June,  1879,  A.  B. 
Tinker,  M.  S.,  LL.  B.,  was  elected  and  con- 
tinued in  that  position  until  1891,  when  he 
was  succeeded  by  C.  R.  Olin,  B.  S.  During 
the  early  work  of  the  college,  Rev.  S.  P.  Carl- 
ton acted  for  a  few  months  as  canvassing 
agent,  and  at  a  later  period  Rev.  W.  P.  Bur- 
oell  devoted  a  few  months  to  that  business. 
Financial  and  general  agents  were  employed 
as  follows:  William  F.  Crispin,  from  1880  to 
1885;  Rev.  H.  L.  Canfield,  D.  D.,  1885  to 
1886;  Arthur  A.  Stearns,  A.  M.,  1887  to 
1889 ;  Julius  Simmons,  a  part  of  1891 ;  Rev. 
E.  W.  Preble  and  H.  H.  Hollinbeck,  in  189R 
and  1894. 

For  many  years  the  college  did  not  have 
any  very  unu-sual  financial  experiences.  Like 
all  similar  institutions,  at  was  always  hungry 
for  money  and  thankfiil  for  the  donations  of 
friends.  The  panic  of  1893  limited  its  re- 
sources, but  did  not  seriously  affect  its  finan- 
cial conditions.  The  trAnng  ordeal  came  De- 
cember 20,  1899,  when  the  building  that  wa> 
sacred  in  the  estimation  of  the  founders  and 
early  teachers  and  students,  was  totally  de- 
stroyed by  fire.  With  the  building  went  val- 
uable natural  science  collections,  the  gifts  of 
Dr.  McCollester,  Prof.  E.  W.  Claypole  and 
others.  Many  articles  cannot  be  duplicated. 
The  fire  was  a  great  calamity.  It  shocked  and 
saddened,  but  did  not  discourage  the  friends 
of  the  institution.  Arrangements  were  speed- 
ily made  to  continue  the  regular  work  of  the 
college  in  Crouse  Gymnasium  and  other  build- 
ings, until  a  new  stmcture  could  be  erected. 
The  calamity  deeply  stirred  the  citizens  of 
Akron  and  vicinity,  and  the  friends  of  liberal 

education  throughout  a  large  territory,  and 
general  sympathy  was  embodied  in  generous 
donations.  New  buildings  were  speedily 
planned.  It  was  not  deemed  wise  to  erect  one 
large  structure,  but  to  have  .several  separated 
from  each  other.  The  college  received  from 
insurance,  $63,986.12.  From  donations,  $38,- 
233.95,  a  total  of  $102,220.07.  Exclusive  of 
furnishings,  the  ■  new  buildings  cost  $95,- 
269.28,  viz. :  Buchtel  Hall,  $47,466.67 :  Acad- 
emy Building,  $25,559.73;  Heating  Plant, 
$10,591.73;  Curtis  Cottage,  $11,674.15. 

The  donations  came  from  individuals  and 
churches  in  various  sums,  varying  from  a  few- 
cents  by  children  up  to  several  thousand  dol- 
lars. The  largest  sum  donated  by  any  Uni- 
versalist  Church,  outside  of  Akron,  was  $500 
from  Brimfield.  The  next  was  All  Souls 
Church,  Cleveland,  $207.  Unity  Church, 
Cleveland,  included  a  handsome  individual 
subscription  of  $610. 

For  trustees  the  college  has  had  the  follow- 
ing named  persons: 
Entered.  Retired 

1S72     John  R.  Buchtel,  Akron 1892 

1872     Gen.   A.   C.  Voris,   Akron 1889 

1872     Rev.    Geo.    Messenger,    Akron 1872 

1872     Judge  N.  D.  Tibbals,  Akron 

1872     Rev.  Andrew  Willson,  D.  D.,  Ravenna. . 
1872     Rev.   H.  L.  Canfield,   D.  D..  Pasadena, 

Cal 1890 

1872     Judge   E.   P.   Green,   Akron 1894 

1872     Col.   Geo.   T.   Perkins,   Akron 1896 

1872     Avery  Spicer,  Akron 1881 

1872     Rev.  J.   S.   Cantwell,  D.  D.,  Chicago 1881 

1872     Milton    W.    Henry,    Akron 1880 

1872     Rev.  E.  L.  Rexford,  Columbus,  0 1878 

1872     Philip    Wieland.    Mt.    Gilead 1878 

1872     Hon.   James   Pierce,   Sharpsville,   Pa.... 1875 

1872     J.   L.   Grandin,   Tidioute,   Pa 1874 

1872     S.   K.   Shedd,   Youngstown 1874 

1872     Henry   Blandy,    Zanesville 1873 

1872     John    F.    Sieberling,    Akron 1873 

1872  J.  Dorsey  Angler,  Titusville,  Pa 1873 

1873  Hon.    Geo.   W.   Crouse,   Akron 1875 

1873     Isaac   Eberly.   Columbus 1875 

1873  Geo.  M.  Hord,  Cincinnati.  0 1875 

1874  Joy   H.    Pendleton,    Akron 1891 

1874  William    A.    Mack,    Norwalk 1875 

1875  Ferdinand    Schumacher,    Akron 1899 

1875     Henry   Boszar.    Brimfield 1891 

1875     Jonas  J.   Pierce.  Sharpsville,  Pa 1894 

1875     James    T.    Trowbridge.    Akron 1881 

1875     John  A.  Garver,  Bryan 1877 

1877  James   S.   Birkey,   Newark 1878 

1878  Rev.   J.   F.    Rice,   Olmsted 1881 

1878     William    A.    Mack,    Norwalk 1881 

1878     Hon.  S.  M.  Burnham,  Akron 1899 



Entered.  Retired 

1880  Wm.   H.    Slade,   Columbus 1898 

1881  Horace    Y.    Beebe,    Ravenna 1883 

1881     Col.   A.   L.   Conger,  Akron 1883 

1881     Chas.   J.   Robinson,  Akron 1886 

1881     A.   W.   Wright,    Saginaw   City,   Mich 1882 

1881  Austin    A.    Spicer,    Akron 1883 

1882  Joseph  Hidy,  Jr.,  Ph.  B.,  Wash.  C.  H..!l8S3 

1883  Rev.  Wm.  H.  Ryder,  D.  D.,  Chicago,  111..  1884 
1883     Hon.  H.  L.  Morey,  Hamilton 1886 

1883  Arthur  A.  Stearns,  A.  M..  Cleveland. ..  !l9ff4 

1884  Judge    Selwyn    N.    Owen,   Bryan.  1886 
1886  Rev.  C.  E.  Nash,  A.  B.,  D.  D.,  Pasadena, 

^■1' 1S89 

1886  Chas.   H.   Stephens,  Cincinnati    O             1889 

1886  Jacob    A.    Motz,    Akron..                            igsg 

1889  Dayton  A.  Doyle,  A.  B..  LL.  B.,  Akron!  :i895 

]lll     i"*""  J-   ^•^'^^'    ^^^   City,    Mich 1896 

1889  Hon.  Geo.  W.  Crouse,  Akron 

1889  Rev.   J.   F.   Rice,   Coe   Ridge 1x95 

1890  Judge    A.    C.    Voris,    Akron.  igog 

1892  r"''!  "'n'"'"'^'''  ^-  «•■  L^-  B.:  Akron::   896 

1892  Geo.  L.  Case,  Cleveland...                          iqnq 

]lll  ^''-  ^"by  Schumacher,  Ph.  b:,' Akron: :  1896 

1894  FrTn;,    p"'""'"''  2u  ^°°''^'  Springfield.  . . .  1900 

1894  Prank   Pierce,   Sharpsville,   Pa.  isqv 

w't"^.  ^^^"-' b-  s..  Akron::::::::i9  3 

1S9&  w.   T.   Sawyer,  Akron...                              jq/,., 

1895  D.    Irving    Badger,    Akron 1002 

CoT  A   1-  "p^''^"^^'  ^^^^'^°°-  ■'■'■■■■■  :    1' 

i«95  Col.   A.  L.   Conger,   Akron...                       isqr 

18  6     Rev.    C.    F.    Henry,    Cleveland.:::: S 

1896  Judge   U.    L.   Marvin,  Akron..  1900 

Eberly   D.   Smith,   Blanchester.  :::::::' ' 

1896  Samuel    L.    Thompson,   A    B     LL    B 

Brink    Haven    '         '       "     -.c^.a 

1898     Johnson  A.  Arbogast,  Akron :  : 

1900     Wallace    L.    Carlton,    Akron.        ^ 

1900  uT- 1  ""r  ''^"'"''^-  ^-  ^-  D-  D.; Akron: : 

00  Frank    «•  m^"'""'  °-  ^-   Bellville.  .  .  .  1903 

1900  Frank    H.    Mason,    Akron...  lonK 

0  W^'^n  ""    ^"^^^'   ^-   S-   Cleveland::: 

1901  Wm.    Buchtel,    Akron..  \aaK 

1901  Robt.  Tucker,  Ph.  B..  Toledo:  :::::: 905 

1902  Supt.  Henry  V.  Hotchkiss,  Ph    D    Akron    90^ 

1902  Rev.  Lee  S.  McCoIlester,  D.  a,  DettoU 


1903  Chas.  C.  Goodrich,  a:  B.    :ikron 

1903     E.   T.   Binns,   Bryan    iqnfi 

1903  Prank  T.  Fisher,  New  York  City 1906 

1904  James  Ford.  B.   S.,  Washington    C    H 

1905  John  R.  Smith,  A.  B.,  Akron. 

1905     Frank  M.  Cook,  A.   B.,  Akron 

1905  Albert  A.  Kohler,  A.  B.,  M.  D.,  A:kron 

1906  Hon.    Joseph    Hidy.    Ph.    B.,    LL.    B., 


1906     A.   V.   Cannon,   B.    S..   Cleveland 

1906  Oscar  F.  Haymaker,  Kent 1907 

1907  A.    E.    Roach,    Akron 

1907     R.  A.  Clark,  Pittsburgh.  Pa 


President  of  Board — 

Entered.  Retired 

1872     John   R.    Buchtel 1892 

1892     Ferd   Schumacher    1894 

1894     Geo.  W.  Crouse ; 1905 

1905     Rev.  A.  B.  Church,  D.  D 

Secretary — 
1872     Hon.    S.    M.    Burnham 1877 

1877  Rev.  Andrew  Willson,  D.  D 1878 

1878  Hon.  S.  M.  Burnham 1879 

1879  Albert  Tinker,  M.  S.,  LL.  B 1892 

1892  C.  R.  Olin    

Treasurer — 

1872     Hon.  G.  W.  Crouse 1875 

1875  James   T.   Trowbridge 1879 

1879     Joy   H.   Pendleton 1891 

1891     Albert  B.  Tinker   1897 

1897  Charles  R.  Olin,  Sec'y  and  Treasurer. . . . 

Executive  Committee — 

1872     Hon.    John    R.    Buchtel 1892 

1872     Henry    Blandy     1873 

1872     Rev.  J.  S.  Cantwell,  D.  D 1873 

1872     Hon.    S.    M.    Burnham 1877 

1872  Gen.    A.    C.   Voris 1873 

1873  Col.    Geo.    T.    Perkins...: 1877 

1873     Judge    E.    P.    Green 1880 

1873     Rev.    Andrew    Willson,    D.    D 1876 

1876  Milton    W.    Henry 1877 

1877  Joy   H.   Pendleton    1881 

1877     James   T.    Trowbridge 1880 

1877  Rev.   Andrew   Willson,   D.   D 1878 

1878  Hon.  S.  M.  Burnham 1879 

1879  Albert    B.    Tinker 1882 

1880  William   H.   Slade 1881 

1880  Col.  Geo.   T.  Perkins 1883 

1881  Col.    A.    L.    Conger 1882 

1881  Edwin   P.   Green    1883 

1882  Judge  A.  C.  Voris   1889 

1882  Charles  S.  Robinson.  B.  S 1884 

1883  Ferd.  Schumacher   1894 

1884  Joy   H.   Pendleton 1891 

1885  Albert  B.  Tinker   1889 

1889     Col.  Geo.   T.   Perkins    1892 

1889  Rev.  Andrew  Willson,  D.  D 1890 

1890  Hon.  G.  W.  Crouse 1891 

1891  Albert    B.    Tinker 1895 

1891     Hon.  G.  W.  Crouse 

1893  Dayton  A.   Doyle 1895 

1894  Geo.    L.    Case 1895 

1894  Judge   N.   D.   Tibbals 1898 

1895  W.    T.    Sawyer 1900 

1895  D.  Irving  Badger   1898 

1896  Johnson  A.  Arbogast 

1897  Frank   H.   Mason    1903 

1897     Wallace   L.    Carlton    

1901     Supt.  Henry  V.  Hotchkiss 1905 

1901     Rev.   A.   B.   Church,   D.   D 

1905     Frank  M.  Cook,  A.  B 

Presidents — 

1S72     Rev.  S.  H.  McCoIlester,  D.  D 1878 

1S7S     Rev.  E.  L.  Rexford,  D.  D 1880 



Entered.                                                                  Retired 
18S0     Rev.  Orello  Cone,  D.  D 1896 

1896  Charles  M.  Knight,  A.  M.    (Provisional 

President)     1897 

1897  Rev.   Ira  A.   Priest,   D.   D 1901 

1901     Rev.  A.  B.  Church.  D.  D.,  LL.  D 

Mathematics — 
1872     Alfred    Welsh,    A.    M 1S74 

1874  Elias    Frauntelter,   A.    M.,    Ph.  D 1883 

1883  George  S.  Ely,  Ph.  D 1884 

1884  Charles  S.  Howe,  Ph.  D 1889 

1889     Hermas  V.  Egbert,  A.   M 1903 

1903     Frank   M.   Morrison,  A.   M 1905 

1905  Wilfred  H.  Sherk,  A.  M 1906 

1906  Paul    Biefeld,   A.   M.,   Ph.   D 

Natural    Science — 

1872  S.   F.   Peckham,  A.  M 1873 

1873  Sarah  M.  Glazier,  A.  M 1874 

.1874     Alfred  Welsh,   A.   M 1875 

1875  Charles  M.  Knight,  A.   M 1883 

1883  Edward  W.  Claypole,  B.  A.,  So.  D.,  F. 

G.,  S.  S.  of  L.  E.  and  A 1897 

1897     Samuel  P.  Orth,  B.  S 1903 

1903  Charles  Brookover,  M.  S 

Ancient   Languages — 

1872     Rev.  Nehemiah  White,  A.  M.,  Ph.  D....1876 

1876  Rev.  I.  B.  Choate,  A.  M 1878 

1878     Rev.  G.   A.   Peckham,  A.   M 1880 

1880     Benjamin  T.  Jones,  A.  M 1882 

1882     Wm.   D.    Shipman,   A.   M.    (Greek) 1895 

1882     Charles  C.  Bates,  A.  B.   (Latin) 1895 

1895  Charles    C.    Bates,    A.    B.    (Latin    and 

Greek) 1904 

1904  Joseph  C.  Rockwell,  A.  M 

Modern  Languages — 

1872     Carl  F.  Kolbe,  A.  M 1877 

1877  G.  H.  G.  McGrew,  A.  M 1878 

1878  Carl  F.  Kolbe,  A.  M..  Ph.  D 1905 

1905  Parke  R.  Kolbe,  A.  M 

Physics   and   Chemistry — 

1884  Charles  M.  Knight,  A.  M.,  Sc.  D 

English  Literature — 

1872     Helen  F.   Spalding,  A.  M 1873 

1879  Benjamin  T.  Jones,  A.  M 1880 

1880  Maria  Parsons,  A.  M 1884 

1884     Marv   B.   Jewett,   A.    M 1892 

1892  Margaret  G.   Bradford,  B.   A 1893 

1893  Ellen    E.    Garrigues,    A.    M 1896 

1896  Maria  Parsons,   A.  M 1905 

1905  Albert  L  Spanton,  A.  M 1893 

Philosophy.  Economics  and  History — 

1902     Oscar   E.    Olin,   A.   M 

Rhetoric  and  Oratory — 

1890  Cecil    Harper    1891 

1891  L.  Alonzo  Butterfleld,  A.  M.,  Ph.  D 1894 

1894  Mrs.    A.    M.    Garrigues 1896 

1896     L.  Elmie  Warner,    Ph.    B 1900 

1900  Carita   McEbright,   A.   B 1901 

1901  Maude   Herndon.  B.   S 1902 

1902  Anna    M.    Ray ' 1906 

1906  Louise    Forsyth     

Instructors    in    Law — 

1883     Albert  B.  Tinker,  M.  S.,  LL.  B 1890 

1890  Frediric  C.   Bryan,   A.   B.,  LL.  B 1891 

1891  Charles    R.    Grant.    A.    B 1893 

Entered.                                                                  Retired 
1894     Frediric   C.   Bryan,  A.   B.,   LL.  B 1896 

1896  Lee  K.    Mihills,   LL.  B 1897 

Principals    of    Preparatory   and    Buchtel 

Academy — • 

1872     Prin.,   H.   D.   Persons 1873 

1874     Prin.,    Jennie    Gifford,   B.    S 1898 

1897  Prin..   Oscar  E.  Olin,  A.   M 1904 

1904     Prin.,  Godfrey  Charles  Schaible,  A.  B...1906 
1906     Prin.,  Charles  O.  Rundell,  B.  S 

Art   Department— 
1882     Mrs.    Kate    D.    Jackson 1884 

1884  Mrs.   Ada  E.   Metcalf 1885 

1885  Emma    P.    Goodwin 1886 

1886  Alexander    T.    Van    Laer 1890 

1890  Bolton  Coit  Brown,  M.  D 1891 

1891  Minnie    C.    Fuller 1898 

1899     May   F.    Sanford    

Music — 
1872     Gustavus    Sigel    1899 

1898  Estella  F.  Musson,  Ph.  B 1904 

1904     Lucy    lone    Edgerton     1906 

1906     Isabel    Kennedy 

Valuable  service  as  teachers  has  been  rendered 

Wallace    Mays.    A.    B.     i  Helen   S.   Pratt,   L.   A. 
Lizzie   M.    Slade,   A.    B.   j  Lillie  R.   Moore,  A.  B. 
Inez  L.   Shipman,  B.   S.     Philip    G.    Wright,    A.  M. 
James    H.    Aydelotte,    B.I  Charles   R.   Olin.    B.    S. 

S.  I  Tracy  L.  Jeffords.  Ph.  B. 

Mary    E.    Stockman.    L.  i  gdwin   L.    Pindley,   A.  B. 

Susie     Chamberlain,    M. 

Dora  E.  Merrill. 
Martha  A.   Bertie. 
Samuel   Findley,   A.    M., 

Ph.    D. 
Charles     W.     Foote,     A. 

M.,    Ph.    D. 

Willard   H.   Van   Orman, 

B.    S. 
Claudia    E.    Schrock,    A. 

Blanche        M.        Widde- 

combe.    Ph.    B. 
Charles   H.    Shipman,   A. 


Lack  of  space  forbids  mention  of  all  names 
entitled  to  credit  for  valuable  services  in  dif- 
ferent department^. 


Besides  the  gifts  already  mentioned  since 
June,  1878,  donations  have  been  received  a^ 

follows : 



The  Buchtel  Professorship  of  Physics  and 
Chemistry  was  named  in  honor  of  Mrs.  Eliza- 
beth Buchtel.  late  of  Akron. 




The  Ainsworth  Professorship  of  Mathe- 
matics and  Astronomy  was  endowed  hy  Henry 
Ainsworth,  late  of  Lodi. 


The  Ryder  Professorship  of  Rhetoric  and 
Oratory  was  established  by  the  Board  of 
Trustees  in  memory  of  Dr.  William  H.  Ryder, 
late  of  Chicago. 


The  Messenger  Fund  was  created  by  Mrs. 
Lydia  A.  E.  Messenger,  late  of  Akron.  The 
fund  consists  of  $30,000. 

The  Isaac  and  Lovdnia  Kelly  Fund  was 
created  by  Isaac  Kelly,  late  of  Mill  Village, 
Pa.    This  fund  consists  of  $35,788. 


This  fund  was  established  by  "William  Pitt 
Curtis,  of  Wadsworth,  Ohio.  It  now  amounts 
to  $25,000. 

A  friend  of  the  college  and  the  church  has 
given  for  the  endowment  of  a  Theological 
Professorship,  the  sum  of  $10,000. 

Twenty-six  scholarships  have  been  endowed 
by  the  following  named  doners: 

S.   T.   and   S.   A.   Moon Cuba 

George  Thomas    Greenwich 

Mrs.  E.  W.  Terrill  Jeffersonville 

Mrs.   John   H.   Hilton Akron 

Samuel   Birdsell    Peru 

Samuel  Grandin    Tidioute,  Pa. 

N.  B.  and  A.  E.  Johnson Mingo 

Henry  Ainsworth    Lodi 

Miss  Anna  A.  Johnson Bay  City,  Mich. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  Miller Edgerton 

John  P.  Chapin   New  Philadelphia 

Christian   Swank    Creston.  O. 

Mrs.  S.  O.  Acomb    Tidioute,  Pa. 

Mrs.   Jane   Betz    Hamilton 

Miss   Hannah  Allyn    Akron 

Mrs.    Rosa    G.    Wakeiield Green 

These  scholarships  are  intended  to  aid 
worthy  and  deserving  students,  and  are 
awarded  by  a  Scholarship  Committee  under 
authority  from  the  Board  of  Trustees. 

The  following  from  the  catalogue  for  1906- 
1907,  contains  valuable  information  worthy 
of  a  place  in  the  history. 

The  College  Campus  comprises  six  acres,  is 
situated  on  the  highest  eminence  in  the 
county  and  faces  on  Buchtel  Avenue,  one  of 
the  pleasantest  residence  streets  of  the  city. 
The  Loop  Line  electric  cars,  which  receive 
transfers  from  all  city  and  suburban  lines, 
pass  the  college  gates. 


Buchtel  Hall,  designed  for  college  classes^ 
in  all  work  except  chemistry,  is  a  beautiful 
building,  classic  in  design  and  convenient  in 
.arrangement.  The  main  entrance  is  up 
a  broad  flight  of  marble  steps  to  the  first  floor, 
which  is  high  enough  to  leave  the  basement 
story  almost  entirely  above  ground.  In  the 
center  of  the  first  floor  is  the  grand  staircase 
and  an  open  court  extending  to  a  skylight. 
There  are  four  large  recitation  rooms  with  a 
professor's  private  office  connected  with  each 
on'the  first  and  second  floors.  On  the  groimd 
floor,  besides  a  work-shop  and  separate  study, 
bicycle,  and  toilet  rooms  for  young  men  and 
women,  is  a  suite  of  six  rooms  well  planned 
and  equipped  for  the  Physical  Laboratories. 


The  ^\^cademy  is  designed  for  the  conven- 
ience of  the  Prepairatory,  Oratory  and  Art 
Schools.  It  is  a  roomy  and  convenient  three 
story  building.  On  the  ground  floor  are  the 
Physical  Laboratories,  and  the  separate  lock- 
ers and  toilet  rooms  for  young  men  and  wo- 
men. On  the  second  floor  are  the  Adminis- 
tration offices  and  the  main  recitation  rooms. 
On  the  third  floor  are  the  large  -Art  Rooms 
and  Assembly  Room,  which  is  used  for  Me- 
chanical Drawing. 


These  two  new  buildings  are  fire-proof  and 
have  the  heating,  ventilating  and  sanitary  ar- 
rangements  and    appointments   of  the   most 



approved  kind  known  to  modern  builders. 
With  the  Gymnasium;  they  are  heated  from 
one  central  heating  plant. 


The  Observatory  is  intended  for  the  use  of 
students,  and,  although  some  of  the  appara- 
tus is  very  delicate  and  costly,  yet  it  will  be 
freely  placed  in  the  hands  of  those  students 
who  prepare  themselves  for  its  use.  It  is 
furnished  with  the  following  instruments : 

An  equatorial  telescope  of  4.5  inches  aper- 

A  meridian  circle  of  3  inches  aperture,  pro- 
vided with  various  necessary  accessory  appa- 
ratus, and  so  mounted  that  it  can  be  used  as 
a  zenith  telescope. 

Two  astronomical  clocks,  furnished  with 
electrical  connections. 

A  chronograph. 

Various  other  minor  apparatus. 


This  building  is  named  in  honor  of  Hon. 
George  W.  Grouse,  of  Akron,  one  of  the  lib- 
eral benefactors  of  the  college.  The  struc- 
ture is  a  substantial  brick  building,  one  hun- 
dred and  two  feet  in  length  by  fifty-three  in 
breadth.  The  basement  contains  the  locker, 
dressing  and  bathing  rooms  thoroughly  fur- 
nished. On  the  first  floor  are  the  directors' 
office  and  the  gymnasium  proper,  which  is 
eighty-four  feet  long  and  forty-eight  feet 
broad.  This  room  is  equipped  with  the  most 
approved  apparatus  and  offers  every  facility 
for  physical  development.  A  nlnning  gal- 
lery of  twenty-five  laps  to  the  mile  surrounds 
the  room. 

The  Gymnasium  is  open  at  stated  times  for 
the  exclusive  use  of  the  young  women,  and 
at  others  times  for  the  exclusive  use  of  the 
young  men,  in  both  instances  under  a  trained 

In  addition  to  the  above  mentioned  facili- 
ties for  physical  culture,  the  college  possesses, 
only  three  squares  away,  exten.sive  and  elab- 
orately equipped   Athletic  Grounds  of  four 

acres,  which  are  admirably  adapted  for  use  of 

the  students  in  playing  base  ball,  foot-ball, 
lawn  tennis  and  similar  games. 

At  present  the  Chemical  Laboratory  occu- 
pies a  suite  of  six  rooms  in  the  basement  of 
the  Gymnasium  and  is  niodernly  equipped 
for  practical  work. 

The  Buchtel  College  Music  School  occupies 
certain  rooms  in  the  Gymnasium. 

A  two-manual  pipe  organ  has  been  recently 
erected  for  chapel  use  and  instruction.  The 
Gymnasium  is  also  used,  for  the  present,  as 
the  chapel  assembly  room. 


The  Heating  Plant  is  located  in  a  building 
by  itself,  thus  avoiding  any  danger  from  fire 
or  explosion.  The  plant  is  equipped  with  a 
thoroughly  anodem  smoke  consuming  device. 
By  means  of  conduits  the  steam  is  conveyed 
to  the  other  buildings  where  fresh  air  is 
heated  and  forced  through  the  rooms  by  the 
fan  system. 


Curtis  Cottage  is  the  college  home  for  wom- 
en. It  was  completed  and  first  occupied  in 
January  1905.  It  has  eleven  student  rooms, 
uniform  in  size  and  furnishings  and  arranged 
for  two  students  in  a  room, — -parlors,  dining 
room,  kitchen,  laundrj'  and  its  own  efficient 
hot  water  heating  plant.  It  furnishes  also  a 
delightful  suite  of  rooms  for  each  of  the  wom- 
en's fraternities. 

The  Cottage  is  in  charge  of  a  preceptress 
of  culture  and  school  experience,  and  pro- 
vides, at  a  m>oderate  expense,  a  home  for 
women  students,  which  is  most  modern  and 
sanitary  in  all  of  its  appointments,  conven- 
ient and  comfortable  in  its  arrangements,  and 
delightful  and  elevating  in  its  social  life. 

THE    president's    HOUSE. 

The  President's  House  is  situated  on  the 
campus  within  easy  access  of  the  other  build- 
ings, is  a  commodious,  substantial  brick 
structure  wth  modern  conveniences  and  is 
occupied  by  the  President  and  his  family. 




Buchtel  College  is  organized  and  equipped 
to  give  young  men  and  women  a  wholesome 
phj'sical  development,  a  most  thorough  men- 
tal discipline,  and  a  practical,  altruistic,  moral 
training;  to  hold  up  before  them  the  noblest 
ideals  of  manhood  and  womanhood,  and  to 
develop  within  them  a  genius  for  usefulness. 


The  instruction  of  the  college  aims  to  com- 
bine the  advantages  of  the  lecture,  recitation 
and  laboratory  system. 


The    curriculum    embraces ; 

First:     A  Classical  Course. 

Second:     A  Philosophical  Course. 

Third :     A  Scientific  Course. 

These  are  four  year  courses  leading  to  the 
degrees  of  A.  B.,  Ph.  B.,  and  S.  B.,  and  are 
equal  to  those  adopted  by  other  similar  in- 
stitutions of  the  country. 


In  connection  with  the  college,  but  oc- 
cupying a  separate  building  on  the  Campus, 
and  a  separate  Faculty,  is  Buchtel  Academy, 
in  which  students  are  thoroughly  prepared  for 
college  entrance.  Owing  to  limited  numbers, 
tie  student  is  under  the  personal  .supervision 
of  a  strong  corps  of  teachers  and  is  afforded 
daily  practical  drill  in  class  room  and  labora- 
tory work. 


The  Music  School  is  located  at  the  college 
in  Crouse  Gymnasium.  Thorough  and  tech- 
nical training,  beginning  with  fundamentals, 
is  given  in  instrumental  course  by  capable 
and  experienced  specialists. 

The  Art  School  is  situated  at  the  Academy 
Building  in  a  specially  arranged  and  equipped 
suite  of  rooms  and  is  under  the  personal  su- 
perivsion  of  a  trained  and  experienced  spe- 
cialist. The  School  offers  excellent  advantages 
for  the  study  of  art.  It  embraces  instruction 
in  charcoal,  crayon,  pencil,  pastel,  oil  and 
\vater  color.  Students  work  from  original 
designs,  life,  casts,  and  still  life. 


The  larger  portion  of  the  basement  rooms 
of  Crouse  Gymnasium  have  been  reaiTanged 
since  the  fire  of  1899  for  use  as  chemical  lab- 
oratories consisting  of  five  rooms.  A  general 
laboratory  for  the  use  of  students  during  the 
first  year  of  work  in  chemistry  has  been  fitted 
with  all  modern  facilities.  Drainage,  gas,  hot 
and  cold  water,  and  all  necessary  apparatus, 
are  at  each  student's  desk.  The  students  pur- 
suing quantitative  methods  have  ample  room 
and  opportunities  for  the  more  refined  and 
careful  researches  in  a  laboratory  by  them- 
selves, undisturbed  bj-  other  workers.  The 
ventilation  of  the  laboratories  is  good,  special 
wall  flues  carrying  off  noxious  vapers. 

The  laboratories  for  physics  are  arranged 
in  the  basement  of  Buchtel  Hall.  Six  rooms 
are  given  to  the  use  of  experimental  physics. 
The  rooms  for  experiments  in  electricity  and 
magnetism  are  free  from  iron  in  their  con- 
struction, and  solid  masonrv'  floors  in  all  lab- 
oratories secure  the  instruments  from  all  out- 
side jar  and  disturbance. 

Excellent  facilitic,*  for  work  in  photography 
are  provided  by  a  well  equipped  dark-room, 
and  students  in  physical  science  are  encour- 
aged to  become  familiar  with  the  best  methods 
of  experimental  illustration. 

The  department  of  Natural  Science  is  lo- 
cated in  the  new  Buchtel  Hall,  where  three 
laboratory  and  lecture  rooms  are  fitted  for 
work  in  biology  and  geology'.  The  student  is 
supplied  with  microscopes,  reagents,  micro- 
tomes, and  other  apparatus  needful  for  thor- 
oTigh  work  in  biographical  research.  A  collec- 



tion  of  minerals  and  crystals,  together  with 
maps,  charts  and  paleontological  cabinet, 
comprise  the  equipment  for  work  in  Geology. 

The  College  is  supplied  with  excellent  sur- 
veying instruments,  in  the  way  of  compass, 
engineer's  level,  surveyor's  transit,  with  solar 
attachment  for  determining  the  true  meri- 
dian, independent  of  the  needle,  chains,  tapes, 
poles,  pins,  etc. 

The  Astronomical  Observatory  is  adequate- 
ly equipped  with  efficient,  delicate  and  costly 
instruments  for  carrying  on  in  a  practical 
laboratory  way  that  line  of  higher  mathe- 


The  College  Library  had  its  origin  with  a 
collection  of  works  donated  in  1874  by  the 
late  Gen.  L.  V.  Bierce.  During  the  early 
days  of  the  college  the  library  was  augmented 
by  books  purchased  from  the  proceeds  of  a 
bequest  received  from  Gen.  Bierce'4  e-state. 
In  recognition  of  this  etxrly  gift  the  library 
has  been  called  the  Bierce  Library. 

At  the  present  time  the  Library  is  in  Buch- 
tel  Hall  and  embraces  about  9,000  bound 
volumes  of  standard  works  (exclusive  of  pub- 
lic documents).  These  books  have  been 
mostly  selected  with  special  reference  to  their 
use  in  connection  with  the  various  depart- 
ments of  college  instruction.  All  are  classi- 
fied and  arranged  on  the  shelves  by  the  Dewey 
system  of  ola.ssification.  The  whole  Tibrar^' 
is  practically  one  of  reference,  as  students 
have  access  to  the  shelves  at  all  hours  of  the 
day.  Books  may  also  be  drawn  by  students, 
professors  and  officers,  in  accordance  with  the 
regulations,  for  use  outside  the  Library. 

Since  the  fire  of  1899  the  Library  has  been 
reclassified  and  recatalogued  and  put  in  the 
best  working  order  for  students. 

In  connection  with  the  College  Library  is 
the  College  Reading  Room,  which  has  upon 
its  files  the  leading  periodicals  and  newspa- 
pers of  the  day.  These  are  selected,  upon 
recomendation  of  the  various  professors,  with 
special  reference  to  supplementing  their  class- 
room instmction. 

A  trained  librarian  of  experience  has  charge 
of  the  library  to  render  it  of  the  greatest  use- 
fulness to  the  students. 


Recognizing  the  fact  that  physical  training 
is  as  legitimate  a  part  of  any  system  of  edu- 
cation as  is  the  mental,  Buchtel  College  has 
made  ample  provision  for  this  course  in  edu- 
cation, in  her  large  and  well  equipped  Gym- 
nasium and  Athletic  Field.  Systematic  in- 
struction is  given  to  both  young  men  and 
wamen  in  the  Gymnasium  each  year  by  train- 
ed instructors,  and  the  young  men  are  given 
systematic  training  and  regular  drill  in  track 
athletics.  Public  sports  such  as  foot-ball,  base 
ball,  basket  ball,  and  lawn  tennis  are  per- 
mitted and  encouraged  so  far  as  is  consistent 
with  the  student's  health  and  with  his  prog- 
ress in  the  cla.*s-room. 


The  students  of  Buchtel  College  maintain 
an  Oratorical  Association  to  which  all  college 
students  are  eligible.  The  object  of  the  socie- 
ty Ls  to  secure  an  increased  interest  in  public 
speaking,  with  special  reference  to  the  pres- 
entation of  original  productions.  The  local 
association  is  a  branch  of  the  State  Associa- 
tion, which  includes  a  number  of  the  leading 
colleges  of  the  State.  Each  year  a  local  con- 
test is  held  by  the  association,  the  winner  of 
which  is  sent  by  the  association  to  the  State 
contest.  The  successful  contestant  in  the 
State  contest  represents  the  State  in  the  inter- 
State  contest. 


A  Literary  and  Debating  Club  is  organized 
among  the  students.  Regular  meetings  are 
held  for  the  discussion  and  debating  of  topics 
of  interest.  Often  public  debates  are  held 
with  the  neighboring  societies  and  colleges. 




A  Dramatic  Organization  is  maintained 
by  the  students  for  mutual  self-culture,  and 
for  the  study  of  literature  and  the  histrionic 
art.  One  or  more  public  entertainments  are 
given  each  year  with  credit  to  the  club  and 
the  College. 

All  such  literary  organizations  and  efforts 
are  approved  and  encouraged  by  the  College. 


The  College  and  Academy  admit  students 
of  both  sexes.  No  sex  discrimination  is  made 
in  requirements,  and  equal  educational  ad- 
vantages and  honors  are  offered  to  each. 

master's  degrees. 

The  degree  of  A.  M.  will  be  conferred  up- 
on those  who  have  acquired  the  degree  of  A. 
B.  or  Ph.  B.,  and  the  degree  of  M.  S.  upon 
those  who  have  acquired  the  degree  of  B.  S. 
These  degrees  will  be  granted  in  not  less  than 
two  years  after  gi'adualion,  unless  the  appli- 
cant, in  residence,  can  devote  the  larger  part 
of  his  time  to  his  work,  when  the  degrees  may 
be  granted  in  one  year. 


Alumni  Prizes. — A  fund  has  been  estab- 
lished by  the  alumni  of  the  College,  the  in- 
come of  which  is  annually  appropriated  ac- 
cording'to  the  following  regulations: 

Lst.  That  student  being  a  member  of 
the  Senior  Class  of  the  academy — who  makes 
the  highest  average  grade  during  the  year 
in  full  Senior  Avork  in  the  Academy,  and  com- 
pletes his  Senior  year  without  conditions,  shall 
be  entitled  to  free  tuition  during  the  suc- 
ceeding year. 

2nd.  That  student' — being  a  member  of 
the  Freshman  Class — who  attains  the  high- 
est average  grade  during  the  year  in  the  regu- 
lar freshman  work  and  completes  the  year 
without  any  conditions,  .shall  be  entitled  to 
free  tuition  during  the  succeeding  year. 

3rd.  That  student — being  a  member  of 
the  Sophomore  Class — who  attains  the  high- 
est average  grade  during  the  year  in  not  few- 
er than  thirty-two  term  hours  above  the  fresh- 
man yeai',  and  completes  this  year  without 
conditions,  shall  be  entitled  to  free  tuition 
during  the  succeeding  year. 

4th.  That  student — being  a  member  of 
the  Junior  Class — who  attains  the  highest 
average  grade  during  the  year  in  not  fewer 
than  thirty-two  term  hours  above  the  fresh- 
roan  year,  and  completes  this  year  without 
conditions,  shall  be  entitled  to  free  tuition 
during  the  succeeding  year. 

5th.  In  determining  the  award  of  prizes 
for  any  year,  there  shall  be  considered  only 
grades  made  in  regular  class  work  at  Buchtel 
College  during  that  year  in  subjects  <'om- 
pleted  before  Commencement  day. 

6th.  In  case  of  a  tie  in  any  class  the 
prize  shall  be  equally  divided. 

7th.  The  prize  for  any  class  shall  go  to  the 
student  attaining  the  second  highest  average 
grade  only  in  case  the  one  ranking  highest 
does  not  return  to  Buchtel  College  the  next 
succeeding  year. 

Oliver  C.  Ashton  Prizes. — A  fund  consist- 
ing of  $3,000  has  been  established  by  the  late 
Oliver  C.  Ashton,  endowing  the  0.  C.  Ashton 
Prizes  for  excellence  in  reading  and  recitation. 

The  annual  income  of  this  fund  will  be 
paid,  one-third  to  competitors  from  the  Senior,  one-third  to  competitors  from  the  Jun- 
ior Class,  and  one-third  to  competitors  from 
the  Sophomore  Class,  in  a  first  and  second 
prize  to  each  class,  in  the  proportion  of  two 
to  one. 

These  are  public  exercises,  and  will  take 
place  at  stated  times  during  the  year. 

Pendleton  Law  Prizes. — For  the  purpose 
of  encouraging  the  study  of  Law  and  Civil 
Government,  a  fund  of  $1,000  has  been  es- 
tabli,shed  by  Joy  H.  Pendleton,  late  of  Akron, 
the  annual  income  of  which  is  u.sed  as  prize= 
for  essays  in  the  Law  Class.  Two-thirds  of 
such  income  is  annually  to  be  paid  for  the 
best  esf;ay,  and  one-third  for  the  second  best 
e.«,say,  on  some  subject  of  Law  or  Government 
announced  by  the  Instructor  in  Law. 



High  Schools. — The  College  offers  annual- 
ly one  scholarship  to  each  of  several  high 
schools,  to  be  awarded  to  the  student  standing 
highest  during  the  last  year  of  his  High 
School  course.  Each  scholarship  entitles  the 
holder  to  two  years'  free  tuition  in  College, 
subject  to  conditions  which  may  be  learned 
on  application  to  the  President  of  Buchtel 

Township. — Two  standing  schohirships  in 
the  Academy  are  offered  to  pupils  in  each 
Township  of  Summit  County  who  complete 
the  common  school  course  in  the  country 
schools.  These  scholarships  are  awarded  to 
the  two  pupils  in  each  township  passing  the 
best  examination  before  the  County  Board  of 
School  Examiners,  under  the  provisions  of  the 
Patterson  Law. 

Students  winning  the  High  School  or 
Township  Scholarships  must  begin  their 
course  of  study  not  later  than  one  year  from 
the  opening  of  the  following  school  year. 

The  College  has  just  closed  the  thirty-fifth 
j'eai'  of  substantial  educational  work.  It  has 
been  ably  officered  and  has  had  a  well  quali- 
fied faculty,  one  that  will  compare  favorably 
with  that  of  any  similar  institution  in  our 
countiy.  It  has  had  generous  support  and 
liberal  patronage,  and  has  made  history  of 
which  its  friends  are  not  ashamed.  This  has 
required  earnest  work  and  large  sacrifice.  The 
founders  were  men  and  women  of  large  hearts, 
who  planned  for  the  best  good  of  humanity. 
Cheerfully  and  freely  did  they  give  time  and 
money  for  the  erection  of  buildings  and  the 
endow-ment  of  the  institution,  and  if  their  de- 
scendants truly  honor  the  founders,  tlie  Col- 
lege will  increase  in  strength  and  usefulness 
as  the  years  go  by.  It  surely  has  a  bright  out- 

WH.\T     H.\S    THK    COLLEGE    DONE    FOR    .VKRON 

It  is  impossible  to  fully  ani?wer  this  very- 
appropriate  and  important  question.  Some 
facts  mav  more  than  suggest  the  true  answer. 

It  has  brought  into  the  City  approximately 
one  million  dollars  for  building  purposes,  en- 
dowment funds  and  current  expenses.  Each 
year  students  expend  thousands  of  dollars  for 
board,  clothing  and  other  items. 

It  has  increased  the  value  of  real  estate, 
especially  in  its  vicinity,  and  it  has  advertised 
the  city,  its  various  industries  and  enterprises 
as  nothing  else  could  have  done.  Young  men 
and  women  who  have  spent  several  years  in 
the  institution  will  not  soon  cease  to  sound 
the  praise  of  the  city  that  gave  them  generous 

While  the  College  was  established  by  the 
Ohio  Universalist  Convention,  and  a  very 
large  share  of  the  building  fund  and  endow- 
ment has  been  donated  by  members  of  the 
Universalist  Church,  yet  it  is  not,  strictly 
speaking,  denominational.  It  is  religious  but 
not  sectarian.  It  tolerates  and  respects  all  re- 
ligious opinions  and  organizations  and  asks 
no  questions  of  students  concerning  their  the- 

It  seeks  to  occupy  a  high  moral  plane  and 
aims  to  inspire  in  students  exalted  ideals  of 
character  and  life. 

Its  educational  standard  is  equal  to  that  of 
any  college  in  Ohio.  Graduates  are  welcomed 
to  Harvard,  Yale,  and  all  American  Univer- 
sities on  the  diplomas  received  at  Buchtel. 
More  than  this,  .students  who  spend  one  or 
more  years  at  Buchtel  are  everywhere  credit- 
ed, without  examination,  with  all  the  marks 
that  have  been  received.  Its  standing  is  un- 
questioned. With  its  record  its  friends  have 
abundant  reason  to  be  satisfied. 

Possessing  buildings  well  adapted  for  the 
purpose  designed,  well  equipped  for  teaching 
Science,  Art,  Literature,  etc.,  with  a  faculty 
composed  of  able,  scholarly  men  and  women, 
the  College  has  furnished  the  opportunity  for 
hundreds  of  young  men  and  women  to  obtain 
a  liberal  education  at  home  at  a  comparative- 
ly trifling  expense.  By  bringing  into  the  city 
a  considerable  number  of  gifted  men  and 
women  it  has  helped  to  elevate  the  intellectual 
and  mora  Itone  of  the  citizens.  It  is  now 
known  not  only  as  an  enterprising  commer- 
cial town,  but  as  an  educational  center,  that 



challenges  the  attention  of  people  of  char- 
acter and  influence.  Summit  County  has 
abundant  reason  for  being  grateful  to  those 
who  earnestly  and  successfully  labored  to  se- 
cure the  institution  in  its  County  Seat.  While 
it  has  a  wide  field  and  draws  patronage  from 
several  states,  yet  it    peculiarly    belongs    to 

Akron,  and  in  its  perpetuity  and  prosperity 
citizens  should  take  a  just  pride  and  extend 
generous  help.  As  a  beacon  light  to  Akron, 
Summit  County,  and  humanity,  it  challenges 
the  respect  and  confidence  of  the  world  and 
truly  merits  the  generous  support  of  a  large 



First  Churches  and  Pioneer  Clergi/ — General  History  of  Religious  Organ! 

and  Clergi/  of  To-day. 

Akron  has  sixty-two  churches  within  its 
corporation  limits.  This  demonstrates  that 
the  city  is  not  wholly  given  to  manufacturing, 
leisure  and  society.  Akron  is  a  typical  Ameri- 
can city  and  believes  that  all  work  and  no 
play  makes  Jack  a  dull  boy.  Therefore,  its 
citizens  are  provided  with  large  and  modern 
theaters  and  a  beautiful  music  hall.  A  strong 
religious  influence  also  permeates  Akron's 
life.  The  same  desire  for  culture  which  has 
brought  such  great  success  in  educational 
lines,  has  manifested  itself  in  the  various  re- 
ligious societies  of  the  city.  There  has  been 
a  sound  and  healthy  rivalry  among  them  to 
provide  splendid  meeting  places  for  worship 
for  their  various  congregations.  As  a  result 
Akron  today  enjoys  superior  advantag&s  for 
the  church-goer. 

The  oldest  church  organization  in  Akron 
today  is  the  First  Presbyterian  Church.  It  was 
organized  December  15,  1831,  by  Rev.  B.  C. 
Baldwin  and  Rev.  John  Hughes  with  twenty- 
six  members.  They  occupied  the  old  brick 
church  on  Kent  Street  for  any  years,  un- 
til 1906,  when  they  completed  the  beautiful 
modem  church  building  on  East  Market 
Street  near  Buchtel  Avenue. 

In  1834  the  Congregational  Church  was 
organized  by  J.  W.  Pettit.  In  1885  a  small 
frame  church  was  built  where  the  Court 
House  stands  now.  Rev.  James  B.  Walker 
was  its  first  permanent  pastor.  In  June,  1843, 
the  society  built  a  large  church  on  the  comer 
of  North  Main  and  Federal  Streets.  During 
the  pa.*torate  of  Rev.  Carlos  Smith,  the  brick 
church  on  South  High  Street  was  built.    The 

'zations  —  Churches 

society  has  now,  in  the  year  1907,  purchased 
a  site  on  the  corner  of  East  Market  and  Union 
Streets,  and  will  build  a  fine  church  at  that 
point  during  the  next  year.  Rev.  Thomas 
E.  Monroe  became  pastor  of  this  church 
April  1,  1873,  and  continued  as  its  active  pas- 
tor until  1901.    He  is  now  Pastor  Emeritus. 

In  1830  a  Methodist  congregation  was  or- 
ganized by  Rev.  John  Janes,  and  meetings 
were  held  in  the  school  house  at  the  corner 
of  South  Broadway  and  Buchtel  Avenue.  In 
1836  a  church  was  built  at  the  corner  of 
South  Broadway  and  Church  Streets.  In 
1871  the  fine  brick  church  at  the  comer  of 
South  Broadway  and  Church  Streets  was  com- 
pleted. The  Sunday-school  rooms  were  plan- 
ned by  Lewis  Miller  and  gave  rise  to  the 
"Akron  Plan"  of  arranging  Sunday-school 

On  October  19,  1834,  a  Baptist  congrega- 
tion was  organized  in  the  school  house,  on  the 
corner  of  South  Broadway  and  Buchtel  Ave- 
nue. The  moderator  of  the  meeting  was  Ca- 
leb Green.    Amasa  Clark  acted  as  scribe. 

The  Universalist  was  one  of  the  early  re- 
ligious organizations  in  Akron,  and  held 
meetings  here  as  early  as  1835.  In  1837 
Rev.  Freeman  Loring  organized  a  chiirch, 
and  meetings  were  held  at  the  corner  of  Main 
and  State  Streets.  A  church  was  built  on 
North  High  Street  a  few  years  later.  It  was 
built  of  stone  and  was  one  of  the  finest  stmc-, 
tures  in  the  State  at  that  time. 

In  1836  a  parish  of  the  Episcopal  Church 
was  organized  in  Akron  by  Rev.  W.  H.  New- 
man of  Cuyahoga  Falls.     In  1844  a  chiirch 



building  was  built  on  South  High  Streets.  In 
1884  the  parish  built  the  fine  stone  church  on 
East  Mai-ket  and  Forge  Street. 

The  Disciples  congregation  was  organized 
in  1839,  although  meetings  had  been  held  as 
early  as  1830.  The  society  was  organized  by 
Elders  Bently  and  Bosworth. 

In  1842  the  German  Evangelical  Protes- 
tant Congregation  was  organized.  It  is  the 
parent  of  the  German  Lutheran  Church  and 
the  German  Reformed. 

The  Grace  Reformed  society  was  organized 
in  1858  by  Rev.  N.  Gher. 

The  German  Lntlieran  society  w^as  formed 
in  August,  1854,  by  Rev.  P.  J.  Buehl.  Its 
church  on  the  corner  of  South  High  and 
Quarry  Streets  was  erected  in  1837. 

Trinity  Lutheran  Church  was  organized  in 
1870,  and  its  fine  church  on  Prospect  Street 
was  erected  in  1872.  In  October,  1882,  the 
Rev.  Excell  organized  the  United  Brethren 
Church  on  the  corner  of  High  and  James 

As  early  as  1835  services  of  the  Roman 
Catholic  Church  were  held  in  Akron,  various 
priests  coming  from  neighboring  parishes  for 
that  purpose.  In  1843  a  church  was  built 
on  Green  Street.  On  March  17,  1864,  the 
present  stone  church  on  the  corner  of  West 
Market  and  Maple  Streets  was  begun.  Rev. 
M.  A.  Scanlon  was  pa«tor  of  St.  Vincent  de 
Paul's  Church  from  .June,  1859,  to  December, 
1873.  Rev.  T.  F.  Mahar  became  pastor  Au- 
gust 1,  1880,  and  has  continued  until  the 
present  time.  St.  Mary's  congregation  was 
established  in  1887.  and  a  church  was  erected 
on  South  Main  Street,  opposite  McCoy  Street. 
In  1861  St.  Bernard's  Catholic  Church  was 
organized.  The  first  pastor  was  Rev.  Father 
Loure.  In  1866  Rev.  John  B.  Broun  took 
charge  of  the  church,  and  he  has  continued 
as  its  pa.stor  until  the  pr&sent  time.  In  1903 
a  magnificent  Church  on  South  Broadway 
and  Center — the  finest  in  the  city — was  com- 

In  1865  the  Akron  Hebrew  congregation 
was  organized,  and  services  were  held  in  the 
first  story  of  the  Allen's  block  on  South  How- 
ard Street.    They  were  afterwards  held  in  the 

first  story  of  the  Barber  Block.  In  1885  the 
congregation  purchased  the  Episcopal  church 
on  South  High  Street  and  has  occupied  it 
since  as  a  temple  of  worship. 

These  were  the  parent  congregations  of  the 
city.  As  the  city  grew  rapidly  in  all  direc- 
tions, and  some  of  the  city  congregations  were 
located  in  many  cases  two  or  four  miles  from 
the  city  churches,  various  branches  were  es- 

The  following  is  a  complete  list  of  all  the 
city  churches,  with  their  respective  pastors, 
and  their  location,  at  the  present  time: 

First  Baptist,  37  South  Broadway;  Rev.  A. 
M.  Bailey,  pastor. 

Second  Baptist,  comer  Hill  and  James; 
Rev.  R.  A.  Jones,  pastor. 

Maple  St.  Baptist,  South  Maple  near  Ex- 
change; Rev.  J.  C.  Swan,  pastor. 

Arlington  St.  Baptist,  South  Arlington; 
Rev.  J.  M.  Huston,  pastor. 

German  Baptist,  West  Thornton,  corner  of 

First  Congregational,  South  High,  near 
Market;  Rev.  H.  S.  MacAyeal. 

West  Congregational,  corner  West  Market 
and  Balch;  Rev.  P.  E.  Bauer. 

Welsh  Congregational,  McCoy  Street. 

First  Church  of  Christ,  South  High ;  Rev. 
George  Darsie,  pastor. 

Broad  Street  Church,  Broad  near  Market; 
Rev.   I.   H.  Durfee,  pastor. 

Third  Church  of  Christ,  comer  Wabash 
and  Euclid  Avenue;  Rev.  A.  F.  Stahl. 

Fourth  Church  of  Christ,  Steiner  Avenue; 
Rev.  C.  A.  MacDonald,  pastor. 

St.  Paul's  Church,  E.  Market  corner  Forge; 
Rev.  S.  North  Watson,  D.  D.,  rector. 

Church  of  Our  Saviour,  corner  Crosby  and 
Oakdale  Avenue;  Rev.  Geo.  P.  Atwater, 

St.  Andrew's  Mission,  West  Tallmadge 
Avenue,  near  Cuyahoga. 

Calvary  Church,  corner  Bartges  and  Co- 
burn:  Rev.  W.  L.  Naumann,  pastor. 

Kenmore  Church,  Kenmore:  Rev.  E.  S. 
Flora,  pastor. 

First  U.  E.  Church,  corner  Wooster  Avenue 
and  Locust;  Rev.  H.  W.  Epsy. 



Akron  Hebrew  Reformed  Congregation, 
South  High  near  Mill;  I.  E.  Philo,  rabbi. 

Sons  of  Peace  Congregation,  235  Bowery; 
E.  W.  Lutz,  rabbi. 

Hebrew  Congregation  meets  at  706  Edge- 
wood  Avenue. 

Trinity  Lutheran,  South  Prospect  near 
Mill;  Rev.  E.  W.  Simon,  pastor. 

German  Lutheran,  South  High,  corner 
Quarry;  Rev.  W.  H.  Lothmann,  pastor. 

St.  John's  Lutheran  Church,  Cobum  near 
Voris;  Rev.   E.   C.   Billing,  pastor. 

St.  Paul's  Evangelical  Lutheran  Church, 
West  Thorn ;  Rev.  J.  H.  Zinn,  pastor. 

Grant  Street  Evangelical  Lutheran  Church, 
East  Thornton  near  Grant;  Rev.  J.  Franklin 
Yount,  pastor. 

Swedish  Evangelical  Lutheran  Church, 
Kent  near  Market;  Rev.  G.  S.  Ohslund,  pas- 

First  M.  E.  Church,  South  Broadway  cor- 
ner Church,  Rev.  Frank  W.  Luce,  D.  D., 

Grace  M.  E.  Church,  East  Market  near  Car- 
roll ;  Rev.  A.  R.  Custer,  pastor. 

North  Hill  M.  E.  Church,  North  Howard 
corner  Tallmadge  Avenue;  Rev.  J.  0.  David- 
son, pastor. 

Woodland  M.  E.  Church,  South  Main 
south  of  Thornton ;  Rev.  E.  T.  Mohn,  pastor. 

Main  Street  M.  E.  Church,  Corner  Balch 
and  Crosby;  Rev.  F.  C.  Anderson,  pastor. 

Arlington  Street  M.  E.  Church,  North  Ar- 
lington near  North ;  Rev.  B.  P.  White,  pastor. 

Wooster  Avenue  M.  E.  Church,  Wooster 
Avenue  corner  Raymond ;  Rev.  B.  P.  White, 

German  M.  E.  Church,  corner  Exchange 
and  Pearl ;  Rev.  D.  J.  Harrer,  pastor. 

Zion  A.  M.  E.  Church,  South  High,  near 
Cedar;  Rev.  E.  C.  West,  pastor. 

Free  Methodist,  1044  Yale;  Rev.  J.  E.  Wil- 
liams, pastor. 

Wesleyan  Methodist,  729  Princeton ;  Rev. 
I.  F.  McLei-ster,  pastor. 

First  Presbyterian,  647  East  Market;  Rev. 
H.  W.  Lowry,  pastor. 

Central  Presbyterian,  East  State  near  Main. 

First  United  Presbyterian,  services  in  G.  A. 
R.  Hall;  R_ev.  W.  A.  Chambers. 

Grace  Reformed,  South  Broadway  near 
Mill;  Rev.  Irvin  W.  Hendricks,  pastor. 

German  Reformed,  South  Broadway  cor- 
ner Center;  Rev.  Edward  Stuebi,  pastor. 

Trinitj^  Reformed.  South  Broadway  cor- 
ner York;  Rev.  J.  S.  Freeman,  pastor. 

Wooster  Avenue  Reformed,  Wooster  Ave- 
nue, corner  Bell ;  Rev.  E.  R.  Willard,  pas- 

Miller  Avenue  Reformed,  81  West  Miller 
Avenue;  Rev.  S.  E.  Snepp,  pastor. 

Goss  Memorial  Reformed  Church,  Ken- 

St.  Bernard's  Church,  South  Broadway 
corner  Center;  Rev.  J.  B.  Broun,  pastor. 

St.  Vincent  de  Raid's  Church,  West  Mar- 
ket corner  Maple;  Rev.  T.  F.  Mahar,  pastor. 

St.  Mary's  Church,  South  Main  opposite 
McCoy ;  Rev.  J.  J.  Farrell,  pastor. 

First  LT.  B.,  East  Center  near  Buchtel  Ave- 
nue; Rev.  William  Clarke,  pastor. 

Howe  Street  U.  B.,  Corner  Howe  and  Na- 
than ;  Rev.  0.  W.  Slusser,  pastor. 

First  Universalist,  corner  Broadway  and 
Mill;  Rev.  E.  G.  Mason,  pastor. 

Christian  and  Missionarv  Alliance  meets 
85  West  Cedar;  Rev.  S.  M.  Gerow. 

Seventh  Day  Adventists  meet  57  West 
South  Street. 

Latter  Day  Saints,  Reorganized  Church  of 
.lesus  Christ,  meets  corner  Main  and  Bartges 

Christian  Science,  Services  are  held  in  tbe 
Hebrew  Temple,  High  Street. 

Spiritualists  meet  in  G.  A.  R.  Hall. 

Hungarian  Church,  South  Main  extension. 

Union  Gospel  Mission,  51  North  Howard; 
Rev.  C.  A.  McKinney.  superintendent. 

Gospel  Church,  East  South;  Rev.  C.  A. 
McKinney,  pastor. 

Salvation  Army,  54  Main :  Adjutant  and 
Mrs.  D.  G.  Main  in  charge. 

Industrial  Home,  .33  and  35  Viaduct,  store 
874  South  Main. 




Since  Laurin  Dewey  set  up  a  hand  press  in 
Middlebnry  in  1825  and  began  the  publica- 
tion of  the  07uo  Canal  Advocate,  it  is  recorded 
that  Akron  and  Summit  County  have  had 
nearly  100  somen-hat  similar  ventures.  Mr. 
Dewey  was  Summit  County's  first  editor  and 
publisher.  The  publication  of  his  paper  was 
made  possible  by  the  contribution  of  $204  in 
amounts  varying  from  $2  to  $10  by  public 
spirited  citizens  of  Middlebury.  Some  of  these 
early  newspaper  promoters  were  the  follow- 
ing: Erastus  Torrey,  Henry  Chittenden, 
Charles  Sumner,  Nathan  Gillett,  Jr.,  Rufus 
Hart,  Edward  Sumner,  Samuel  Newton,  Chas. 
W.  Brown,  Theophilus  Potter,  Miner  Spacer 
and  Paul  Williams. 

Laurin  Dewey  was  a  "practical  printer," 
and  came  to  Middlebury  from  Ravenna.  The 
building  of  the  canal  was  being  advocated 
about  that  time,  and  Middlebury  citizens  be- 
lieved that  if  built,  the  future  greatness  of  the 
place  would  be  assured.  And  they  believed, 
further,  that  a  newspaper  booming  the  canal 
might  help  their  hopes  along  toward  realiza- 
tion. Mr.  Dewey  saw  an  opportunity,  and 
seized  it.  Second-hand  materials  were  pur- 
chased from  the  Cleveland  Herald,  brought 
to  Middlebury  in  two  wagons,  and  the  first 
issue  appeared  September  28,  1825,  the  name 
having  been  changed,  in  the  meantime,  to 
the  Portage  Journal,  as  the  building  of  the 
canal  was  by  that  time  assured.  Hiram 
Bowen,  afterwards  founder  of  the  Bearon. 
was  associated  with  Laurin  Dewey  in  the 
publication  of  the  Portage  Journal.  The  size 
of  the  Portage  Journal  -was  nineteen  by  twen- 
tj'-four  inches;   the  price  was  two  dollars  a 

year.  It  was  independent  in  politics  and  op- 
posed Jackson.  In  1826  it  passed  into  the 
hands  of  McMullen  &  Mason,  then  was  again 
transferred  to  Alvah  Hand,  who  discontinued 
it  in  1829. 

The  first  paper  was  unsuccessful,  financial- 
ly. This  was  perhaps  unfortunate,  as  a  prece- 
dent, for  the  same  might  be  said  of  the  most 
of  the  ninety  odd  newspaper  and  magazine 
publications  which  have  followed,  in  the 
years  from  1825  to  1907. 

Today  three  daily  newspapers — two  being 
entire  local  products  and  the  third  a  Cleveland 
publication,  keep  Akron  and  Summit  County 
thoroughly  informed.  Then  there  are  a  num- 
ber of  other  newspapers  and  similar  publica- 
tions, which  will  be  dealt  with  in  their  turn. 
It  might  be  added  in  passing,  however,  that 
Akron's  present  newspapers  ai'e  far  more  suc- 
cessful, from  a  business  view  point,  than 
of  their  predecessors. 

In  no  'department  of  its  industry  may  the 
progress  of  the  city  be  so  well  followed  as  in 
its  newspaper  history.  The  printing  art  has 
improved  and  developed  amazingly.  Lane 
says,  speaking  of  the  Portage  Journal,  Sum- 
mit County's  first  newspaper: 

"With  this  fund,  an  old  style  Ramage  press 
and  a  quantity  of  second-hand  materials  were 
purchased  from  the  Cleveland  Flerald,  the 
entire  outfit  being  transported  overland  in  a 
couple  of  two  horse  wagons."  One  team 
could  probably  have  hauled  the  entire  outfit 
an  ordinars'^  distance.  The  equipment  may 
have  weighed  a  ton.  A  new  press  was  brought 
to  Akron  in  the  spring  of  1907  for  the  Akron 



'times.  It  ^veighs  over  52,000  pounds,  with- 
out its  accessories. 

Ill  1825,  and  in  fact  until  a  comparatively 
few  years  ago  all  type-setting  was  done  by 
hand.  Now  it  is  indeed  an  obscure  and  back- 
ward paper  which  does  not  have  one  or  more 
type-setting  machines.  In  the  old  days,  a 
strong  youth  furnished  power  for  the  print- 
ing press,  turning  out,  possibly  300  to  500  in 
a  laborious  hour.  Today  presses  in  use  by 
Akron's  daily  papers  are  operated  by  great 
engines  or  motors,  and  vastly  larger  papers 
than  the  earlv  ones  are  turned  out  at  the  rate 
of  12,000  to  15,000  an  hour. 

The  telegraph,  the  telephone,  the  perfecting 
of  mail  delivery  service,  the  evolution  of  the 
photographic  and  tlie  photo-engraving  proc- 
ess liave  made  newspapers  entirely  different 
things,  both  to  publishers  and  to  readers,  than 
they  were  in  the  early  days.  Akron,  proper, 
had  no  newspaper  before  1836.  Its  people 
received  their  news  through  the  Western  In- 
telUgence,  1827:  the  Ohio  Observer,  1832; 
published  at  Hudson  and  Cuyahoga  Falls. 

In  1836,  Akron  was  incorporated.  Im- 
mediately thereafter  Madison  H.  White,  of 
Medina,  came  over  and  establi-shed  the  Akron 
Post,  the  first  issue  appearing  March  23.  It 
was  a  five  column  weekly,  and  it  died  in  No- 
vember of  the  same  year.  Its  equipment  was 
purchased  by  Constant  Bryan,  then  a  young 
lawyer,  and  later  a  judge,  who  established  the 
AIcro7i  Journal.  December  1.  1836.  The 
Jottrnal  gave  up  the  ghost  six  months  later. 

The  Post  and  Journal  had  been  Demo- 
cratic. Now  the  Whigs  had  an  inning,  when 
Horace  K.  Smith  and  Gideon  J.  Galloway 
brought  forth  the  first  issue  of  the  American 
Balanre.  August  19,  1837:  suspended  August 
9,  1838;  age  one  year. 

Easily  the  liveliest  and  most  comTuendable 
of  the  early  Akron  new.spaper  ventures  was 
that  of  Samuel  Alanson  Lane,  who  established 
the  American  Buzzard,  in  1837,  his  object 
being  to  reduce  the  lawless  young  town  of 
Akron,  filled  with  bad  men,  to  a  state  of  law 
and  order.  In  its  stated  object  and  in  finan- 
cial matters  the  Evzzard  was  quite  sticcessful, 
and  after  an  exceding  bri.«k  career  as  editor 

and  manager  for  two  years,  Mr.  Lane  dis- 
posed of  it  to  Hiram  Bowen,  who  turned  it 
into  the  Summit  Beacon,  in  1839. 

The  Beacon  has  continued  to  this  day,  be- 
ing issued  as  a  daily  under  the  name  of  the 
Beaton  Journal.  It  represented  the  Whig 
Party,  and  had  a  hard  time  of  it  for  several 
years.  In  1844  Mr.  Bowen  sold  the  Beacon 
to  Richards  6.  Elkins,  who  was  succeeded  as 
editor  by  Laurin  Dewey  in  1845.  They  in 
turn  sold  it  to  John  Teesdale,  of  Columbus, 
in  1848.  Mr.  Teesdale  was  still  in  command 
when  the  Republican  party  was  formed  in 
1855,  and  the  Beacon  became  its  organ.  He 
sold  out  to  Beebe  &  Elkins  in  1856,  and  was 
succeeded  as  editor  by  James,  later  Judge 
Cai"penter;  A.  H.  Lewis,  of  Ravenna,  succeed- 
ed him,  and  in  1861  S.  A.  Lane,  former  pro- 
prietor of  the  Buzzard,  became  editor.  Four 
years  later  Mr.  Lane  and  Horace  G.  Canfield 
bought  an  interest,  and  in  Januar^^,  1867,  the 
business  was  taken  entirely  out  of  the  hands 
of  Beeibe  &  Elkins,  the  publishers'  names  being 
changed  to  Lane,  Canfield  &  Company.  The 
new  proprietors  believed  that  Akron  had 
grown  to  a  point  where  it  should  have  a  daily 
paper;  the  necessary  preparations  were  made 
and  the  first  issue  of  the  Akron  Daily  Beacon 
made  its  appearance  December  6,  1869.  Mr. 
Lane  was  editor-in-chief,  and  Thomas  C.  Ray- 
nolds,  wa«  assistant  editor.  Mr.  Raynolds 
afterward  piloted  the  Beacon's  ship  of  des- 
tiny for  many  years. 

The  Beacon  Publishing  Companv  was 
formed  in  1871,  capital  $25,000.  Messrs.  Lane 
and  Denis  A.  Long  retained  an  active  inter- 
est :  H.  A.  Canfield  and  A.  L.  Paine  retired 
and  Mr.  Raynolds  was  made  editor-in-chief. 
The  paper  grew,  and  the  fact  that  its  entire 
jilant  was  destroyed  by  fire  in  1872  checked 
its  progress  but  little.  In  1875  the  property, 
rehabilitated,  was  purchased  by  Mr.  Rav- 
nolds,  -n-ith  Frank  J.  Staral  and  John  H. 
.\uble.    Later  Mr.  Raynolds  secured  control. 

In  1869,  the  Akron  Daily  Beacon,  the  first 
local  daily,  made  its  appearance.  It  grew,  and 
in  1891  absorbed  the  Akron  Daily  Republi- 
can, which  had,  in  the  meantime  sprung  up 
to  di.spute  its  right  to  the  whole  of  the  local 



daily  field.  This  led  to  a  complete  reorgani- 
zation. The  Republican  was  a  consolidation 
of  two  papers,  the  Daily  Telegram  and  the 
Sunday  Gazette,  the  latter  founded  by  Paul 
E.  Werner  in  1878. 

When  the  Beacon  took  over  the  Republi- 
ran,  it  reorganized  as  follows:  George  W. 
Grouse,  president;  K.  B.  Congle,  vice-presi- 
dent, and  T.  C.  Raynolds,  business  manager. 
The  Beacon  and  Republican  continued  in 
that  form  until  1897,  when  it  was  again 
deemed  expedient  to  reach  out  and  absorb  a 
competitor,  this  time  the  Daily  Journal. 
founded  by  Charles  H.  Wright.  AVhen  this 
change  was  made  the  name  of  the  paper  be- 
came the  Beacon-Journal  and  a?  such  it  ap- 
pears today.  About  that  time  R.  T.  Dobson, 
who,  with  his  brother,  had  been  conducting 
the  Times,  and  had  disposed  of  his  interest 
there,  came  over  and  acquired  in  interest  in 
the  Beacon-Journal.  This  interest  grew  until 
it  controlled  the  industry  and  it  was  much 
more  prosperou,*  under  the  Dobson  direction 
than  it  had  been  in  years  before.  A  few 
years  ago,  Mr.  Dobson,  tiring  of  the  newspa- 
per business,  disposed  of  his  interest  to  T.  .1. 
Kirkpatrick,  of  Springfield,  Ohio,  and  the 
latter  removed  to  Akron  and  took  personal 
charge,  with  C.  L.  Knight  as  business  mana- 
ger. A  year  ago  Major  Kirkpatrick  disposed 
of  his  holding  and  returned  to  Springfield 
where  he  has  again  engaged  in  the  publish- 
ing business.  Mr.  Knight  remains,  as  the 
manager  and  controller  of  a  majority  of  the 
stock.  William  B.  Baldwin,  an  Akron  boy, 
and  in  newspaperdom  a  product  of  the  local 
field,  has  been  the  editor  of  the  Beacon-Jour- 
nal for  years,  and  continues  in  that  position. 
The  Beacon-Journal  Company  occupies  its 
own  block  at  the  corner  of  Quarry  and  Main 
Streets,  and  has  a  modern  and  complete 
equipment.  So  much  for  the  story  of  what 
has  developed  into  the  leading  Republican 
newspaper  of  the  County.  The  Beacon-Jour- 
nal is  a  prodiict  of  gradual  growth,  of  devel- 
opment with  the  years,  as  the  city  and  county 
have  developed. 

The  Akron  Tim,es,  Summit  County's  lead- 
ing Democratic  paper,  daily  and  weekly,  has 

another  story  to  tell — a  story  of  magnificent 
success  in  shorter  time — a  narrative  of  a 
struggle,  which  though  short  and  successful, 
has  been  sharp. 

The  American.  Democrat,  published  at 
Akron  for  the  first  time  on  August  20,  1842, 
>was  the  first  newspaper  of  that  faith  to  make 
its  appearance  in  Summit  County.  It?  pub- 
lisher was  the  late  Horace  Canfield,  pioneer 
printer,  whose  son,  now  honored  and  full  of 
years,  still  plies  the  trade  in  the  city  of  Akron. 

The  life  of  the  American  Democrat  was  a 
little  above  six  years.  Then  it  daunted.  Mr. 
Canfield  immediately  began  the  publication 
of  another  paper,  with  indifferent  success.  In 
1849,  in  partnership  -with  the  late  ex-gover- 
nor Sidney  Edgerton,  Mr.  Canfield  as  mana- 
ger and  Mr.  Edgerton  as  editor,  he  began  the 
publication  of  the  Akron  Free  Democrat. 
That  was  in  .July.  After  the  fall  election 
that  year,  the  name  of  the  paper  was  changed 
to  the  Free  Demiocratic  Standard.  The  paper 
continued  for  years,  its  name  being  frequently 
changed,  however,  to  correspond  with  editorial 
belief  or  their  burning  issues.  Its  names 
were,  successively,  the  Democratic  Standard, 
the  Summit  Democrat  and  the  Summit  Un- 
ion. As  the  Summit  Vnion  the  paper  died 
in  1867. 

But  Akron  and  Summit  County  were  not 
to  be  left  without  a  Democratic  newspaper, 
and  in  the  same  year  a  new  newspaper  ven- 
ture, at  least  more  enduring  than  its  prede- 
cessors, was  launched  and  christened  the 
Akron  Times.  The  present  Akron  Times  is 
its  lineal  descendant.  As  a  weekly  paper 
the  Akron  Weekly  Times  continued  un- 
til 1892.  During  those  years,  though  it  was 
without  competition  in  its  own  field,  its  for- 
tunes were  varied  and  it  was  at  no  time  over- 
opulent,  conforming  in  that  respect  to  the 
well-known  small  newspaper  rule.  But  it  held 
on,  and  it  grew  despite  the  fact  that  it  was 
the  apostle  of  a  minority  in- local  political  be- 
lief. Among  its  editors  were  E.  B.  Eshelman, 
known  better  as  editor  of  the  Wayne  County 
Democrat,  and  Frank  S.  Pixley,  who  has  since 
become  famous  as  a  playwright. 

In  1892  fate  decreed  that  the  Times  should 



emerge  from  its  weekly  newspaper  chrysalis 
and  become  a  daily.  It  happened  that  in  that 
year  W.  B.  and  R.  T.  Dobson — then  aggres- 
sive Democrats — decided  that  Akron  must 
have  a  Democratic  daily  paper.  The  Akron 
Daily  Democrat  was  accordingly  launched  by 
them.  This  was  early  in  the  year.  The  daily 
quickly  occupied  the  field  formerly  taken  by 
the  weekly,  and  the  weekly  Times  surren- 
dered, being  taken  over  by  the  Brothers  Dob- 

For  five  years  the  new  arrangement  contin- 
ued, W.  B.  Dobson  having  in  the  meantime 
become  postmaster  of  the  City  of  Akron,  and 
the  newspaper  having  been  taken  over  by  his 
brother,  Russell  T.  Dobson. 

In  1898  the  latter  decided  that  he  would 
dispose  of  the  paper.  In  his  employ  at  the 
time  was  an  energetic  youth  who  had  gradu- 
ated from  the  printers'  case  to  the  editorial 
rooms  and  had  become  fii-st  a  reporter  and 
later  city  editor  of  the  paper.  His  name  was 
Edward  S.  Harter.  It  was  his  ambition,  of 
course,  to  own  a  newspaper,  and  when  it  was 
made  known  that  the  Daily  Democrat  and 
Weekly  Times  were  for  sale,  he  wanted  to 
buy.  With  a  partner  then — Fred  W.  Gayer, 
of  Akron — Mr.  Harter  made  the  purchase, 
paying  whait  was  under  the  circumstance  a 
large  price  for  the  property.  It  is  a  matter 
of  local  history  that  the  seller  boasted,  when 
he  completed  the  sale,  that  he  would  "have 
it  back  in  six  months."  This  came  to  the 
ears  of  Harter,  the  new  editor.  It  checked 
his  enthusiasm  to  a  marked  degree,  but  it 
also  spurred  him  on  to  prevent,  if  possible, 
any  other  outcome  of  his  venture  than  com- 
plete success.  Mr.  Dobson  has  not  got  the 
property  back  in  ten  years — by  default. — and 
it  is  not  likely  that  he  ever  will.  Under  the 
energetic  direction  of  Mr.  Harter  and  those 
associated  with  him  then  and  since,  the  Times 
has  grown.  AVhen  purchased  its  press  ec(uip- 
ment  wa?  antiquated,  type  was  set  by  hand,  its 
office  equipment  was  poor,  its  circulation  small 
and  its  good  will — an  exceedingly  important 
part,  of  a  newspaper— was  almost  nil. 

Today  the  Times  occupies  its  own  building, 
a  fine  two-story  brick  structure  at  the  corner 

of  Mill  Street  and  Broadway.  Below  are 
counting-room  offices  and  pressroom,  above 
reportorial  and  composing  rooms.  A  battery 
of  four  linotype  machines  prepares  the  type; 
an  elevator  carries  the  pages  to  a  pressroom 
equipped  to  the  minute  with  the  best  and  new- 
est machinery;  a  two-color  sixteen-page  press 
has  just  been  installed,  and  today  the  Times 
has  easily  the  most  modern  and  complete 
newspaper  plant  in  the  county.  Edward  S. 
Harter,  leaving  the  tripod  for  a  business  desk, 
is  manager ;  Judge  C.  R.  Grant,  a  large  stock- 
holder in  the  enterprise,  wields  a  pen  that 
moulds  opinions,  and  the  Times  today  is  in 
the  very  front  rank  among  Summit  County 

This  paper  is  produced  by  the  Akron  Dem- 
ocrat Company,  of  whom  the  following  are 
officers:  Judge  C.  R.  Grant,  president;  J.  V. 
Welsh,  vice-president;  Edward  S.  Harter,  sec- 
retary and  manager,  and  M.  N.  Hoye,  treas- 

For  the  large  number  of  German  speaking 
people  within  its  borders  Akron  has  a  live 
German  newspaper,  the  Germania,  edited  and 
largely  owned  by  Louis  Seybold.  This  paper 
has  had  a  long  and  successful  career,  having 
been  founded  in  1868  by  H.  Gentz.  Within 
a  year  after  its  birth,  it  passed  into  the  hands 
of  the  late  Prof.  Karl  F.  Kolbe,  who  for  more 
than  half  a  century  was  prominently  identi- 
fied with  all  that  was  good  in  German  litera- 
ture in  this  community.  Louis  Seybold  became 
editor  in  1875.  In  1887  the  Germania  Print- 
ing Company  was  incorporated,  with  Paul 
E.  Werner,  president;  Louis  Seybold,  secre- 
tary, and  Hans  Otto  Beck,  business  manager. 
Later  Mr.  Werner  and  Mr.  Beck  disposed  of 
their  connections,  Mr.  Beck  returning  to  Ger- 
many and  Mr.  Werner  going  into  other  things 
But  the  Germania  lives  on,  Editor  Seybold  at 
the  helm  and  members  of  his  family  at  his 
right  hand — a  power  for  good  in  that  part  of 
the  community  for  which  it  is  especially  in- 
tended. Some  twenty  years  ago  the  Freie 
Presse  was  started,  but  the  Germania  quickly 
absorbed  it. 

In  a  work  of  the  present  scope  it  would  be 


impossible  to  name  all  the  publications  which 
have  at  various  times  catered  to  the  local  pub- 
lic for  a  time,  then  passed  on.  D&serving  of 
special  mention,  however,  at  the  present  time 
is  The  People,  published  weekly  under  the 
direction  of  the  Akron  Central  Labor  Union. 
The  People  is  by  far  the  most  pretentious 
labor  publication  ever  attempted  in  the  Akron 
field.     It  enjoys  a  wide  patronage  and  circu- 

lates among  the  members  of  the  various  local 
labor  unions. 

The  Akron  Press,  an  edition  of  the  Cleve- 
land Press,  printed  and  prepared  in  Cleveland, 
is  also  circulated  considerably  in  Akron.  It 
is  understood  that  its  ow'uers  at  the  present 
time  contemplate  the  erection  of  a  plant  in 
this  city,  and  the  publication  of  the  Akron 
Press  as  a  bona  fide  Akron  paper. 






There  are  two  names  in  the  history  of  Sum- 
mit County  up  to  the  year  1907,  which,  in 
the  years  to  come,  will  stand  out  far  above 
all  others.  The  name  of  one  who  lived 
among  us  will  always  be  honored  because  of 
the  memories  associated  with  the  anti-slavery 
struggle;  the  fame  of  the  other  is  secure  be- 
cause of  the  perfection  of  his  art.  One 
wrought;  the  other  wrote.  Although  they 
are  the  greatest  by  far  of  all  Summit  County's 
citizens,  yet  neither  of  them  was  a  native  of 
the  county.  They  were  both  born  in  Connecti- 
cut, and  the  places  of  their  birth  were  but 
forty  miles  apart.  Nor,  was  the  great  work 
which  each  of  them  did,  accomplished  in 
Summit  County.  Nevertheless,  as  a  large 
part  of  the  lifetime  of  each  was  spent  within 
her  borders,  the  county  claim?  them  both  as 
her  own  sons.  She  views  with  increasing 
pride  the  added  fame  which  the  years  bring 
to  the  memory  of  John  Brown  of  Osawatomie, 
and  Edward  Rowland  Sill,  one  of  the  worthi- 
est and  truest  of  American  poets. 

Torrington,  in  Western  Connecticut,  is  set 
amid  all  the  glories  of  the  Housatonic  Moun- . 
tains.  Nature  presents  few  landscapes  more 
charming  than  this  idyllic  region.  Litchfield, 
which  means  so  much  to  the  residents  of  Sum- 
mit County  is  only  a  few  miles  to  the  south- 
west. John  Brown  was  born  at  Torrington 
on  the  9th  day  of  ilay  in  the  year  1800. 
The  town  record  supplies  the  date  and  states 
that  he  was  the  son  of  Owen  and  Ruth 
Brown.  He  was  a  direct  descendant  of  Peter 
Brown,  an  English  Puritan  carpenter  who  was 
on6  of  the  Mayflower  company.  His  ancestors, 
too,  had  been  part  of  that  remarkable  colony 

which  founded  Windsor,  Connecticut.  In  his 
own  words,  he  was  born  of  "poor  but  re- 
spectable parents."  His  father  was  a  tanner 
and  shoemaker  who  was  often  hard  put  to 
in  order  to  provide  the  bare  necessaries  of  life 
for  his  faanily.  His  grandfather  was  Captain 
John  Brown,  of  the  Revolutionary  Army. 
Hi^  mother  was  Ruth  IVIills  and  she,  too,  could 
boast  of  a  father  who  had  fought  with  great 
credit  in  the  war  of  the  Revolution.  His 
mother  was  of  Dutch  descent,  her  first  Ameri- 
can ancestor  being  Peter  Mills  who  emigrated 
from  Holland  about  1700. 

In  1805  Owen  Brown  moved  with  his  wife 
and  babies  to  Ohio.  It  was  an  emigration 
rather  than  a  moving;  for  the  way  was  long 
and  toilsome  and  beset  with  many  perils.  They 
settled  in  Hudson,  which  at  that  time  was 
only  a  clearing  in  an  almost  unbroken  wilder- 
ness. In  the  story  of  his  life  John  mentions 
that  it  was  filled  with  Indians  and  wild 
beasts.  During  the  first  few  years  of  his  life 
in  Hudson,  he  was  accustomed  to  intimate 
association  with  the  Indians;  his  early  play- 
mates were  Indians  and  from  them  he  learned 
much  woodcraft  and  some  of  their  language. 
He  mentions  with  much  feeling  the  loss  of  a 
yellow  imarble  (the  first  he  ever  had),  which 
had  been  given  to  him  by  an  Indian  boy. 
Soon  after  settling  in  Hudson,  his  father  was 
made  a  trustee  of  Oberlin  College.  This 
speaks  volumes  for  the  standing  of  the  family 
and  the  character  of  that  worthy  father.  In 
spite  of  the  scholastic  connection  of  his  father, 
however,  the  youthful  John  received  very 
scanty  schooling.  Dres.sed  in  his  rough  buck- 
.skin  clothes  he  preferred  to  tend  the  cattle 
and  .«heep,  and  roam  on  long  trips  in  the  for- 
est.    AVhen  onlv  twelve  vears  old  he  made  a 



trip  of  over  a  hundred  miles  driving  alone  a 
herd  of  cattle.  He  enjoyed  immensely  the 
hardest  and  roughest  sports,  and  lost  no  op- 
portunity to  "wrestle,  snow-ball,  run,  jump 
and  knock  off  old  seedy  wool  hats."  Perhaps 
the  battles  in  Kansas  were  being  won  on  the 
field  of  those  rough  frontier  sports  in  Ohio. 
His  mother  died  when  he  was  eight  years  old, 
and  the  poor  little  fellow  mourned  for  her  for 
years.  His  father  soon  married  again,  but 
his  heart  remained  lonely  for  his  mother.  At 
ten  years  he  commenced  reading  books.  It 
is  easy  to  determine  how  that  rugged  charac- 
ter was  formed  by  considering  the  sources  of 
its  inspiration.  From  that  time  on,  his  fav- 
orite books  were:  first  and  always,  The  Holv 
Bible;  then  Baxter's  Saints'  Rest;  The  Pil- 
grim's Progress;  Josephus'  Works,  Plutarch's 
Lives;  The  Life  of  Oliver  Cromwell;  Rollin's 
Ancient  History;  Napoleon  and  His  Mar- 
shals; and  Henry  on  Meekness. 

At  the  age  of  sixteen  he  joined  the  Congre- 
gational Church  at  Hudson,  and  remained  a  and  bible-reading  Christian  all  the 
days  of  his  life.  After  he  became  a  nationnl 
character,  the  extent  of  his  Bible  knowledge 
was  much  marvelled  at.  About  this  time  he 
determined  to  study  for  tbe  ministry  and 
entered  the  Hallock  School,  Plainfield,  Ma=sa- 
chusetts,  and  also  Morris  Academy  in  Con- 
necticut. Inflammation  of  the  eyes  compelled 
him  to  quit  study,  and  he  returned  to  his 
business  of  tanning  hides  in  Hudson.  He 
was  made  foreman  in  his  father's  tannery 
and  also  mastered  the  art  of  .surveying.  Sub- 
sequent sui-veys  showed  that  Iiis  early  sur- 
veys Avere  made  with  great  accuracy. 

On  June  21,  1820,  he  was  married  in  Hud- 
son to  Dianthe  Lusk,  of  that  village.  He  de- 
scribes her  as  "a  remarkably  plain,  but  neat, 
industrious  and  economical  girl,  of  excellent 
character,  earnest  piety  and  good,  practical 
common-scn.?e."  He  confesses  that  .«he  "main- 
tained a  most  powerful  and  good  influence 
over  him"  so  long  as  she  lived.  By  her,  he 
had  seven  children,  the  first  three  of  whom 
were  born  in  Hudson,  Ohio;  the  others  in 
Richmond,  Pennsylvania.  These  children 
were   John   Brown.   Jr.;   Jason    Brown,    now 

livijig  in  -Vkron ;  Owen  Brown ;  Frederick 
Brown ;  Ruth  Brown,  who  afterward  married 
Henry  Thompson ;  Frederick  Brown,  mur- 
dered in  the  Kansas  trouble  by  Rev.  Martin 
White;  and  an  infant  son  who  died  three 
daj's  after  birth.  Jason  Brown  was  born  in 
Hudson,  January  19,  1823.  He  was  the  most 
prominent  of  the  "Sons  of  Hudson"  who  re- 
turned for  the  "Old  Home  Festival"  in  the 
autumn  of  1907,  having  walked  all  the  way 
from  Akron  to  Hudson  to  attend  it.  In  1826, 
John  Brown  moved  to  Richmond,  Crowford 
County,  Pennsylvania,  where  he  carried  on 
the  business  of  tanner  until  1835.  His  wife 
died  here  in,  1832,  and  he  soon  re- 
married. His  second  wife  was  Mary  A.  Day, 
who  bore  him  thirteen  children  as  follows: 
Sarah  Brown,  born  May  11,  1834,  at  Rich- 
mond, Pennsylvania;  Watson  Brown,  October 
7,  1834,  at  Franklin  Mills,  Ohio,  (now  Kent, 
Ohio)  ;  Salmon  Brown,  October  2,  1836,  Hud- 
son, Ohio;  Charles  Brown,  November  3,  1837, 
Hudson,  Ohio;  Oliver  Brown,  March  9,  1839, 
Franklin  Mills,  Ohio;  Peter  Brown,  Decem- 
ber 7,  1840,  Hudson,  Ohio;  Austin  Brown, 
September  14,  1842,  Richfield,  Summit 
County,  Ohio;  Anne  Brown,  December  23, 
1843,  Richfield,  Ohio ;  Amelia  Brown,  June 
22,  1845,  Akron,  Ohio;  Sarah  Brown  (2d) 
September  11,  1846,  Akron;  Ellen  Brown, 
Mav  20,  1848,  Springfield.  Massachusetts;  in- 
fant son,  April  26,  1852,  Akron,  died  May 
17,  1852,  and  Ellen  Brown  (2d),  September 
25,  1854,  Akron. 

In  1835  he  moved  back  to  Ohio;  this  time 
settling  at  Franklin  Mills  (now  Kent)  in 
Portage  County.  He  was  unfortunate  in  the 
real  estate  business  here,  and  in  1840  he  re- 
turned to  Hudson  and  formed  a  partnership 
with  Heman  Oviatt,  of  Richfield,  to  engage  in 
the  wool  business.  In  1842  he  moved  across 
the  Cuyahoga  Valley  to  Richfield,  where  he 
lived  two  years.  AVhile  living  in  Richfield 
four  of  his  children  died.  In  1844  he  moved 
with  his  family  to  Akron  and  formed  a  part- 
nership with  Col.  Simon  Perkins,  of  Akron, 
to  engage  in  the  wool  business.  The  firm 
name  was  Perkins  &  Brown  and  they  sold 
large  quantities  of  wool  on  commission.  John 



Brown  was  an  expert  judge  of  wool;  in  fact, 
he  had  few  equals.  His  reputation  as  a  wool 
expert  extended  over  the  whole  eastern  part 
of  the  countrj'.  A  Massachusetts  friend  re- 
lates this  anecdote  of  him :  "Give  him  two 
samples  of  wool,  one  grown  in  Ohio  and  the 
other  in  Vermont,  and  he  would  distinguish 
each  of  them  in  the  dark.  One  evening,  in 
England,  one  of  the  party  wLshing  to  play  a 
trick  -on  the  Yankee  farmer,  handed  him  a 
sample  and  asked  him  what  he  would  do  with 
such  wool  as  that.  His  eyes  and  fingers  were 
then  so  good  that  he  had  only  to  touch  it  to 
kno^'  that  it  had  not  the  minute  hooks  by 
which  the  fibers  of  wool  are  attached  to  each 
other.  'Gentlemen,'  said  he,  'if  you  have  any 
machinery  that  will  work  up  dog's  hair,  I 
would  advise  you  to  put  this  into  it.'  The 
jocose  Briton  had  sheared  a  poodle  and 
brought  the  hair  in  his  pocket,  but  the  laugh 
went  against  him,  and  Captain  Brown,  in 
spite  of  some  peculiarities  of  dress  and  man- 
ner, soon  won  the  respect  of  all  whom  he 

Perkins  it  Brown  was  not  a  success.  Tlie 
failure  was  due  solely  to  John  Brown's  lack 
of  business  instinct.  He  was  not  intended  by 
Nature  for  a  business  career.  He  lacked  all 
the  fundamental  requisites.  He  was  by  na- 
ture a  dreamer,  a  seer,  a  poet,  if  you  will.  The 
impulses  or  intuitions  he  had  at  sixteen  were 
correct;  he  would  have  made  a  splendid 
preacher.  Colonel  Perkins  said  of  him:  "He 
had  little  judgment,  always  followed  his  own 
will,  and  lost  much  money."  During  his 
residence  of  two  years  in  Akron,  he  lived  in 
the  frame  house  on  the  top  of  Perkins  Hill, 
now  occupied  by  Hon.  Charles  E.  Perkins, 
and  which  for  several  years  was  used  as  a 
club-house  liy  The  Portage  Golf  Club.  In  the 
spring  of  1846  he  went  to  Springfield,  Massa- 
chusetts as  the  agent  for  certain  large  wool 
growers  in  Ohio  and  Pennsylvania.  In  1848 
he  went  to  England  with  200,000  pounds  of 
wool,  which  he  was  compelled  to  sell  at  about 
half  its  value.  His  record  as  a  wool  factor  is 
a  series  of  failures.  He  was  now  reduced  to 
poverty  again. 

In  1849  he  fell  in    with    Gerritt    Smith's 

quixotic  plan  to  found  a  colony  of  negro  set- 
tlers in  the  wild  lands  of  the  Adirondack 
wilderness,  and  moved  his  family  there  in  that 
year,  settling  in  North  Elba,  Essex  County, 
New  York.  Mr.  Smith  gave  John  Brown  the 
land  and  the  latter  started  to  clear  it  and  en- 
deavored to  show  the  negro  how  to  cultivate 
and  plant  their  farms  in  the  colony.  North 
Elba  was  the  home  of  his  family  until  the  time 
of  his  death.  It  was  a  wild,  cold  and  bleak 
place,  and  they  suffered  many  privations  while 
living  there.  From  that  time  on  John 
Brown's  business  was  to  fight  slaverj'.  He  had 
been  an  abolitionist  since  the  war  of  1812. 
His  witnessing  the  ill-treatment  of  a  little 
slave  boy,  about  his  own  age,  to  whom  he  was 
much  attached,  brought  home  to  him  the  evils 
of  human  slavery  and  led  him  to  declare  eter- 
nal war  with  slavery.  "This  brought  John  to 
reflect  on  the  wretched,  hopeless  condition  of 
fatherless  and  motherless  slave  children,  for 
such  children  have  neither  fathers  nor  moth- 
ers to  protect  and  provide  for  them.  He  would 
sometimes  raise  the  question :  'Is  God  their 
Father?'  " — Autobiographical  letter  to  Harry 
Stearns.  Verily,  God  was  their  Father  and 
was  even  then  "trampling  out  the  vintage 
where  the  grapes  of  wi'ath  are  stored."  In 
1837.  while  the  whole  family  were  assem- 
bled for  prayer,  John  Brown  made  them  all 
take  a  solemn  oath  to  work  with  him  for  the 
freeing  of  the  slaves,  and  then,  kneeling,  they 
invoked  the  blessing  of  God  on  their  compact 
In  Ohio  and  also  in  Massachusetts,  he  was 
active  in  assisting  runaway  slaves  to  es- 

In  1854  his  sons  began  to  emigrate  to  Kan- 
sas, intending  to  settle  there  and  grow  to 
wealth  with  the  country.  In  two  years  five 
of  them,  John,  Jr.,  Jason,  Owen,  Frederick 
and  Salmon,  had  located  in  the  new  terri- 
tory. They  built  their  rude  huts  not  far  from 
the  Missouri  line,  and,  as  it  later  turned  out, 
right  in  the  center  of  the  struggle  between  the 
Free  State  and  Pro-Slavery  forces.  The  Mis- 
souri Compromise  of  1820  had  prohibited 
slavery  in  the  new  territory;  the  Kansas-Ne- 
braska Act  of  1854  repealed  that  prohibition 
and  allowed  the  settlers  in  the  new  territory 



to  decide  the  question  for  themselves.  Then 
the  Kansas  war  was  on.  The  Brown  broth- 
ers found  themselv&s  drawn  into  it.  Perhaps 
they  remembered  their  oaths  of  1837.  At  any 
rate,  they  wrote  to  their  father  to  send  them 
arms,  and  finally  asked  him  to  come  and  help 
them.  The  father  did  both.  September,  1855, 
found  John  Brown  in  Kansas  fighting  his 
first  big  battles  for  the  freedom  of  the  slaves. 
In  March,  1856,  the  time  for  the  election 
whether  the  state  should  be  "free"  or  "slave," 
Kansas  was  invaded  by  5,000  Missourians, 
who  took  possession  of  the  polls  and  con- 
trolled the  election.  From  that  time  the  war 
was  on  in  good  earnest.  Its  record  is  a  part 
of  our  national  history,  and  this  is  not  the 
proper  place  to  review  the  stirring  incidents 
of  those  times.  John  Brown  was  now  a  na- 
tional figure.  He  was  the  leader  of  the  Free 
State  forces.  June  2,  1856,  he  won  the  "bat- 
tle" of  Black  Jack.  In  August  he  was  in 
command  of  the  "Kansas  Cavalry."  On  Au- 
gust 30,  1856,  he  won  the  fight  called  the  "bat- 
tle of  Osawatomie."  It  was  from  this  battle 
that  he  got  that  nickname  which  has  always 
clung  to  him.  On  September  15,  1856,  he  was 
in  command  of  the  defenders  of  the  town  of 
Lawrence  and  successfully  resisted  the  attack 
of  the  "Missouri  Ruffians."  These  fights  are 
called  "battles" ;  in  reality,  they  were  skir- 
mishes in  a  guerrilla  warfare.  It  was  as  a 
guerrilla  leader  that  John  Brown  won  his  suc- 
cesses. By  his  activity  he  made  it  impossible 
to  hold  slaves  in  Kansas  and  thus  the  state 
was  saved  to  the  cause  of  Freedom. 

In  October,  1856,  he  started,  with  his  sons, 
for  the  East,  begging  assistance  for  the  Kan- 
sas cause  as  he  journeyed.  On  the  18th  of 
February,  1857,  he  addressed  the  Massachu- 
setts legislature  in  a  notable  speech.  He  spent 
the  winter  with  his  family  at  North  Elba, 
New  York,  and,  in  making  speeches,  collect- 
ing money  for  the  cause  and,  buying  arms. 
He  alreadv  liad  Harper's  Ferry  in  his  mind. 
Autumn  of  1857  found  him  in  Iowa  raising 
his  forces  and  drillino-  them  for  the  invasion 
of  Virginia.  of  1858  was  spent  in  Kan- 
sas at  the  request  of  Abolition  friends  in  the 
East,   who   were   furnishing    funds    for   the 

cause.  ^Vll  the  prepai'ations  for  and  the  at- 
tack on  Hai'per's  Ferry  are  a  matter  of  na- 
tional and  not  local  history.  Suffice  it  to  say 
that  on  July  3,  1859,  he  hired  a  farm  near 
Haiper's  Ferry,  called  the  Kennedy  Place, 
and  assumed  the  name  of  Isaac  Smith  and  be- 
gan to  ship  in  the  arms  he  had  collected.  -  He 
succeeded  in  concealing  his  little  band  about 
this  farm  until  he  was  ready  to  strike.  Early 
on  the  morning  of  October  16,  1859,  the  blow 
fell.  With  his  little  band  of  twenty-two  fol- 
lowers he  seized  the  United  States  arsenal  at 
Harper's  Ferry.  On  October  17  he  was  at- 
tacked, by  United  States  forces,  most  of  his 
followers  were  killed  and  he,  himself,  was 
wounded  and  made  prisoner.  He  was  put  on 
trial  October  26,  charged  with  treason,  con- 
spiracy and  murder,  was  found  guilty  on  No- 
vember 2  and  executed  by  hanging  on  the  gal- 
lows on  December  2,  1859.  His  body  was 
delivered  to  his  wife  at  Harper's  Ferry  and 
by  her  taken  to  North  Elba,  where  he  was 
buried.  Wendell  Phillips  preached  the 
funeral  sermon. 

All  the  North  looked  upon  John  Brown  as 
a  martyr.  As  Christ  had  died  to  make  men 
holy,  this  man  had  died  to  make  them  free. 
The  Summit  County  boy  had  awakened  the 
conscience  of  the  Nation.  It  is  difficult  to 
realize  that  the  bright-eyed  little  fellow,  play- 
ing with  his  Indian  mate?  and  tending  his 
father's  sheep  up  at  Hudson,  had  become  the 
central  figure  of  our  national  life  for  the  few 
years  preceding  the  fall  of  Sumter.  He  did 
more;  he  had  compelled  the  attention  of  the 
whole  world.  Victor  Hugo  published  a  sketch 
of  him  in  Paris  in  1861,  which  contained 
Hugo's  own  drawing  of  John  Brown  on  the 
gallows,  and  which  he  marked  Pro  Chrisfo 
sicut  Christus — he  died  for  Christ  in  Christ's 
own  manner.  Biographies  of  him  were  pub- 
lished in  England,  Germany  and  other  Eu- 
ropean countries.  Emerson,  Thoreau,  Wen- 
dell Phillips,  Thoanas  Wentworth  Higgin- 
son  and  other  philosophers,  poets  and  states- 
men were  proud  to  acknowledge  their  friend- 
ship with  the  latest  martyr  to  the  cause  of 
Eternal  Freedom. 

On  the  day  of  his  execution  Akron  made 




public  display  of  her  mourning.  Business 
was  entirely  suspended,  flags  were  at  half- 
mast,  bells  were  tolled,  and  in  the  evening 
memorial  services  were  held,  at  which  promi- 
nent citizens  made  addresses.  He  was  Sum- 
mit County's  first,  but  not  her  last,  martyr  to 
the  cause  of  Human  Freedom ;  he  was  only 
the  leader  of  a  mighty  company  of  noble  men 
who  made  willing  sacrifices  of  their  lives  for 
the  cause  of  their  Country  and  Humanity. 
Victor  Hugo  was  right. 


Year  by  year  the  fame  of  this  true  poet  is 
growing.  It  will  be  only  a  little  while  in  the 
future  until  he  is  given  the  rank  he  deserves — 
among  the  foremost  of  America's  poets.  In 
many  of  his  poems  he  attained  the  highest 
level  of  American  art.  In  many  respects  his 
career  offers  a  striking  parallel  to  that  of  John 
Brown.  He  was  born  in  the  village  of  Wind- 
sor, Connecticut,  April  29,  1841.  This  vil- 
lage was  not  far  from  John  Brown's  birth- 
place, and  had  been  founded  by  a  colony  of 
Puritans,  of  whom  John  Brown's  ancestors 
had  been  an  influential  part.  He  was  not 
born  to  the  poverty  that  was  John  Brown's 
lot.  His  family  were  well-to-do,  and  he  re- 
ceived a  splendid  education  at  Yale  College, 
from  which  he  was  graduated  with  the  class 
of  1861.  On  the  9th  of  December  of  that 
year  he  sailed  for  California  and  landed  in 
San  Francisco  March  25,  1862.  The  long  sea 
voyage  restored  his  health,  which  was  im- 
paired upon  his  graduation.  His  first  posi- 
tion was  that  of  clerk  in  the  postoffice  at 
Sacramento.  He  kept  the  position  only  a 
short  time,  going  to  Folsom,  California,  to  ac- 
cept a  place  as  clerk  in  a  bank.  In  July,  1862, 
he  had  determined  fully  to  study  law  and  en- 
ter upon  that  profession.  He  was  then  much 
disturbed  as  to  the  end  toward  which  his  life's 
activities  should  be  directed.  He  writes  "as 
Kingsley  puts  it,  we  are  set  down  before  that 
greatest  world-problem — 'Given  Self,  to  find 
God.'  "  In  1864  he  determined  to  enter  the 
ministry,  and  by  February,  1865,  he  was  deep 
in  his  theological  reading.    During  these  ear- 

ly days  in  California  he  wrote  much — both 
prose  and  poetry.  Early  in  1867  he  returned 
to  the  East  and  entered  the  Divinity  School 
of  Hai-vard  University,  where  he  studied  for 
a  few  months.  Why  he  quit  the  divinity 
school  and  relinquished  the  hope  of  the  min- 
istry he  tells  in  a  little  autobiographical  let- 
ter ^\Titten  March  29,  1883,  as  follows:  "At 
last  I  went  to  a  Theological  Seminary  (in 
Cambridge,  because  there  you  did  not  have  to 
subscribe  to  a  creed,  definitely,  on  the  start), 
and  thought  I  would  try  the  preliminary 
steps,  anywaj',  toward  the  ministry.  But  here 
I  finally  found  I  did  not  believe  in  the  things 
to  be  preached,  as  churches  went,  as  historical 
facts.  So  I  desperately  tried  teaching."  In 
June,  1867,  he  returned  to  Cuyahoga  Falls, 
fully  determined  not  to  return  to  his  theo- 
logical studies.  He  says  in  a  letter:  "There 
could  be  no  pulpit  for  me.  *  *  *  It  is 
no  sentimentalism  with  me — it  is  simply  a 
solemn  conviction  that  a  man  must  speak  the 
truth  as  fast  and  as  far  as  he  knows  it. — truth 
to  him.  *  *  *  Emerson  could  not  preach, 
and  now  I  understand  why."  He  then  deter- 
mined upon  school  teaching  as  his  life  work — 
a  singularly  happy  choice.  "School  teaching 
always  has  stood  first,"  he  wrote,  significantly, 
at  this  time.  He  began  by  teaching  the  dis- 
trict school  at  Wadsworth,  Ohio.  In  Septem- 
ber, 1869,  he  assumed  the  position  of  princi- 
pal of  the  High  School  at  Cuyahoga  Falls, 
Ohio,  to  which  he  had  been  appointed  during 
that  summer.  His  predecessor  in  that  posi- 
tion was  Vergil  P.  Kline,  well  known  later  to 
the  people  of  Northern  Ohio.  The  memories 
of  his  happy  days  in  California  were  drawing 
him  thither.  He  secured  a  position  in  the 
High  School  at  Oakland,  California,  in  1871. 
In  1867,  he  was  married  to  his  cousin.  Eliza- 
beth Newberrv'  Sill,  of  Cuyahoga  Falls,  daugh- 
ter of  Hon.  Elisha  Noyes  Sill  and  Elizabeth 
(Newberry)  Sill.  No  children  were  born  to 
them.  In  1871  he  resigned  his  position  as 
principal  of  the  Cuyahoga  Falls  High  School 
and,  with  his  wife,  moved  to  California  to 
accept  the  new  teaching  po-sition  in  Oakland. 
In  1874  he  was  oflFered  and  accepted  the  chair 
of  English   Literature   in   the  Univcrsitv   of 



California,  where  he  taught  successfully  un- 
til 1882.  His  health,  which  had  never  been 
very  rugged,  failed  him  entirely  in  this  year. 
In  1883,  he  returned  to  Cuyahoga  Falls, 
where  he  died  February  27,  1887.  His  life 
work  was  teaching,  but  he  will  be  known  in 
the  years  to  come  because  of  his  verse.  Most 
of  it  ranks  very  high.  The  critics  have  com- 
pared him  with  Emerson,  Arnold  and  Tenny- 
son. His  first  volume  of  poems  was  published 
in  1868,  and  was  entitled  "The  Hermitage 

and  Other  Poems."  In  1883  his  second  vol- 
ume, "The  Venus  of  Milo  and  Other  Poems," 
was  privately  printed  at  Berkeley,  California. 
In  1887  Houghton,  Mifflin  &  Company  is- 
sued "Poems  of  Edward  Rowland  Sill";  in 
1889  "The  Hermitage  and  Later  Poems,"  and 
in  1900,  "Hermione  and  Other  Poems."  In 
1900  these  publishers  also  issued  the  "Prose 
of  Edward  Rowland  Sill"  and  a  splendid  edi- 
tion de  luxe  of  his  complete  poems. 



Revolutionary  War — War  of  1812 — Mexican  War — War  of  the  Rebellion — Militia  Or- 
gan iza tions — Spanish- A merican  \ Var. 

Few,  if  any,  communities  have  been  more 
patriotic  than  Akron,  and  indeed  all  of  Sum- 
mit County.  Her  sons  have  gone  forth 
willingly  and  gladly  to  fight  their  country's 
battles,  on  many  occasions  not  waiting  to  be 
called  upon.  Akron's  volunteers  were  numer- 
ous and  acquitted  themselves  manfully  in 
1898,  and  during  the  stirring  years  from  1861 
to  1865  the  city  and  the  county  furnished 
their  full  quota  of  defenders  of  the  Union. 
Akron  sent  forth  her  brave  and  strong  to  the 
Mexican  struggle  of  1846,  within  her  gates  are 
buried  men  who  fought  in  1812,  and  in  her 
soil  rest  even  a  few  of  those  heroes  who  fought 
in  1776,  and  the  years  following,  to  give  the 
nation  birth.  There  is  no  chapter  of  local 
military  history  that  were  best  skimmed 
lightly  over.  Glory,  unselfishness  and  patriot- 
ism are  written  large  on  every  page  that  tells 
the  story  of  her  soldiery. 


A  few  of  the  names  of  the  veterans  of  the 
Revolution,  who  became  settlers  of  the  county 
and  were  buried  in  it,  are  preserved  to  us. 
Among  them  were  Captain  Nathaniel  Bettes, 
buried  in  the  family  lot  at  Bettes'  Corners; 
Daniel  Galpin  and  Elijah  Bryan. 

WAR  OF  1812. 

Of  soldiers  of  1812  buried  in  the  city  the 
following  may  be  mentioned:  John  C.  Hart, 

Henry  Spafford,  James  Viall,  Sr.,  George 
Uunkle,  John  C.  De  La  Matyr,  Asa  Field, 
'J'imothy  Clark,  Gideon  Hewett,  William 
Ilardesty,  Jame.s  Mills,  Andrew  May  and  Wil- 
liam Roland. 


Akron  citizens  who  served  in  the  Mexican 
war  were:  Jeroboam  B.  Creighton,  Adams 
Hart,  George  Dresher,  Ezra  Tryon,  Oliver  P. 
Barney,  Joseph  Gonder,  Thomas  Thompson, 
Cornelius  Way  and  Valmore  Morris. 

From  the  time  Akron  was  a  small  village 
her  citizens  were  appreciative  of  military 
glory.  They  did  their  full  share  of  the  serv- 
ice required  of  the  citizen-soldiers  under  the 
early  militia  laws.  Among  the  early  militia 
organizations  to  win  renown  were  the  "Sum- 
mit Guards,"  commanded  by  the  late  General 
Philo  Chambeilaiu.  From  that  time  down  t:i 
the  present  Akron  has  seldom  been  mthout  a 
military  company.  Now  her  organizations  are 
companies  B  and  F  of  the  Eighth  Regiment, 
Ohio  National  Guard,  commanded  respective- 
ly by  Captains  William  F.  Yontz  and  Wil- 
liam E.  Walkup. 


It  was  in  connection  with  the  Civil  War, 
however,  that  Akron  achieved  the  larger  meas- 
ure of  her  military  glory.  Immediately  fol- 
owing  President  Lincoln's  first  call  for  troops, 
in  1861,  two  companies  of  volunteers    were 



mustered,  and,  their  services  being  accepled, 
were  sent  into  the  service  as  companies  G  and 
K,  Nineteenth  Regiment,  O.  V.  I.  Company 
G  was  commanded  by  Captain  Lewis  P.  Buck- 
ley, First  Lieutenant  Andrew  J.  Fulkerson 
and  Second  Lieutenant  Gilbert  S.  Carpenter. 
The  oflicers  of  Company  K  were  Captain  An- 
drew J.  Konkle,  First  Lieutenant  Paul  J. 
Kirby  and  Second  Lieutenant  James  Nelson. 
A  third  company,  formed  shortly  after,  in  re- 
sponse to  the  same  call,  was  not  required  to 
help  make  up  the  75.000  volunteers  called 
for  and  was  accordingly  disbanded.  When 
Companies  G  and  K  joined  their  regiment  at 
Columbus,  May  16,  there  was  an  election  of 
officers.  Captain  Buckley  being  promoted  to 
the  rank  of  major  at  that  time.  Assigned  to 
the  command  of  General  Rosecrans,  the  Nine- 
teenth was  in  the  battle  of  Rich  Mountain, 
July  7,  being  especiallj^  mentioned  for  its 
good  conduct  and  bravery.  Having  enlisted 
for  only  ninety  days,  the  Nineteenth  Ohio  was 
mustered  out  in  July,  1861,  but  was  imme- 
diately reorganized,  many  of  the  Akron  men 
remaining.  Its  excellent  conduct  so  long  as 
it  remained  in  service  is  a  matter  of  national 
history.  Major  Buckley,  at  the  expiration  of 
the  three  months'  ser\'ice  of  the  original 
Nineteenth,  was  made  colonel  of  the  Twenty- 
ninth  Regiment,  0.  V.  I.,  serving  with  credit 
until  physical  disability  forced  him  to  leave 
the  sei-vice  in  1863.  He  died  in  Akron  in 
1868.  Buckley  Post,  G.  A.  R.,  Akron's  pres- 
ent organization  of  Civil  AVar  veterans,  wa? 
named  for  him. 

Of  the  Twenty-ninth  Regiment,  0.  V.  I.. 
three  companies,  D,  G  and  H,  were  composed 
largely  of  Summit  County  men.  In  1862  the 
regiment,  after  some  delays,  got  into  active 
service  under  General  Shields,  and  remained 
in  the  service  until  the  close  of  the  war.  The 
Twenty-ninth  was  in  the  folloT^ang  battles,  as 
well  as  many  others.  Antietam,  Chancellors- 
ville.  Gettysburg,  and  with  Sherman  on  his 
march  "from  Atlanta  to  the  Sea,"  remaining 
in  service  continuously  for  over  four  years. 
Akron,  Middlebury  and  Portage  contributed 
largely  to  the  Twenty-ninth. 

One  company  of  the  Sixty-fourth,  0.  V.  I., 

Senator  John  Slierman's  regiment,  contained 
many  Summit  County  men.  This  was  Com- 
pany G.  The  Sixty-fourth  saw  much  fight- 
ing; among  the  battles  in  which  it  took  part 
were  the  following:  Shiloh,  Stone  River, 
Chickamauga,  Chattanooga,  Resaca,  Kenesaw 
Mountain,  Peach  Tree  Creek,  Siege  of  At- 
lanta, Franklin  and  Nashville.  The  238  sur- 
vivors were  mustered  out  at  Victoria,  Texas, 
December  3,  1865. 

Those  who  remember  Akron's  part  in  the 
struggle  of  the  North  and  the  South,  thrill 
at  the  name  of  the  Sixth  Ohio  Battery,  a  sec- 
tion of  which  was  made  up  of  Akron  and 
Summit  County  men.  The  Akron  section 
was  formed  November  21,  with  Captain  Cul- 
len  Bradley,  an  army  officer  of  experience,  in 
command,  the  other  two  commissioned  officers 
being  0.  H.  P.  Ayres  and  A.  P.  Baldwin.  The 
Sixth  Ohio  Battery  saw  much  hard  service, 
some  special  incidents  in  its  career  being  its 
almost  continuous  fighting  for  120  days  in 
the  siege  of  Atlanta,  and  its  mention  by  Gen- 
eral Howard  for  its  accurate  firing  before 
Kenesaw.  The  battery  was  mustered  out  at 
Huntsville,  Alabama,  September  1,  1865. 

In  the  gallant  One  Hundred  and  Fourth, 
0.  V.  I.,  Akron  had  nearly  all  of  Company  H, 
and  was  represented  in  several  other  compa- 
nies. The  regiment  was  formed  in  August, 
1862.  Captain  Walter  B.  Scott  commanded 
Company  H.  His  immediate  subordinates 
were  First  Lieutenant  Hobart  Ford  and  Sec- 
ond Lieutenant  Samuel  F.  Shaw.  The  One 
Hundred  and  Fourth  was  under  fire  within 
a  month,  its  first  assignment  being  to  head 
off  General  Kirby  Smith's  advance  on  Cincin- 
nati. The  first  clash  came  near  Covington, 
Kentucky,  September  10,  1862,  the  Confeder- 
ates being  repulsed.  Shortly  after  this  the 
regiment  went  on  guard  duty  at  Frankfort, 
Kentucky.  In  February,  1863,  it  was  relieved, 
and  in  September  of  the  same  year  became  a 
part  of  General  Burnside's  command.  It  took 
the  Confederate  arms  and  stores  at  the  sur- 
render at  Cumberland  Gap;  it  took  an  active 
part  in  the  Atlanta  campaign  in  1864;  had 
almost  daily  exchanges  of  the  "courtesies  of 
war"  with  Hood's  men,  near  Nashville,  and 



cuptui-ed  eleven  battle  flags  at  the  battle  of 
Frankfort.  It  was  a  part  of  the  Army  of  the 
Potomac  and  was  detailed  to  receive  the  sur- 
render of  Johnston.  Six  hundred  and  forty 
survivors  were  mustered  out  at  Camp  Tay- 
lor, Cleveland,  June  27,  1865. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Fifteenth  Regiment, 
0.  V.  I.,  like  the  One  Hundred  and  Fourth, 
was  formed  at  ^lassillon,  in  August,  1862,  and 
went  int&the  United  States  service  in  Septem- 
ber. Companies  C,  G  and  I  contained  many 
Summit  County  men.  It  was  assigned  to 
various  re.sponsible  duties,  guarding  prisoners, 
doing  provost  work,  and  in  all  things  acquit- 
ting itself  well  until  October,  1863,  when  on 
orders  it  joined  General  Rosecrans  at  Chatta- 
nooga. Here  part,  of  the  regiment  was  put 
into  guerrilla  warfai'e,  and  the  remainder  as- 
signed to  guard  duty  along  the  line  of  the 
Nashville  &  Chattanooga  Railroad.  In  De- 
cember, 1864,  while  engaged  in  guarding  this 
railroad,  being  stationed  in  block  houses. 
Companies  C,  F  and  G  were  captured  by  the 
enemy.  Among  the  prisoners  were  two-thirds 
of  the  Summit  County  men  in  the  regiment. 
Many  of  these  Summit  County  prisoners, 
upon  being  exchanged  for  Confederates,  near 
the  close  of  the  war.  were  unwilling  partici- 
pants in,  and  some  of  them  victims,  of  the 
famous  Sultana  disaster.  They  were  confined 
during  their  captivity  at  Andersonville  and 
at  Meridian,  Mississippi.  April  25,  1865,  the 
exchange  took  place  at  Vicksburg,  and  the 
Summit  County  men,  with  some  2,000  others, 
were  packed  aboard  the  river  steamer  Sultana 
for  tran.sportation  to  Cincinnati  on  their  way 
home.  Shortly  after  leaving  Jlemphis,  past 
midnight  of  April  27.  as  the  homeward- 
bound  soldiers  either  .slept  upon  the  decks  or 
lay  awake  thinking  of  their  loved  ones,  and 
anticipating  .joyful  reunions,  one  of  the  Sul- 
tana's boilers  exploded,  wrecking  her  and  set- 
ing  her  afire,  so  that  she  burned  to  the  water's 
edge.  Half  of  her  passengers  were  lost,  either 
killed  by  the  explosion,  or  drowned  when  they 
were  hurled  into  the  water.  Thirty  of  the 
victims  were  Summit  County  men,  though  no 
.\kronians  are  known  to  have  lost  their  lives. 
The  One  Hundred  and  Fifteenth  wa«  assigned 

to  active  and  dangerous  work  at  Murfrees- 
boro,  where  it  also  performed  garrison  and 
.guard  duty  for  a  time;  it  continued  in  the 
same  kind  of  duty  until  mustered  out  at  Cleve- 
land at  the  close  of  the  war.  As  provost  mar- 
shal at  Cincinnati,  Captain  Edward  Bucking- 
ham, of  Company  I  (an  Akron  man),  was 
practically  in  command  of  the  city  during 
the  Vallandingham  afi'air.  Lieutenant  George 
S.  Waterman,  of  Cincinnati,  was  shot  and 
fatally  wounded  at  Cincinnati  by  "Copper- 
heads," as  one  of  the  incidents  of  that  af- 

John  Morgan  and  Kirby  Smith,  rebel 
raiders,  caused  Ohio  much  uneasiness  in  1862. 
Cincinnati  was  threatened;  all  available  troops 
were  stationed  near  the  border,  but  even  then 
the  presence  of  more  defenders  seemed  ad- 
visable. So  Governor  Tod  issued  a  call  for 
volunteers  to  defend  the  borders  of  the  state, 
his  message,  dated  at  Columbus,  September 
10,  1862,  calling  for  the  transportation  of  "all 
armed  men  that  can  be  raised,  immediately 
to  Cincinnati,"  being  responded  to  with  com- 
mendable promptness  by  citizens  in  all  walks 
of  life.  Akron  and  the  vicinity  sent  two 
hundred.  Many  of  them  were  "fearfully  and 
wonderfully"  armed  and  accoutered,  but  all 
had  the  fighting  spirit.  Some  placed  their 
faith  in  the  old-fashioned  rifles,  with  which 
they  had  picked  squirrels  out  of  Summit 
County  trees  in  Summit  County  guUie.",  and 
the  presence  of  this  variety  of  arms  caused 
the  volunteer  defenders  of  Cincinnati  to  be 
called  "The  Squirrel  Hunters."  When  thev 
arrived  at  Cincinnati,  however,  the  enemy  had 
retreat-ed  and  the  "Squirrel  Hunters"  returned 
to  their  homes,  not  having  fired  a  shot.  Dan- 
iel AV.  Storer  was  captain  of  the  company  from 
Akron  and  vicinity. 

The  Second  Ohio  Cavalry  was  recruited  en- 
tirely in  the  Western  Reserve,  and  three  com- 
panies were  largely  made  up  of  Akron  men. 
Then  as  now,  more  sentiment  attached  to  the 
cavalrj'-  branch  of  the  service  than  to  either 
artillery  or  infantry,  and  the  career  of  the 
Second  was  watched  closely  from  old  Sum- 
mit. The  regiment  began  its  existence  late 
in  1861,  Colonel  Charles  Doubleday  being  in 



command.  Among  Akron  men  prominent  in 
its  affairs  were  George  A.  Purington,  captain 
of  Company  A  (promoted  to  be  a  colonel  and 
afterwards  entering  the  regular  army),  and 
Dudley  Seward,  who  rose  to  be  colonel  of  the 
Second  before  the  war  was  over.  The  regi- 
ment joined  General  Porter  in  Missouri  early 
in  1862,  engaging  in  skirmish  work  against 
the  guerrilla  Quantrell  soon  after.  It  assisted 
in  the  capture  of  Fort  Gibson  and  after  about 
a  year  of  active,  wearing  work  on  the  border, 
returned  east  and  was  reorganized  and  re- 
equipped  -at  Columbus.  In  1863  it  was  in 
the  pursuit  and  capture  of  Morgan,  the  rebel 
raider.  In  the  same  year  it  joined  Rosecrans, 
engaging  in  numerous  hot  fights,  seeing  the 
hardest  kind  of  service  and  gaining  death  and 
glory  quite  impartially.  Half  the  command 
re-enlisted  Januaiy  1,  1864,  and  fought,  first 
under  Burnside,  and  then  with  Sheridan,  be- 
having brilliantly  throughout,  and  taking 
part  imder  this  dashing  commander  in  the 
la«t  raid  of  the  war,  which  resulted  in  the  cap- 
ture of  Early's  army.  The  Second  was  mus- 
tered out  at  Camp  Chase  September  11,  1865. 
It  had  marched  27,000  miles  and  took  part 
in  ninety-seven  fights  of  various  magnitudes. 

In  the  First  Ohio  Light  Artillery,  formed 
in  1861,  were  two  batteries  composed  largely 
of  Akron  and  Summit  County  men,  A,  Cap- 
tain Charles  Cotter,  of  Middlebury,  command- 
ing, and  D,  Captain  Andrew  J.  Konkle,  of 
Cuyahoga  Falls.  The  First  immediately  got 
into  the  fighting,  firet  with  McCook,  then 
with  Buell  in  Kentucky,  again  M'ith  McCook 
in  1863,  doing  fine  work  at  Chickamauga, 
and,  after  re-enlisting  as  veterans,  taking 
part  in  the  entire  Atlanta  campaign.  After 
making  a  record  that  was  full  of  fight,  it 
ended  its  .service  in  Texas,  when  the  war 
ended,  and  was  anu.stered  out  at  Cleveland, 
having  tiravcled  6,000  miles  and  fought  the 
enemy  thirty-nine  times. 

Akron  was  represented  honorably  in  the 
Fifty-eighth  Regiment,  0.  V.  I.,  a  German 
regiment,  organized  by  Colonel  A^alentine 
Bausenwein  in  1861,  which  remained  in  the 
service  till  the  close  of  the  war,  taking  part 

in  some  of  the  greatest  battles  fought  in  the 
four  years. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Seventh  0.  V.  I., 
also  a  German  regiment,  was  organized  in 
1862.  It  contained  Akron  men,  among  them 
being  Captain  George  Billow,  the  well-known 
local  undertaker.  The  local  men  were  in 
Company  I.  The  One  Hundred  and  Seventh 
fought  under  General  Franz  Sigel,  and  lost 
42  per  cent  of  its  men  in  the  Gettysburg  cam- 
paign. It  was  mustered  out  at  Charleston, 
South  Carolina,  July  10,  1865.  Among  other 
fights  in  which  it  took  part  may  be  mentioned 
Chancellorsville,  Getty,sburg,  Hagerstown, 
Sumterville  and  Swift  Creek. 

A  handful  of  Akron  men  were  members  of 
the  Thirty-seventh  Regiment,  0.  V.  I.,  the 
third  German  regiment  organized  in  Ohio. 

In  the  Ninth  Ohio  Battery  the  following 
Akron  men  played  their  parts  in  the  war: 
Robert  Cahill,  Adam  France,  Charles  Gifford, 
Martin  Heiser,  F.  A.  Patton,  Frederick  Pot- 
ter, Caleb  Williams,  Thomas  Williams  and  C 
0.  Rockwell. 

The  Sixty-seventh  0.  V.  I.  was  the  vehicle 
that  started  the  late  General  A.  C.  Voris  on 
his  way  toward  the  military  eminence  which 
he  attained  during  the  war.  He  and  two 
other  Akron  men,  C.  W.  Bucher  and  C.  A. 
Lantz,  were,  however,  the  only  local  repre- 
sentatives in  that  famous  command.  When 
the  war  broke  out,  Hon.  A.  C.  Voris  was  a 
representative  in  Ohio's  General  Assembly. 
He  enlisted  as  a  private  in  the  Twenty-ninth 
Regiment,  0.  V.  I.  Soon  after  he  received 
a  second  lieutenant's  commission  and  left  the 
Twenty-ninth  to  help  form  the  Sixty-seventh, 
being  elected  lieutenant-colonel  when  the  regi- 
ment was  organized.  In  1862  he  became  col- 
onel and  entered  upon  a  series  of  events  which 
stamped  him  as  a  man  of  dashing  courage, 
and  paved  the  way  to  the  promotions  which  he 
earned  so  hardly  and  deserved  so  richly.  He 
was  made  a  major-general  in  1865,  after  a  life 
of  real  leadership,  plenty  of  fighting  and 
wounds  and  great  glory.  General  Voris  was 
one  of  Akron's  most  distinguished  soldiers 
in  the  Civil  War. 



The  One  Hundred  and  Sixty-fourth  Regi- 
ment, 0.  N.  G.,  composed  of  "100  day  men," 
contained  a  host  of  Summit  County  men.  Its 
service  consisted  of  guarding  the  capitol  at 
Washington  in  1864,  and,  although  it  took 
part  in  no  battles,  several  of  the  local  men 
died  of  disease.  The  One  Hundred  and  Sixty- 
fourth  was  mustered  out  at  Cleveland,  August 
27,  1864. 

Akron  was  represented  by  a  half-dozen  sol- 
diers, including  Captain  Josiah  J.  Wright,  in 
the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-ninth  Regi- 
ment, 0.  V.  I.,  organized  August  10,  1863, 
and  mustered  out  in  March,  1864. 

Several  Summit  County  men  were  also  in 
the  One  Hundred  and  Ninety-seventh  Regi- 
ment, 0.  V.  I.,  Ohio's  last  complete  regimental 
contribution  to  the  Civil  War. 

The  service  of  Ulysses  L.  I\Ia.r\'in  was 
unique,  as  he  was  probably  Akron's  only  of- 
ficer of  colored  troops  between  1861  and 
1865.  He  enlisted  in  1862  as  a  private  in  the 
One  Hundred  and  Fifteenth  0.  V.  I.,  was 
commissioned  a  lieutenant  in  the  Fifth  U.  S. 
Colored  Infantry  in  1863,  took  part  in  the 
Peninsula  campaign,  was  promoted  to  cap- 
tain during  the  siege  of  Richmond,  was  at 
the  final  surrender  of  the  Confederate  army 
at  Releigh,  N.  C,  was  brevetted  major  at  the  of  the  war  and  made  judge  advocate  on 
the  staff  of  General  Paine. 

Another  Akron  soldier  who  won  promotion 
was  George  T.  Perkins.  He  was  a  volunteer 
in  1861,  joining  the  Nineteenth  Regiment,  0. 
V.  I.,  as  a  second  lieutenant.  In  August, 
1862,  he  enlisted  for  three  years  as  a  major 
of  the  One  Hundred  and  Fifth.  This  regi- 
ment has  a  glorious  history.  Major  Perkins 
was  made  a  lieutenant-colonel  in  1863  and 
colonel  in  1864.  He  ser\'ed  until  the  end  of 
the  war. 

Among  other  regiments  besides  those  which 
have  l)een  mentioned,  in  which  Akron's  sol- 
diers fought  during  the  Civil  War,  were  the 
following:  Forty -second  0.  V.  I.,  Eighty- 
fourth  0.  V.  I.,  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- 
Fifth  0.  V.  I.,  One  Hundred  and  Eighty- 
eighth  0.  V.  I.,  One  Hundred  and  Seventy- 
seventh  0.  V.  I.,  Seventv-sixth  0.  V.  I.,  Sev- 

enty-fifth 0.  V.  I.,  Twenty-fourth  O.  V.  I. 
Sixteenth  0.  V.  I.,  Twenty-fifth  0.  V.  I.,  One 
Hundred  and  Twenty-fifth  O.  V.  I.,  and 
many  others. 

ThvLs  far  the  reader  has  followed  in  brief 
fashion  the  fortunes  of  those  who  went  to  the 
front,  those  who  smelled  the  powder,  faced 
the  bullets,  endured  the  discomforts  and  the 
dangers  of  camp,  march  and  battle.  All 
through  the  Civil  War,  however,  Akron  and 
Summit  County  had  a  full  share  of  heroes 
and  heroines  who  worked,  not  on  the  firing 
line,  but  right  here  at  home.  The  departure 
of  so  many  men  from  this  city  and  surround- 
ing territory  left  hundreds  of  families  to  be 
provided  for.  And  the  boys  at  the  front 
must  have  comforts  and  necessities,  and 
money  and  hospital  supplies.  Patriotic  citi- 
zens, unable  to  enlist  themselves,  gave  for- 
tune after  fortune  to  the  cause.  In  the  later 
days  of  the  war  there  were  the  drafts  to  en- 
courage. And  all  through  the  great  struggle 
Akron  women  praj'ed  and  worked,  and  their 
toil  and  their  unceasing  interest  gave  many 
a  dying  soldier  a  moment  of  comfort  and 
made  many  a  forced  march  endurable.  The 
woanen  of  Akron  did  their  full  share  toward 
the  preservation  of  the  Union. 


After  the  Civil  War  there  was  a  natural  re- 
turn to  the  pursuits  of  peace.  Akron's  ceme- 
teries contained  numerous  green,  yet  grim,  re- 
minders of  the  thing  that  had  been.  There 
were  aching  hearts  in  numberles.s  homes,  yet 
time  applied  its  healing  lotion,  and  the  deep.^r 
wounds  in  human  hearts  were  eventually 
healed,  so  far  as  such  wounds  may  be.  For  a 
full  generation  there  was  peace.  The  militia 
man  was  the  only  reminder  of  war  to  be  met 
with  frequently  in  the  flesh. 

Under  the  militia  law  passed  by  the  legis- 
lature in  1870,  interest  in  citizen  soldiery, 
which  had  lagged  considerably  after  the  war. 
was  revived.  In  1875  the  "Porter  Zouaves" 
were  organized,  under  command  of  Henry 
Porter,  a  veteran  soldier.  Shortly  aftenvard 
the  organization  changed  its  name  to  "Bierce 



Cadets,"  in  honor  of  the  late  General  Lucius 
V.  Bierce,  who  had  backed  the  organization 
financially.  M.  W.  Santry  was  the  first  cap- 
tain under  the  reorganization. 

In  the  same  year  the  "Akron  City  Guards" 
were  organized,  many  of  the  members  being 
veterans.  D.  \V.  Thomas  was  the  first  cap- 
tain and  the  official  membership  was  thirty- 
seven.  A  new  election  was  held  January  3, 
1876,  D.  W.  Thomas  being  re-elected. 

These  two  organizations  saw  some  strike 
and  riot  service  within  a  reasonably  short 
time.  Both  companies  were  included  in  the 
Ninth  Regiment,  when  organized  in  1877, 
and  the  first  regimental  encampment  was 
held  in  Akron  in  October,  1877.  Captain 
Thomas  of  the  City  Guards  was  the  regi- 
ment's first  colonel. 

In  1878  the  Ninth  was  mei'ged  into  the 
Eighth  Regiment,  and  the  City  Guards,  which 
had  become  Company  A  of  the  Ninth,  now  be- 
came Company  B  of  the  Eighth.  Company 
B  continues  till  thLs  day.  Colonel  Thoma* 
took"  command  of  the  regiment  by  reason  of 
his  rank,  being  succeeded  by  Colonel  A.  L. 
Conger,  and  then  by  George  R.  Gyger,  of  Al- 
liance, in  1891.  The  regiment  was  fre- 
quently called  upon  for  strike  duty,  riot  duty 
and  annual  encampments,  until  1898,  when  a 
war  cloud  again  appeared  above  the  horizon 
and  the  stirring  scenes  of  1861  were,  in  a 
mca.sure,  repeated. 

Akron  was  also  represented  in  the  artil- 
lery branch  of  the  Ohio  militia  for  manv 
years.  The  Sixth  Battery,  0.  N.  G.,  was 
formed  in  1877.  Joseph  C.  Ewart  was  the 
first  captain.  The  organization  thrived  from 
the  beginning.  In  1886  a  regiment  of  Ohio 
artillery  was  formed,  and  the  Sixth  Battery 
became  Battery  F,  First  Regiment,  0.  N.  G., 
retaining  that  dftsignation  until  the  out- 
break of  the  Spanish-American  war.  This 
organization  w-as  called  upon  for  important 
services  and  invariably  acquitted  itself  in  sol- 
dierly fashion. 

Unique  in  Akron's  citizen  army  was  "Com- 
pany Buchtel,"  composed  of  veterans  of  the 
German  army,  who  organized  in  Akron  in 
1883,  with  a  membership  of  twenty-five.     Its 

first  captain  was  Paul  E.  Werner.  The  com- 
pany retained  its  identity  for  a  number  of 
years.  It  was  named  after  the  late  John  R. 
Buchtel,  who  assisted  the  organization  finan- 
cially at  the  beginning. 


War  with  Spain  was  declared  April  21, 
1898.  There  Avas  little  fighting;  peace  re- 
turned after  a  few  months,  so  far  as  the  Cuban 
campaign  was  concerned,  yet  it  was  a  deadly 
campaign.  When  President  McKinley  called 
for  volunteers,  Akron  boys  responded  as 
promptly  and  as  patriotically  as  many  of  their 
fathers  had  done  in  1861.  The  two  local  mili- 
tary organizations,  Company  B  of  the  Eighth 
Infantry,  0.  N.  G.,  Captain  H.  0.  Feecferle, 
commanding,  and  Battery  F,  First  Regiment 
Light  Artillery,  0.  N.  G.,  volunteered  as  one 
man.  The  infantrymen  were  accepted.  The 
artillerymen  were  not  taken  on  the  first  call. 
There  was  a  special  reason  for  the  acceptance 
of  the  one  organization  over  the  other.  The 
home  of  President  McKinley  was  in  Canton, 
and  that  city  was  represented  by  three  compa- 
nies, F,  L  and  I,  in  the  Eighth  Regiment. 
It  was  a  matter  of  considerable  gratification  to 
the  President  that  the  boys  from  his  home 
and  regiment  of  which  they  were  members 
(including  Akron  and  Company  B)  should 
be  among  the  first  to  respond  to  his  call  for 
troops.  He  demonstrated  his  appreciation  of 
that  promptness  by  accepting  the  proff'ered 
.seiTices  immediately.  Moreover,  the  Eighth 
was  at  that  time  considered  one  of  the  most 
compact  and  best  drilled  bodies  of  citizen 
troops  in  Ohio. 

The  regiment,  consisting  of  twelve  compa- 
nies, was  mobilized  at  Akron,  April  26,  1898, 
and  then  embarked  for  Columbus,  where  it 
was  drilled  thoroughly  and  on  May  18th  was 
mustered  into  the  vohniteer  service  of  the 
ITnited  States  as  Company  B.  Eighth  O.  V.  I. 
Colonel  C.  V.  Hard,  of  Wooster,  was  in  com- 
mand of  the  regiment,  LieutenantrColonel 
Cluarles  Dick,  of  Akron,  since  commander-in- 
chief  of  the  Ohio  guard,  being  second  to  Col- 
onel Hard  under  that  organization.   Company 



B  was  a  part  of  the  Third  Battalion,  com- 
manded by  Major  C.  C.  Weybrecht,  of  Al- 
Hance.  On  May  16th  the  Eighth  proceeded 
to  Camp  Alger,  near  Falls  Church,  Virginia, 
and  was  assigned  to  the  Second  Brigade,  First 
Division,  Second  Army  Corps,  under  Briga- 
dier-General George  A.  Garretson,  of  Cleve- 
land. Here,  under  the  sun  of  Virginia,  the 
regiment  was  prepared  for  service  in  the  trop- 
ics, attracting  much  attention  from  visitors 
from  Washington  by  reason  of  its  designa- 
tion as  "The  President's  Own,"  and  the  fact 
that  two  nephews  of  President  McKinley  were 
enlisted  in  Canton  companies. 

On  July  4  the  Eighth  was  ordered  to  Cuba 
to  re-enforce  General  Shafter  before  Santiago. 
A  quick  run  was  made  from  Camp  Alger  to 
New  York  and  on  the  evening  of  July  6  the 
regiment,  on  board  of  the  auxiliary  cruiser 
St.  Paul  (Capt.  Sigsbee),  steamed  out  of  New 
York  harbor,  bound  for  Cuba.  Five  days 
later  they  arrived  off  Santiago,  and  were 
landed  in  small  boats  at  Siboney.  One  bat- 
talion was  landed  that  night  and  the  re- 
mainder the  next  day.  One  hundred  rounds 
of  ammunition  and  three  days'  rations  were 
issued,  and  the  march  inland  began. 

On  July  13  the  Third  Battalion,  including 
Company  B,  was  detached  from  the  remainder 
of  the  regiment  for  special  guard  duty  and 
did  not  rejoin  the  main  body  until  the  time 
came  for  departure  for  tlie  United  States.  The 
surrender  of  Santiago  came  almost  simul- 
taneou.sly  with  this  detail,  and  the  long  wait 
and  the  battle  with  sickness  began,  ending  in 
the  embarkation  of  the  regiment  at  Santiago, 
Augvist  18.  The  Eighth  was  taken  to  Mon- 
tauk  Point.  Long  Island,  whence,  after  a  rest, 
the  health  of  the  men  being  extremely  bad, 
the  various  companies  returned  home  Septem- 
ber 6.  After  sixty  days'  furlough,  the  Eighth 
was  mustered  out  at  Wooster,  Ohio,  November 
10.  The  regiment  lost  seventy-two  men  by 
death  between  the  muster  in  and  the  mu.ster 
out,  yet  did  not  fire  a  single  shot.  Company 
B's  death  roll  during  that  time  numbered 

Shortly  after  the  muster  out,  the  company 

was  .reorganized  as  a  militia  company,  and 
continues  as  such  today.  Its  present  officers 
are:  Captain,  William  E.  Walkup;  lieu- 
tenant, Royal  A.  W^alkup;  second  lieutenant, 
Austin  B.  Hanscom.  The  Eighth  Regiment 
Band,  composed  mostly  of  Akron  musicians, 
accompanied  the  Eighth  Regiment  on  the 
expedition  to  Cuba. 

Though  Battery  F's  offer  of  its  services  ■ 
came  just  too  late  to  be  available  under  Presi- 
dent McKinley's  first  call  for  volunteers,  that 
organization  was  later  mustered  into  the  serv- 
ice of  the  United  States  and  did  its  pan 
faithfully  and  well  in  the  War  with  Spain. 

The  Tenth  Ohio  Volunteer  Infantry  was 
formed  of  the  militia  organization  remaining 
after  Ohio's  quota  of  the  first  call  troops  had 
been  filled.  It  contained  naval  militia,  light 
artillerj',  engineers  and  infantry,  all  or- 
ganized as  infantry  for  the  purposes  of  the 
campaign.  The  regiment  was  formed  in  re- 
sponse to  President  McKinley's  second  call 
for  volunteers,  Battery  F  repeating  its  offer 
and  cheerfully  giving  up  its  heavy  guns  and 
shouldering  Springfield  rifles  in  compliance 
with  the  conditions  governing  acceptance. 
The  organization  retained  its  letter,  becoming 
Company  F.  Mobilization  was  at  Camp 
Bushnell,  Columbus,  June  25th,  the  com- 
pany being  mustered  into  the  United  States 
service  July  7th,  with  the  following  officers: 
Captain,  Herman  Werner;  firsst  lieutenant, 
John  M.  Straub;  second  lieutenant,  J.  P. 
Caldwell  (afterwards  transferred  to  signal 
service)  ;  second  lieutenant,  Ora  F.  Wise. 
Uniforms  were  issued  to  the  regiment  on  July 
13th.  On  AugiLst  18th  the  regiment  was  or- 
dered to  Camp  Meade,  Middletown,  Pennsyl- 
vania, where  it  became  a  part  of  the  Second 
Brigade,  Third  Division,  Second  Army  Corps, 
under  command  of  General  Graham.  Here 
the  Tenth  remained  until  November  12th, 
when  it  was  ordered  to  Augusta,  Georgia.  At 
this  place  "Camp  Young"  had  been  estab- 
lished, this  name  being  afterward  changed  to 
"Camp  MacKenzie."  The  Tenth  remained 
at  Camp  MacKenzie  until  March  23rd,  when 
it  was  mustered  out. 


The  members  of  Company  F  returned  to  bers  of  the  company  died  of  disease  during 

Akron  and  about  two  weeks  later  as  a  com-  the  service  in  1898. 

pany  became  a  part  of  the  Eighth  Regiment,  Akron  sent  her  full  share  of  soldiers  to  the 

0.  N.  G.,  of  which  regiment  Company  F  still  Philippines,  both  in  1898  and  later;  many 

forms  a  part,  its  present  commanding  officer  are  still  in  that  service;  others  have  returned 

being  Captain  William  F.  Yontz.    Six  mem-  home  and  taken  up  the  pursuits  of  peace. 



A.s  the  reader  runs  through  the  long  list 
of  secret  societies,  and  other  bodies  of  men 
and  women  united  for  a  common  cause,  which 
have  existed  and  prospered  in  Summit  Coun- 
ty, almost  from  its  very  earliest  time,  he  can- 
not fail  to  Ix'  impressed  with  the  truth  that 
the  spirit  of  brotherhood  has,  indeed,  been 
very  strong  in  this  community.  Today,  there 
are  many  lodges  whose  memljershij)  rises  as 
high  as  400  and  500.  Two  fraternities  witli 
national  plans.  The  Pathfinders  and  The 
Chevaliers,  liad  their  origin  here.  There  is 
not  a  single  fraternity  of  any  prominence 
whatsoever  that  is  not  represented  in  Sum- 
mit County.  In  addition,  there  are  innum- 
erable non-secret  organizations  for  every  con- 
ceivable purpose.  The  last  ten  years  liave 
been  remarkable  for  the  growth  of  the  club 
idea  among  the  women  of  the  county.  The 
women's  clubs  of  Akron  are  an  important 
factor  in  the  daily  life  of  that  city.  Nearly 
every  church  has  its  men's  club  or  its  boys' 
brigade  and  other  associations  of  its  members. 
Many  workingmen  are  members  of  trades 
unions.  The  farmers  have  organized  granges, 
horticultural  societies  and  neighborhood 
clubs.  The  Summit  County  citizen  who  has 
not  '"joined"  something  is,  indeed,  a  rarity. 

The  first  lodge  of  any  secret  society  to  be 
formed  within  the- county  was  Akron  Lodge, 
No.  83,  of  the  Free  and  Accepted  Masons. 
Its  charter  was  granted  October  21,  1841. 
Its  first  master  of  the  lodge  was  Hon.  R.  P. 
Spaulding.  He  was  succeeded  in  1842  by 
Gen.  L.  V.  Bierce  who  held  the  office  until 
1850.     Dr.  S.  W.  Bartges  then  assumed  the 

chair  for  four  years.  Other  distinguished 
masters  of  this  lodge  were  C.  A.  Collins,  Dr. 
Thomas  McEbrighf,  Hon.  S.  C.  WUliamson, 
R.  P.  ]\Iarvin,  B.  F.  Battles  and  A.  P.  Bald- 
win. It  has  had  two  past  grand  masters  in 
L.  V.  Bierce  and  Frank  vS.  Harmon.  It  now 
numbers  433  members  and  is  officered  (1907) 
as  follows:  Orlando  W.  Groff,  master;  John 
Crisp,  senior  warden;  James  R.  Cameron, 
junior  warden;  A.  C.  Rohrbacher,  treasurer; 
A.  E.  Roach,  secretary;  M.  E.  Fassnacht, 
senior  deacon;  William  A.  Sackett,  junior 
deacon ;  Harry  F.  Runyeon ,  tyler ;  Ernest  C. 
Housel,  chaplain:  W.  E.  Wangle,  marshal; 
C.  AVeaver  and  W.  Boesche,  stewards;  H.  T. 
Budd,  J.  M.  Weidner  and  R.  A.  Walkup, 
prudential  committee;  and  George  N.  Haw- 
kins, assistant  secretary. 

Washington  Chapter,  No.  25,  Royal  -Arch 
Masons,  was  established  October  25th,  1841. 
In  1907  its  membership  was  454.  Its  present 
officers  are :  D.  W.  Hollowav,  high  priest ;  H. 
T.  Budd,  king;  W.  B.  Baldwin,  scribe;  0.  W. 
Groff,  captain;  AV.  A.  Sackett,  principal  so- 
journer; 0.  A.  Nelson,  treasurer;  W.  E. 
Waugh,  secretarv;  C.  A.  Dixon,  R.  A.  captain; 

F.  A.  Clapsadel,'G.  M.,  3d  Vail;  E.  C.  Housel, 

G.  M.  2nd  Vail;  R.  R.  Peebles,  G.  M.  1st 
Vail:  H.  F.  Runyeon,  guard;  Ira  A.  Priest, 
chaplain;  Geo.  W.  Shick,  M.  of  C.  &  D.  of 
M. ;  Judson  Thomas,  Geo.  W.  Shiek,  and 
Joseph  Kolb,  prudential  committee;  and  R. 
A.  AValkup  and  Charles  Meier,  stewards. 

The  next  Masonic  body  to  be  established 
was  Akron  Commandery,  No.  25,  Knights 
Templar.  The  commandery  officers,  for  1907 
are:  C.  S.  Eddy,  eminent  commander:  C. 
C.  Benner,  general;  H.  J.  Blackburn,  cap- 
tain ;   F.   W.   Shirer,   senior   warden ;   A.   A. 



KohliT,  junior  warden;  R.  F.  Palmer,  prel- 
ate; John  Motz,  treasurer;  Bela  B.  Clark, 
recorder;  W.  H.  Douglas,  standard  bearer; 
Robert  Wilson,  sword  bearer;  C.  W.  Wicklinc, 
warder;  H.  F.  Runveon,  sentinel;  Geo.  W. 
Sliick,  M.  of  C;  E.'e.  Morse,  H.  T.  Budd, 
and  11.  M.  Hagelbarger,  guards;  W.  F.  Lau- 
bach,  G.  H.  Dunn,  and  A.  W.  Hawkins,  pru- 
dential committee;  0.  W.  Groff,  electrician: 
and  Frank  Farst,  organi.-it. 

The  next  Ma.sonic  body  to  be  established 
was  Adoniram  Lodge,  No.  517,  F.  &  A.  M., 
the  charter  for  which  was  granted  October 
16th,  1878.  Its  ofRcere  in  1907  are:  H.  J. 
Blackburn,  master;  Lee  R.  Knight,  senior 
warden;  J.  S.  Lowman,  junior  warden;  Geo. 
W.  Shick,  treasurer;  Norman  G.  Nelson,  sec- 
retary; H.  H.  Garman,  senior  deacon;  C.  A. 
Dixon,  junior  deacon;  A.  T.  King.sbury, 
chaplain;  H.  R.  Tucker,  tyler;  E.  E.  Morse 
and  C,  S.  Hiddleson,  .stewards;  W.  B.  Bald- 
win, mai-shal;  and  F.  M.  Cooke,  J.  A.  Palmer 
and  D.  W.  Holloway,  prudential  committee. 
In  the  list  of  past  masters  of  this  lodge  appears 
the  name  of  Henry  Perkins,  who  held  the 
master's  chair  for  four  years. 

Akron  Council,  No.  80,  R.  &  S.  M.,  was 
organized  September  28,  1897.  At  the  pres- 
ent time  it  has  175  members.  Its  officers 
are  C.  W.  Wickline.  T.  I.  M.;  O.  W.  Groff, 
D.  I.  M.;  H.  T.  Budd,  P.  C.  AV.;  Geo. 
L.  Curtice,  treasurer;  W.  E.  Waugh,  record- 
er; W.  A.  iSackett,  captain;  E.  E  Morse, 
conductor;  C.  A.  Dixon,  steward;  H.  F. 
Runyeon,  sentinel;  Judson  Thomas  and  R. 
B.  Wilson,  auditing  committee;  Geo.  W.  Bil- 
low, chaplain;  Geo.  W.  Shick,  marshal;  and 
W.  F.  Farst,  musical  director. 

The  Akron  Masonic  Relief  A.ssociatioii  was 
incorporated  February  Ifith,  1888.  It.-;  ob- 
ject is  to  provide  a  fund  for  funeral  and  other 
immediate  expenses  in  the  event  of  the  death 
of  one  of  its  members.  All  master  masons 
in  good  standing  under  sixty  yeai-s  of  age  are 
eligible  to  membership.  George  Billow  is 
president;  John  Crisp,  vice-president;  Geo. 
W.  Shick,  trea.surer;  W.  E.  Waugh,  secretarv; 
and   O.    W.    Groff,    C.     C.     Benner,    Judson 

Thomas,  D.  ^^^  Holloway,  C.  W.  Wickline, 
all  of  Akron;  A.  A.  Cahoon,  of  Wadsworth; 
€.  E.  Bass,  of  Hudson ;  T.  J.  Davies,  of  Bar- 
berton;  Fred  Bolich,  of  Cuyahoga  Falls;  and 
A.  B.  Young  of  Kent;  are  the  board  of  di- 

The  Akron  Ma.-^onic  Temple  Company  was 
incorporated  May  9,  1896.  Its  officers  are 
Geo.  Billow,  president;  P.  W.  Leavitt,  vice- 
president;  W.  A.  MoClellan,  treasurer;  A. 
E.  Roach,  secretary:  and  R.  M.  Pillniore.  P. 
W.  Leavitt,  Geo.  W.  Shick,  W.  A.  McClellan, 
John  Crisp,  John  Motz  and  George  Billow, 

The  Masonic  Club,  of  Akron,  Ohio,  was  in- 
corporated November  27,  1899.  Its  object  is 
to  promote  and  cailtivate  social  and  fraternal 
relations  among  it?  members  and  also  to  pro- 
vide amusement  for  the  members'  wives  and 
daughters.  It  maintains  very  well  appointed 
club  rooms,  on  the  second  floor  of  the  Masonic 
Temple.  It-;  officers  for  1907  are:  F.  M. 
Cooke,  president;  C.  W.  Wickline,  vice-presi- 
dent; Bela  B.  Clark,  secretarv;  John  Crisp,- 
treasurer;  and  H.  T.  Budd,  J.  W.  Kelley,  and 
D.  W.  Holloway,  directors.  It  has  309  mem- 
bers at  i)resent. 

Many  Akron  Masons  are  also  members  of 
the  Society  of  Ancient  Accepted  Scottish  Rite 
Masons  and  of  Al  Koran  'Temple,  nobles  of 
the  Mystic  Shrine,  which  is  located  in  Cieve- 
hnid,  Ohio. 

I.  n.  o.  F. 

The  Odd  Fellows  were  not  far  behind  the 
Masons  in  e.stablishing  their  first  lodge  in 
Summit  County.  On  September  16,  1845, 
Edward  Rawson  and  eight  others  acting  as 
charter  members  instituted  Summit  Lodge 
No.  50  of  the  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fel- 
lows. This  lodge  has  had  an  unbroken  record 
of  prosperity  since  that  early  day.  Its  officers 
in  1907  are:  Noble  grand,  R.  A.  Porter;  vice- 
grand,  Charles  P.  Gregory;  recording  secre- 
tary, William  F.  Chandler;  financial  secre- 
tary, Frank  T.  Hoffman :  treasurer.  Perry  A. 
Krisher;  trastees,  W.  H.  McBarnes,  A.  C. 
Bachtel  and  IT.  W.  Haupt ;  relief  committee, 
Ilenrv  Bollincrer. 


I.  0.  0.  F.  BUILDING.  AKRON 







The  second  lodge  was  Akron  Lodge,  No. 
5-17,  I.  0.  0.  F.,  which  was  instituted  July 
9,  1873.  Among  its  charter  members  were 
John  J.  Wagoner,  Aaron  Wagoner,  R.  P. 
Marvin,  H.  J.  Church,  Charles  L.  Brown, 
John  Memimer,  Jolm  H.  Auble,  D.  W. 
Thomas  and  T.  W.  McGillicudy.  It  officers  in 
1907  are:  Noble  grand,  A.  P.  Myers;  vice- 
grand,  E.  B.  Anderson ;  secretary,  C.  B. 
Quine;  treasurer,  Charles  Warner;  tnistees, 
E.  W.  Stuart,  A.  W.  Hawkins  and  W.  J. 
Coney;  relief  committee,  A.  K.  Fouser. 

Nemo  Lodge,  No.  746,  I.  0.  0.  F.  was  insti- 
tuted May  22,  1886,  by  Richard  Bacon,  grand 
master.  Among  its  charter  members  were  H. 
G.  Canfield,  P.  H.  Hoffman,  E.  Colloredo,  A. 
A.  Bartlett,  A.  G.  Keck,  P.  W.  Leavitt,  C.  W. 
Kline,  Jacob  Koplin,  Robert  Guillet  and  D. 
R.  Bunn.  Its  officers  for  1907  are:  Noble 
grand,  H.  R.  Wells;  vice-grand,  Harvey  Par- 
ker; recording  secretary,  F.  G.  Smith;  finan- 
cial secretarv,  J.  H.  Wagoner;  treasurer,  Wil- 
liam H.  Rook.  Sr. ;  trustees,  F.  G.  Marsh.  A. 
G.  Keck  and  W.  F.  Payne. 

Granite  Lodge,  No.  522,  I.  0.  0.  F.,  is  the 
German  lodge  and  is  located  in  fine  lodge 
rooms  in  the  Kaiser  Block.  East  Akron  is 
also  represented  in  Odd  Fellowship,  having 
a  lodge  named  Apollo  Lodge.  In  Cuyahoga 
Falls  there  are  Howard  Lodge,  No.  62,  I.  0. 
0.  F..  and  Rebecca  Lodge.  I.  0.  0.  F.,  Elm 
227.  The  total  membership  of  the  five  Akron 
lodgjs  in  1907  Avas  1400. 

The  greatest  event  in  the  history  of  Odd 
Fellow.ship  in  Summit  County  was  the  dedi- 
cation of  the  magnificent  New  Temple  on 
South  Main  Street  in  Akron.  The  building 
is  one  of  the  finest  in  the  city  and  consists  of 
eight  stories  and  a  tower.  It  was  dedicated 
with  due  ceremony  on  April  2,  1895.  It 
was  built  by  the  Akron  Odd  Fellows  Temple 
Company.  The  first  board  of  officers  were: 
President,  A.  C.  Bachtel;  vice-pre.sident,  Lewis 
Bullinger;  .secretary.  A.  G.  Keck;  treasurer, 
Ma.-on  Ciiapman.  The  officers  of  the  Temple 
Company  for  1907  are:  President,  John  Mem- 
mer;  vice-president,  W.  H.  Lohr;  secretary. 
A.  G.  Keck;  treasurer,  A.  W.  Hawkins. 


The  other  orders  represented  in  Akron  are 
the  following:  Buckley  Post,  No.  12,  Grand 
Army  of  the  Republic,  organized  in  March 
1867,  of  which  Major  H.  A.  Kasson  is  now 
commander.  Woman's  Relief  Corps,  Buckley 
Corps,  No.  23.  Union  Veteran's  Legion,  Abra- 
ham Lincoln  Command,  No.  1 ;  Women's  Vet- 
eran Relief  Union,  No.  2;  Sons  of  Veterans, 
Akron  Camp,  No.  27;  Ladies'  Aid  Society, 
No.   8,  Auxiliary  to  the  Sons  of  Veterans; 
Knights  of  Honor,  Acme  Lodge  and  Spartan 
Lodge;   National   Union,   Diamond   Council, 
48 ;  American  Legion  of  Honor,  Akron  Coun- 
cil, No.  248;  Knights  and  Ladies  of  Honor, 
Agenda  Lodge,  No.   310  and  Akron  Lodge,. 
No.  2518;  Royal  Arcanum,  Provident  Coun- 
cil,  No.   16;  Protected  Home   Circle,   Akron 
Circle,  No.  54  and  Summit  Circle  No.  565; 
The  Maccabees,   Akron   Tent,  No.   26,   Lean 
Tent,   No.   282,  Charity   Tent,  No.   538  and 
Unity  Division,    Uniformed    Rank,  No.  14; 
Ladies  of  the  Maccabees,  Busy  Bee  Hive  No. 
35,     Protective    Hive   No.   60,    Independent 
Hive  No.  147,  Favorite  Hive  No.  164 ;  Ladies 
of   the   Modern   Maccabees;    Benevolent   and 
Protective  Order  of  Elks  No.   363;   Sons  of 
St.  George,  Akron  Lodge  No.  180 ;  Daughters 
of  St.  George,  Ganter  Lodge  No.  18 ;  Foresters 
of  America,  Court.  Akron  No.  42,  and  Court 
Summit  City  No.  24;  Independent  Order  of 
Foresters,    Court    Pride   No.    356   and   Court 
Portage  Path  No.  4470;  Companions  of  the 
Forest,  Pride  of  Akron  Circle,  No.  220 ;  Royal 
Neighbors    of   America,    Puritan    Camp    No. 
1746  and  Evening  Star  Camp;  Independent 
Order  of  Red  Men,  Saranac  Tribe  No.  141  and 
Ogareeta  Council  No.  29.     Modern  Woodmen 
of  America,    Akron   Camp,    4334,    Security 
Camp  No.  4937,  and  Welcome  Camp.     The 
Pathfinders,  Akron  Lodge  No.  1,  and  Acme 
Lodge  No.  135.     National  Protective  Union. 
Akron  Legion  No.  712.    Junior  Order  United 
American     Mechanics,      Commodore     Perry 
Council  No.  209.     Daughters  of  Liberty.  Co"- 
lumbia  Council,  No.  21.     Independent  Order 
of  Heptasophs,  Akron  Conclave,  713.     Order 
of  Ben  Hur.  Antioch  Court  No.  11.  Kniglits 



and  Ladies  of  Security,  Summit  Council  No. 
661  and  Liberty  Council,  No.  1356.  Inde- 
pendent Order  of  the  Red  Cross,  Teutonic 
Commandery  No.  25.  United  Commercial 
Travellers,  Akron  Council  No.  87.  Royal 
Templars,  Summit  Council  No.  36.  Fraternal 
Order  of  Eagles,  Akron  Aerie  553.  Court  of 
Honor,  Akron  District  Court,  No.  238.  Royal 
League,  Akron  Council  No.  243.  Home 
Guards  of  America,  Akron  Home  No.  47. 
American  Insurance  Union,  Akron  Chapter 
No.  175.  Knights  of  Columbus,  Akron 
Council  No.  547.  Knights  of  St.  John,  Akron 
Commandery  No.  42  and  St.  George  Com- 
mandery No.  6.  Catholic  Knights  of  Ameri- 
ca, St.  Vincent's  Brancli  No.  227.  Catholic 
Knights  of  Ohio,  St.  Mary'.-i  Branch  No.  21. 
Ancient  Order  of  Hibernians,  Division  No. 
1,  and  Ladies  Auxiliary.  Father  Mathew 
Temperance  Society,  No.  1621.  Catholic 
Ladies  of  Ohio,  St.  Rose  Branch,  No.  5.  Catho- 
lic Mutual  Benevolent  Association,  Gibbons 
Branch  No.  14,  St.  Bernard's  Branch  37,  and 
St.  Mary's  Branch  No.  78.  Ladies'  Catholic 
Benevolent  A.ssociation,  St.  Mary's  Branch 
No.  180.  National  Association  of  Stationary 
Engineei-s,  Akron  Section  No.  28.  The  Order 
of  Mutual  Protection.  Independent  Order  of 
Good  Samaritans  and  Daughters  of  Samaria. 
Western  Reserve  Lodge,  No.  L  Daughters  of 
Jerusalem,  Ida  May  Council  No.  12.  United 
Order  of  True  Reformers,  Superior  Fountain 
1311,  and  .\kroii  Star  llHO. 

The  principal  nun-si'crct  organizations  are 
the  following:  German  Club,  Akron  Lieder- 
tafel,  Akron  Turnverein,  Thalia  Unter.stuet- 
zung's  Verein,  Landwehr  Society,  ■  Akron 
Saengerbund,  Gruetli  Society,  Saxony  Bene- 
ilcial  Association,  German  IMilitarj-  Society, 
Young  Men's  Hebrew  Association,  St.  Joseph's 
Benevolent  Society,  St.  Bernard's  Benevolent 
Society,  Alsace-Loraine  Benevolent  Union, 
Women's  Christian  Temperance  Union, 
Young  Women's  Christian  Association,  Young 

Men's  Christian  Association,  Elks  Club,  Kirk- 
wood  Club,  Masonic  Club,  Odd  Fellows  Club, 
Akron  Camera  Club,  Akron  Dental  Society, 
Portage  Path  Canoe  Club,  Akron  Bar-Asso- 
ciation,  Celsus  Club,  Summit  County  Clinical 
Society,  Summit  County  Medical  Society,  and 
many  others  . 

In  Barberton,  many  orders  are  represented 
by  lodges  as  follows:  Free  and  Accepted  Ma- 
sons, National  Lodge  No.  568;  Independent 
Order  of  Odd  Fellows,  Pharos  Lodge  No.  863 ; 
Daughters  of  Rebecca,  Summit  Lodge  No. 
603 ;  Knights  of  Pythias,  Barberton  Lodge 
No.  486 ;  Modern  AVoodmen  of  America,  Al- 
pha Camp  No.  3206;  Knights  of  the  Macca- 
bees, Barberton  Tent  114 ;  Ladies  of  the  Mac- 
cabees, Lake  Anne  Hive,  No.  104;  Independ- 
ent Order  of  Red  Men,  Katonka  Tribe,  No. 
218  and  Pocohontas  Council ;  Woodmen  of 
the  World,  Magic  City  Camp  No.  136;  Path- 
tinders,  Barberton  Lodge  No.  5;  Independent 
Order  of  Foresters,  Lodge  4058;  C.  M.  B.  A. 
l^ranch  55;  Benevolent  and  Protective  Order 
of  Elks,  Barberton  Lodge  No.  982;  Fraternal 
Order  of  Eagles,  Barberton  Aerie,  No.  562 ; 
Ancient  Order  of  Hibernians,  Barberton 
Branch ;  Junior  Order  United  ^Vnierican  Me- 
chanics; Daniel  Webster  Council  No.  161, 
Barberton  Cadets  and  Daughters  of  America. 

In  Cuyahoga  Falls  the  principal  organiza- 
tions are  the  following:  Free  and  Accepted 
Masons,  Star  Lodge  No.  187 ;  Independent 
Order  of  Odd  Fellows,  Howard  Lodge  No. 
62 ;  Royal  Arcanum,  Enterprise  Council  No. 
234 ;  National  Union,  Security  Council,  No. 
51;  Knights  of  Pythias,  Pavonia  Lodge  No. 
301 ;  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic,  Eadie 
Post  No.  37 ;  Sons  of  Veterans,  Wood  Camp 
No.  66;  Good  Templars,  Lodge  No.  59; 
l')aughters  of  Rebecca,  Elm  Lodge  No.  227; 
Protected  Home  Circle,  Glen  No.  85 ;  Pythian 
Si.'itorhood,  Ivy  Lodge  No.  8 ;  The  Public  Li- 
brary As,sociation,  the  Women's  Christian 
Temperance  Union,  and  others. 



North  Akron  was  founded  by  a  doctor.  The 
prosjjerous  and  bufiv  Akron  of  today  is  due 
more  to  the  restless  energy  of  Eliakim  Crosby, 
M.  D.,  than  to  any  other  factor.  Since  his 
time,  the  medical  profession  have  not  been 
content  to  busy  themselves  with  pills  and 
fevers  alone,  but  have  been  active  in  an  extra- 
ordinary degree,  in  the  civil,  business  and 
social  life  of  the  community.  The  first  two 
large  additions  to  the  city  were  those  planned 
and  executed  by  physicians:  Dr.  S.  H.  Co- 
burn  and  Dr.  S.  W.  Bartges.  Two  of  the  im- 
portant streets  of  the  city  have  been  named 
after  them.  -The  founder  of  one  of  Akron's 
largest  manufactories — perhaps  the  largest — ■ 
was  Dr.  B.  F.  Goodrich,  from  whom  the  B.  F. 
Goodrich  Company  takes  its  name.  The  pro- 
fession has  also  been  prominent  in  the  City 
Council,  the  Board  of  Education  and  Public 
Library  affairs. 

There  is  very  little  on  record  concerning 
the  early  physicians  of  the  county.  Who  was 
the  first  to  regularly  practice  medicine  in 
Summit  County  is  a  matter  of  dispute.  Dr. 
Crosby  was  practicing  in  Middlebury  in  1820 ; 
Dr.  Joseph  Cole  began  his  practice  in  1826, 
removing  to  ■A'kron  in  1827.  Other  early 
physicians  were  Elijah  Hanchett,  Titus  Chap- 
man, Theodore  Richmond,  E.  F.  Bryan,  H. 
A.  Ackley,  D.  D.  Evans,  W.  T.  Huntington 
and  Edwin  Angel.  Perhaps,  the  very  oldest 
residents  now  living  will  recall  the  names  of 
Drs.  E.  L.  Munger,  Elijah  Curtis,  A.  Kilbourn 
and  Wareham  "W&st.  Of  all  these  early  phy- 
>icians  there  is  only  one  whose  name  is  famil- 
iar to  posterity:  It  is  that  of  Dr.  Eliakim 
Crosby.  It  is  perpetuated  in  the  names  of 
Crosby  School,  Crosby  street  and  the  Crosby 
Race.     He  was  born  in  Litchfield,  Connecti- 

cut, March  2,  1779,  studied  medicine  in  Buf- 
falo, N.  Y. ;  began  his  professional  career  in 
Canada,  where  he  also  married;  served  in  the 
American  Army  in  the  war  of  1812,  as  a  sur- 
geon ;  and,  in  1820,  moved  to  Ohio  and  re- 
sumed the  practice  of  medicine,  in  Middle- 
bury,  now  a  part  of  the  city  of  Akron.  In 
1826  he  formed  the  partnership  of  Crosby 
and  Chittenden,  contractors.  From  that  time 
on  his  gigantic  business  affairs  claimed  his  at- 
tention almost  exclusively,  and  what  practic- 
ing of  medicine  he  did  was  merely  incidental. 
His  next  business  venture  was  the  operation 
of  the  Cuyahoga  Furnace  for  the  reduction  of 
the  local  iron  ores.  Then  in  rapid  succession 
he  took  on  the  manufacture  of  agricultural 
implements,  the  operation  of  a  sawmill,  and, 
lastly,  a  grist-mill.  Finally,  in  1831,  came 
his  great  scheme  for  the  hydraulic  canal  and 
the  founding  of  the  village  of  Cascade,  which 
are  fully  described  in  another  chapter  of  this 
history.  In  1836,  he  started  the  "Portage 
Canal  and  Manufacturing  Company"  project, 
a  gigantic  undertaking,  but  one  which  ended 
disastrously.  He  lost  his  entire  fortune  in 
this  disaster,  and  evidently  his  fine  spirit  was 
cru.<hed  by  the  completeness  of  the  failure, 
for  we  hear  of  him  no  more  in  connection 
with  any  additional  schemes.  Upon  the  cele- 
bration of  the  completion  of  the  Crosby  Race, 
May  29,  1844,  this  was  the  one  sentiment  of 
the  entire  community  as  voiced  by  the  chair- 
man of  the  meeting,  namely,  "Dr.  Eliakim 
Crosby :  The  noble  projector  and  efficient  ex- 
ecutive of  the  great  enterprise  this  day  suc- 
cessfully accomplished,  of  introducing  the 
waters  of  the  Great  Cuyahoga  River  to  Akron 
by  land.  Of  his  noble  and  persevering  spirit 
of  enterprise,    his   fellow   citizens   are   justly 



proud."  The  tribute  was  as  deserved  as  it 
was  fitting.  Dr.  Crosby's  wife,  whom  he  mar- 
ried in  Canada  in  1810,  died  in  Akron,  Octo- 
ber 13,  1830.  Seven  children  had  been  born 
to  them.  He  was  twice  subsequently  mar- 
ried. In  1853  he  moved,  with  his  family 
to  Wisconsin,  near  the  city  of  Green  Bay, 
where  he  died  September  2,  1854,  in  the  76th 
year  of  his  life.  Akron  owes  much  to  Dr. 
Crosby.  We  should  pause  once  in  each  year 
and  pay  a  tribute  of  respect  to  his  memory. 
In  the  30's  and  40's  the  Crosby  family  was 
easily  the  foremost  in  the  village,  in  every 
sphere  of  activity.  The  Doctor  was  not  only 
foremost  in  the  work  of  founding  the  city 
and  establishing  its  business  enterprises  but 
he  was  active  in  every  good  work.  One  is 
compelled  to  admire  that  restless  energy,  that 
magnificent  .spirit  of  activity,  that  was  his 
first  characteristic.  If  Akron  should  ever 
have  a  "Founder's  Day"  in  its  list  of  Anni- 
versary Days,  the  largest  part  of  the  celebra- 
tion will  be  the  recalling  of  the  works  of  this 
early  physician. 

Dr.  Joseph  Cole  was  born  in  Winfield,  New 
York,  September  17,  1795,  graduated  in  med- 
icine in  1825  and  began  the  practice  of  his 
profession  in  Old  Portage  in  1826.  The  next 
year  he  moved  to  Akron  where  he  built  up 
a  very  large  practice.  He  took  a  leading 
part  in  formulating  local  sentiment  in  favor 
of  the  Temperance  and  Anti-slavery  Move- 
ments. He  aided  in  securing  the  Akron 
School  Law,  and  served  on  the  Akron  Board 
of  Education  in  1847.  Dr.  Cole  died  Octo- 
ber 28,  1861,  in  the  67th  year  of  his  life. 

Dr.  Elias  W.  Howard,  another  of  the  most 
prominent  of  the  early  physicians,  was  born 
in  Andover,  Vermont,  April  14,  1816;  studied 
and  was  graduated  in  medicine;  and  came  to 
Akron  in  1889.  Here  he  enjoyed  a  large 
general  practice  for  more  than  fifty  years. 
Dr.  Howard  served  many  years  in  the  70's 
on  the  Board  of  Education,  the  City  Council 
and  the  Board  of  Health.  In  1875,  he  was 
president  of  the  Council.  He  was  one  of  the 
founders  of  the  Summit  County  Medical  So- 
ciety and  was  a  member  of  many  other  medi- 
cal societies.     He  was  married    in    1840    to 

JClizabeth  Chittenden  who  bore  him  two  sons; 
Dr.  II.  C.  Howard  and  Frank  D.  Howard. 
Dr.  E.  W.  Howard  died  August  9,  1890. 

Dr.  Amos  A\'right  was  the  first  white  male 
child  born  in  Tallmadge.  He  was  born  Oc- 
tober 8,  1808.  His  parents  were  natives  of 
Connecticut.  His  father  was  a  practicing 
physician,  and  he  read  medicine  in  his  fath- 
er's office  and  also  attended  lectures  in  New 
Haven,  Connecticut.  He  began  hLs  practice  in 
Tallmadge  in  1833  and  continued  his  minis- 
trations until  his  death,  more  than  sixty  years 
of  active  practice.  He  was  married  to  Clem- 
ence  C.  Fenn,  of  Tallmadge,  March  31,  1831. 
Nine  children  were  born  to  them. 

Dr.  Mendal  Jewett  was  born  in  Greenwich, 
Massachusetts,  on  September  4,  1815;  moved 
to  Portage  County  in  1836;  was  graduated 
from  Western  Reserve  Medical  College 
with  the  class  of  1839,  and  began  the  prac- 
tice of  his  profession  in  Mogadore  in  the 
autunni  of  that  year.  In  the  50's  he  was 
elected  to  the  State  Legislature  and  served 
four  years.  He  was  a  strong  advocate  of 
temperance  and  a  bitter  foe  of  slavery.  He 
was  much  interested  in  education,  horticulture 
and  scientific  matters,  and  the  city  owes  much 
to  his  activity  in  worthy  causes.  He  moved 
to  Middlebury  in  1858  and  continued  his 
practice  until  the  time  of  his  death.  He  was 
married  to  Cordelia  H.  Kent,  on  June  14, 

Dr.  Stephen  H.  Coburn,  the  father  of  Mrs. 
J.  A.  Kohler,  was  one  of  the  most  prominent 
citizens  of  Akron  during  the  period  1850- 
1880.  He  was  born  in  Hillsdale,  New  York, 
December  29,  1809 ;  studied  medicine  and  be- 
gan his  practice  in  Massachusetts;  moved  to 
Akron  in  1848  and  for  many  years  enjoyed 
a  large  practice  as  a  homeopathic  physician. 
He  was  married  to  Adeline  Myers,  May  15, 
1839.  Soon  after  coming  to  Akron,  he  be- 
came interested  in  several  business  concerns, 
and  was  very  successful.  He  made  large  in- 
vestment.s  in  real  estate  and  platted  a  large 
tract  in  the  southwestern  part  of  the  city, 
which  is  still  known  as  the  Coburn  allotment. 
Coburn  Street,  in  that  portion  of  the  city,  was 



named  for  him.     He  died  June  1"-,  1888,  at 
the  age  of  78  years. 

Another  early  Akron  physician  who  made 
considerable  money  in  his  real  estate  ventures 
was  Dr.  Sanuiel  W.  Bartges,  who  was  born  in 
Mifflinsburg,  Pennsylvania,  April  19,  1814. 
Upon  completing  his  medical  studies  in  1842, 
he  commenced  practice  in  Akron,  and  soon 
enjoyed  a  large  and  lucrative  practice.  The 
Bartges  allotment  and  the  Bartgcri-Mallison 
allotment  were  both  laid  out  by  him'  and 
were  big  successes.  They  now  constitute  a 
substantial  portion  of  the  city.  Dr.  Bartges 
was  married  to  Catherine  A.  Citimp  in  1835. 
He  died  November  24,  1882,  aged  68  years, 
leaving  a  widow  and  three  children. 

The  kindly  face  of  Dr.  Daniel  A.  Scott  will 
be  recalled  by  all  old  Akron  residents.  He 
was  born  in  Cadiz,  Ohio,  May  4,  1821 ;  was 
graduated  in  medicine  and  commenced  prac- 
tice in  Akron  in  1848.  He  was  soon  in  com- 
mand of  a  large  practice,  which  he  continued 
to  look  after  until  the  day  of  his  death — .Janu- 
ary 23,  1890.  During  the  last  four  years  of 
his  life  he  was  a  member  of  the  Akron  Board 
of  Health. 

Many  of  us  in  Akron  have  reason  to  be 
thankful  for  the  skill  and  patient  care  uni- 
formly exercised  by  Dr.  Thoma.s  McEbright 
toward  hLs  large  circle  of  patients  during  his 
long  professional  career.  He  came  to  Akron 
in  November,  1864,  upon  the  mustering  out 
of  the  166th  Regiment,  Ohio  Volunteer  In- 
fantry. He  had  served  as  an  Army  Surgeon 
continuously  since  1861.  Dr.  McEbright 
was  born  in  Carlisle,  Pennsylvania,  April  14, 
1824.  His  parents  soon  moved  to  Ohio 
where  he  received  his  education  in  Norwalk 
Academy  and  Ohio  Wesley  an  University. 
Graduated  in  medicine  in  1851  he  commenced 
active  practice  at  once.  In  1857  he  moved 
to  Millersburg.  When  the  Civil  War  broke 
out.  he  offered  his  services  to  his  country,  and 
for  three  years  rendered  splendid  service  as 
an  army  surgeon.  In  1864,  he  was  appointed 
ealonel  of  the  166th  Regiment.  Dr.  Mc- 
Ebright was  married  to  Nancy  Liggett,  of 
Millersburg.  on  the  16th  day  oif  June,  1853. 
Until  the  time  of  his  death.  Dr.  McEbright 

tonk  an  intense  interest  in  public  affairs,  es- 
pecially those  concerning  education.  Hi^ 
strong  public  spirit  is  shown  by  the  fact  that 
he  served  for  more  than  fourteen  years  as  a 
member  of  the  Akron  Board  of  Education, 
some  of  the  time  as  its  president.  The  next 
public  school  building  should  be  named  for 

Another  of  the  early  doctors  who  was  also 
greatly  interested  in  Akron  school  affairs,  and 
for  whom  the  Bowen  School  on  North  Broad- 
way was  named,  was  Dr.  William  Bowen. 
He  was  born  in  New  York  July  3,  1805,  and 
about  1825  moved  to  Ohio,  locating  in  Can- 
ton. He  taught  school  and  .studied  medicine 
there  until  1832,  when  he  commenced  prac- 
tice in  Doylestown,  Ohio.  In  1836,  he  was 
graduated  from  the  Ohio  Medical  College  and 
resumed  his  practice,  locating  first  in  Canton 
and  later  in  Massillon.  In  1857  he  came  to 
Akron  and  soon  won  a  large  practice.  In, 
1830  he  was  married  to  Iluldah  M,  Chitteri- 
den.  Nine  children  were  born  to  them,  oxie 
of  whom  married  Dr.  A.  E.  Foltz,  of  Akron. 
Dr.  Bowen  served  for  maay  years  as  a  member 
of  the  Akron  Board  of  Education,  part  of  the 
time  as  its  president.  While  living  in  Massil- 
lon he  published  a  journal  called  "The  Free 
School  Clarion"  in  the  interests  of  education. 

Dr.  Byron  S.  Chase  was  born  in  Vermont, 
January  9,  1834.  About  1856  he  came  to 
Akron  and  studied  medicine  with  Dr.  E.  W. 
Howard.  He  finished  his  medical  education 
at  Michigan  University  and  began  his  active 
practice  in  Akron.  Upon  the  advent  of  the 
Civil  War,  he  was  appointed  surgeon  of  the 
16th  Ohio  Volunteer  Infantry,  and  served 
faithfully  throughout  the  whole  war  period. 
In  1865  he  resumed  his  practice  in  Akron. 
In  1863  he  was  married  to  Henrietta  Sabin. 
Four  children  were  born  to  them,  the  eldest 
of  whom  is  Dr.  William  S.  Chase,  a  success- 
ful practicing  physician  of  Akron  at  the  pres- 
ent time.  Dr.  Chase,  the  elder,  died  February 
23.  1878.  at  the  early  age  of  forty-four  years. 
Dr.  Elizur  Hitchcock  was  born  in  Tall- 
madge;  Ohio,  August  15,  1832 ;  graduated  at 
Yale  in  1854 ;  received  his  medical  education 
at  the  University  of  Michigan  and  the  West- 



erii  Reserve  Medical  School;  practiced  two 
years,  and  then  entered  the  Union  Army  as 
surgeon  of  the  Seventh  Regiment,  Ohio  Vol- 
unteer Infantry.  In  1870  he  came  to  Akron 
and  practiced  successfully  until  his  death  a 
few  years  ago.  In  November,  1861,  he  was 
married  to  Hattie  Reed,  who  died  in  1834. 
He  afterward  married  Lucrctia  Kellogg,  who 
bore  him  two  children,  Hal.  K.  Hitchcock,  an 
electrical  engineer  of  Pittsburg,  and  Lucius 
W.  Hitchcock,  the  artist,  now  living  near 
New  York  City. 

Dr.  William  C.  Jacobs  probably  enjoyed 
the  confidence  of  a  larger  circle  of  patients 
and  friends  than  any  other  phj^sician  who 
ever  practiced  in  Summit  County.  Hi.s  death 
a  year  or  two  ago  was  lamented  throughout 
the  county.  He  was  an  earnest,  honest, 
straight-forward  and  plain-spoken  man  whom 
everyone  who  knew  hini  loved  for  his  fine 
qualities.  He  was  born  in  Lima,  Ohio, 
February  26,  1840 ;  was  educated  for  the  Navy, 
but  resigned  from  the  Academy  at  Annapolis 
to  study  medicine.  In  Annapolis  he  was  a 
schoolmate  of  Admirals  Schley  and  Sampson. 
He  was  graduated  from  Ohio  Medical  College 
in  Cincinnati,  with  the  class  of  1862.  He 
immediately  joined  the  Union  Army  as  a  sur- 
geon and  served  until  the  close  of  the  war. 
He  was  connected  with  the  Fourth  Regiment, 
Ohio  Volunteer  Cavalry  and  the  Eighty-first 
Regiment,  Ohio  Volunteer  Infantry.  He 
came  to  Akron  in  October,  1865,  and  com- 
menced to  practice  medicine  and  surgery. 
He  was  one  of  the  chief  workers  in  founding 
the  Akron  City  Hospital,  and  at  the  time  of 
his  death  was  Chief  of  the  General  Staff  of 
that  institution.  Dr.  Jacobs  was  twice  mar- 
ried, his  first  wife  being  Ilulda  M.  Hill,  to 
whom  one  child  was  born,  Dr.  Harold  Hill 
Jacobs,  at  present  a  successful  and  respected 
surgeon  of  Akron  and  the  head  of  the  City 

Dr.  James  H.  Peterson  came  to  Akron  in 
1854  and  was  one  of  the  earliest  practitioners 
of  dentistry  in  Summit  County.  He  was 
born  in  New  Bnmswick  in  1830  and  passed 
his  early  years  in  BufiFalo,  New  York.  In 
November,    1855,  he  married   Caroline    Van 

Evra,  of  Akron.  The  eldest  of  their  three 
children  is  the  wife  of  Senator  Charles  Dick. 
Up  to  the  time  of  his  death.  Dr.  Peterson  gave 
much  attention  to  public  affairs  and  rendered 
valuable  service  in  behalf  of  the  general  wel- 

Dr.  Mason  Chapman,  who  came  to  Akron 
in  1865,  was  another  successful  dentist  who 
took  a  deep  interest  in  municipal  affairs, 
serving  in  the  70's  as  a  member  of  the  Akron 
City  Council. 

Dr.  John  W.  Lyder,  now  rounding  out  a 
successful  career  as  dentist,  came  to  Akron 
in  April,  1870.  He  has  been  very  much  in- 
terested in  Horticultural  and  Agricultural  de- 
velopment, and  has  been  of  much  service  to 
those  interests  during  his  residence  in  Sum- 
mit County.  Other  physicians  who  came  to 
Akron  just  after  the  close  of  the  Civil  War 
and  to  whom  this  community  is  much  in- 
debted both  for  the  unselfish  and  faithful 
practice  of  their  profession,  and  their  untir- 
ing zeal  in  jiublic  affairs,  are  Dr.  Warren  J. 
Underwood,  the  father  of  the  present  Dr.  Ed- 
ward S.  Underwood;  Dr.  A.  C.  Belden,  who 
met  an  untimelv  death  by  accident,  Decem- 
ber 11,  1890;  Dr.  Abner  E.  Foltz,  the  father 
of  the  present  Dr.  Esgar  B.  Foltz;  Dr.  0.  D. 
Childs,  who  is  still  continuing  his  successful 
practice;  and  Dr.  Leonidas  S.  Ebright,  Ak- 
ron's efficient  postmaster,  who  has  been  con- 
tinued in  that  post  since  the  first  term  of 
President  McKinley.  The  five  last  mentioned 
were  veterans  of  the -Civil  War,  and  the  first 
four  served  long  appointments  as  army  sur- 
geons in  various  Ohio  regiments.  This  chap- 
ter should  not  close  without  reference  to  the 
services  of  Doctors  John  Weimer,  George  P. 
Ashmun.  0.  E.  Brownell,  George  G.  Baker, 
.Mexander  Fisher,  Henry  M.  Fisher  and  Rol- 
lin  B.  Carter.  The  following  is  a  complete 
list  of  the  Physicians  and  Surgeons  practic- 
ing their  professions  in  Akron  and  vicinity 
in  the  year  1907 : 


Adams.  F.  X. 
Alspach,  E.   Z. 

Angler,  J.  C. 
Barton,  E.  W. 














h- 1 





Beidler.  Williniii 
Bowman,  I).  S. 
Boyd,  J.   P. 
Callin,  F.  B. 
Cauffield,  E.  J. 
Chase.  W.  S. 
Childs,  0.  D. 
Clapcadel,  F.  A. 
Cleaver.  J.  \'. 
Conn,  Eli 
Conner,  II.  E. 
Cranz,  D.  E. 
Dixon,  C.  A. 
Eberhard.  L.  R.  C 
Ebright,  L.  S. 
Emery,  Wm.  J. 
Evans,  Jennie  L. 
Evans,  Nellie  M. 
Ewers,  F.  A. 
Fehr,  Peter 
Foltz  &  Foltz 
Fouser,  A.  K. 
Grant,  J.  G. 
Halter,  M.  V. 
Hassenflue.  -T.  W. 
Havs,  C.  J. 
Held.  C.  E. 
Hiddleson,  C.  S. 
Hill,  C.  T. 
Hill,  J.  E. 
Hottenstein.  E.  K. 
Hulse.  J.  A. 

Humphrey,  C.  M. 
Humphrey,  L.  B. 
Jacobs,  H.  H. 
Johnson,  S.  W. 
Jones,  A.  W. 
Keller,  ^\'.  L. 
Kendig,  R.  C. 
Kennedv  &  Kergan 
Kneale.^V.  E. 
Kohler,  A.  A. 
Kurt,  Katherine 
Leas.  Luev 
Lee,  J.  L.' 
Leonard,  ^^'.  \V. 
Leppa  &  Co. 
Lyon.  0.  A. 
McDonald.  D.  M. 
McKay,  R.  H. 
Mather.  E.  L. 
Millikin,  C.  W. 
Montenyohl,  E.  A. 
Moore,  T.  K. 
Morgan,  D.  H. 
Morgenroth,  Simon 
ISIurdock,  Wm. 
NorrLs,  C.  E. 
Parks,  Thos.  C. 
Pumphrev,  J.  M. 
Rabe,  J.  \V. 
Rankin.  G.  T. 
Rankin.  I.  C. 

Reed,  F.  C. 
Robinson,  R.  DeW. 
Rockwell,  J.  \V. 
Rowe,  Darius 
Rowland,  Albert 
Sackett,  W.  A. 
Sanborn  &  Gleason 
Seller,  J.  H. 
Shirey,  J.  L. 
Shuman,  J.  C. 
Sicherman,  Armin 
Sippv,  A.  F. 
Stauffer,  G.  W. 
Stevenson,  M.  D. 
Sturgeon,  S.  H. 
Swan,  C.  G. 
Svveitzer,  L.  S. 

Taggart,  H.  D. 
Theiss,  G.  A. 
Theiss,  H.  C. 
Todd,  H.  D. 
Underwood,  E.  S. 
Waldron,  L.  P. 
Weaver,  Elizabeth  M. 
Weber,  J.  H. 
Weeks,  E.  A. 
Weller,  J.  N. 
Wilson,  William 
Wise,  L.  J. 
Workman,  T.  W. 
Wright,  S.  St.  J. 


Albany  Dental  Parlors,  Dr.  C.  C.  Spangler, 

American  Painless  Dentists,  Dr.  F.  H.  Mc- 
Lean, Prop. 

Barton,  H.  W. 

Branch,  E.  E. 

Browne,  L.  T. 

Buchtel,  A.  P. 

Capron,  F.  M. 

Cole,  H.  W. 

Conner.  W.  B. 

Cooper,  W.  C. 

Dewey.  W.  H. 

Dreutlein,  B.  H. 

Felker,  Charles 
Hamilton,  T.  J. 
Henninger,  D.  H. 
Hillman,  J.  W. 
Hottenstein,  W.  J. 
Johnson,  A.  G. 
Lewis,  F.  M. 
Lyder,  J.  W.  and  F.  H. 
Maxwell,  W.  J. 
Mottinger,  C.  C. 

Philadelphia    Dental    Rooms,    Dr.    W.    J. 
Slemmons.  Prop. 
Pontius,  B.  B. 
Quirk,  E.  E. 



Risch,  J.  F. 
Ruegsegger,  D.  U. 
Saunders  &  Locy 
Schultz,  J.  E. 
Shriber,  B.  A. 
Sibley,  N.  B. 
Smitii,  C.  E. 
Yedder,  J.  B. 
Watters,  W.  J. 

White  Dental  Parlors,  Dr.  A.  C.  Buffing- 
ton,  Prop. 

Williams,,  E.  J. 
Williamson,  G.  B. 

Lahmers,  Frederick 
Livermore,  F.  B. 
Mansfield,  W.  A. 
RodenBaugh  &  Rodenbaugh 
Snyder,  H.  A. 
Stall,  A.  H. 
Whipple,  C.  H. 


Chandler  &  Benner 
Galloglv,  D.  B. 
Hille,  6.  A. 
Wearstler,  11.  0. 


Brown,  G.  A. 
Carr,  C.  B. 
Cory,  Mrs.  Kate  W. 
Davidson,  H.  S. 
Gardner,  G.  E. 


Bill,    A.    II. 

Hough,  W.  S. 
Middleton,  W.  B. 
Smith,  F.  D. 
Taylor,  W.  X. 


the:  bench  and   bar 

Ein-hj    HiMi>nj^Thr    Pir^rnt    Bar    and  Us  Ilifjh  Sfunding. 

Prior  to  the  erection  of  Suiniiiit  County, 
about  the  year  1838  or  1839,  there  were  com- 
paratively few  lawyers  in  the  city  of  Akron. 
Those  who  were  here,  were  required  to  attend 
the  courts  in  Ravenna,  Medina  and  Canton, 
which  were  then  the  county  seats  of  Portage, 
Medina  and  Stark  Counties.  The  county  of 
Summit  was,  in  fact,  made  up  by  taking  a 
number  of  townships  from  each  of  the  coun- 
ties named. 

Among  the  earliest  practitioners  who  had 
established  themselves  in  the  little  town  of 
Akron,  were  some  of  the  old  pioneer  advo- 
cates who  have  long  since  passed  away. 

The  completion  of  the  Ohio  Canal  about 
the  year  1827,  and  the  subsequent  junction 
at  Akron  of  the  Pennsylvania  and  Ohio  Canal 
brought  the  town  of  Akron  into  great  promi- 
nence, as  there  were  practically  no  railroads 
at  that  time  in  the  state,  and  the  opening 
of  these  canals,  opened  water-ways  for  the 
tran.sportation  of  produce  to  the  cities  of 
Cleveland,  Pittsburg  and  Cincinnati. 

Quite  a  number  of  lawyers  came  to  Akron 
who  had  previously  located  at  Ravenna, 
and  among  the  earliest  lawyers  of  that  time 
may  be  mentioned  Gregory  Powers,  Rufus  P. 
Spaulding,  Seneca  and  Alvin  Hand,  John  C 
Singletery,  Van  R.  Humphrey,  David  K. 
Carter,  George  Bliss  and  others,  who  came  in 
later  years. 

Later  on  the  General  Assembly  of  this  sitate 
enacted  a  law,  authorizing  suits  against  water 
craft  by  name,  and  as  the  canal  was  then  in 
full  tide  of  prosperity,  and  there  being  a  con- 

(stant  procession  of  boats  in  use,  a  large 
amount  of  litigation  in  the  way  of  collections, 
damage  suits  and  otherwise  resulted,  and  this 
class  of  business  occupied  a  considerable  por- 
tion of  the  time  of  the  court. 

In  those  earlier  years,  following  the  erec- 
tion of  the  Court  House,  there  were  compara- 
tively few  divorce  cases  and  very  few  cases  for 
the  recovery  of  damages  for  personal  injury. 
And  the  amounts  involved  in  suits,  compared 
with  the  present  time,  were  exceedingly  small. 
But  the  records  of  the  court  will  show  that 
the  eases  that  were  brought  into  court  were 
generally  tried  by  the  court  or  jury,  and  they 
will  also  show  that  the  cases  were,  without 
regard  to  the  amount  involved,  carefully  pre- 
pared and  thoroughly  and  ably  tried.  There 
were  then,  as  now,  generally  three  terms  of 
court  during  the  year,  but  these  terms  rarely 
lasted  longer  than  two  or  three  weeks  at  the 
outside,  and  during  this  time  the  business 
was  generally  fully  di.sposed  of.  Unlike  the 
j)resent  time,  when  the  court  convened,  on 
the  first  day  of  the  term,  the  lawyers  of  the 
town  vacated  their  offices  and  attended  the 
court.  They  were  on  hand  and  present  at  the 
trial  of  each,  so  that  practically  all  the 
members  of  the  bar  heard  the  testimony  and 
arguments  of  counsel  in  each  case.  And  dur- 
ing the  tenu  of  court  there  was  generally  a 
full  audience,  not  only  the  members  of  the 
bar,  but  bystanders  and  people  who  came  in 
to  hear.  The  large  court  room  in  the  present 
old  Court  House,  was  none  too  large  to  ac- 
commodate the  people  who  were  almast  uni- 



formly  present  during  the  entire  term  of 
court.  The  lawyers  were  given  ample  time 
for  the  trial  of  their  cases.  They  were  rarely, 
if  ever,  limited  as  to  the  time  for  argument 
as  to  the  court  or  jury.  It  ls  needless  to  say 
that  rare  ability  and  the  most  persuasive  elo- 
quence was  frequently  displayed  in  the  trial 
of  cases. 

All  this  has  greatly  changed  in  recent 
years,  .so  that  appeals  to  the  passions  and 
prejudices  of  men  are  rarely  permitited  at 
the  present  time,  and  so  valuable  is  the  time 
of  the  court  and  so  practical  in  business,  that 
concise,  clear  and  business-like  statements 
have  taken  the  place  of  the  oratory  and  elo- 
quent addresses  of  the  lawyers  of  former 

RUFUS  P.  SPAULDING,  among  the 
earlier  lawyers,  was  conspicuous  for  his  efforts 
as  a  member  of  the  General  Assembly  in  se- 
curing the  passage  of  the  act  creating  Sum- 
mit County.  He  was  foremost  in  the  effort  to 
make  Akron  a  county  seat,  Cuyahoga  Falls 
being  at  the  time  a  very  strong  competitor 
for  the  location.  Judge  Spaulding  was  indeed 
an  ornament  to  the  bar  and  an  example  to 
imitate.  He  was  dignified  and  courteous  in 
his  deportment,  a  logical  and  forcible  de- 
bater, and  he  wa,-  deeply  learned  in  law.  He 
was  a  graduate  of  Yale  College,  and  in  later 
years  of  life  he  became  a  judge  of  the  Su- 
preme Court  in  the  State  of  Ohio.  He  was. 
however,  strongly  inclined  to  a  political  life, 
and  his  interest  in  politics  brought  about  his 
election  as  a  member  of  Congress  to  represent 
the  Cleveland  District,  of  which  Summit 
County  was  then  a  part.  He  served  in  Con- 
gress with  rare  distinction  during  the  period 
of  the  Civil  War. 

Another  lawyer  of  great  distinction  was 
ticed law  a  great  many  years.  He  came  to 
Akron  about  the  year  1836  and  died  in  1864, 
and  during  that  time  he  was  engaged  in 
perhaps  as  many  suits  in  the  courts  of  this 
county  and  Portage  as  any  other  lawyer  of 
tha/t.  time.    He  was  very  skillful.     Among  his 

partners  during  that  time  was  Charles  G. 
Ladd,  and  subsequently  Alvin  C.  Voris.  Gen- 
eral Bierce  was  very  efficient  in  aiding  the 
government  during  the  Civil  War;  he  raised 
several  companies  of  men  for  the  military 
and  naval  service.  He  w^as  elected  to  repre- 
sent Portage  and  Summit  Counties  in  the 
(Jhio  Senate,  and  made  an  enviable  record  as 
a  Senator.  And  in  later  years,  towards  the 
close  of  life,  he  was  elected  mayor  of  the  city 
of  Akron.  He  was  an  able  and  vigorous 
writer,  and  in  the  intervals  of  his  large  legal 
practice  he  prepared  a  number  of  lectures, 
which  he  delivered  in  various  parts  of  the 
country.  But  above  all  General  Bierce  was  a 
large  practitioner,  and  very  successful  in  his 

VAN  R.  HUMPHREY  was  one  of  the  old 
(imo  judges  and  lawyers.  He  was  presiding 
judge  and  held  court  in  Ravenna,  Akron  be- 
ing then  a  part  of  that  jurisdiction.  He  was 
a  very  portly  man,  affable  and  genial.  He 
was  skilled  in  the  old  common  law  practice, 
and  when  the  oivil  code  went  into  effect  in 
1851,  all  those  old  common  law  forms  were 
abolished  and  Judge  Humphrey  never  could 
reconcile  himself  to  the  new  modes  of  prac- 
tice, and  constantly  made  war  upon  the  new 
proceeding.  Pie  was  a  very  able  lawyer  and 
continued  in  practice  up  to  the  date  of  his 
death,  which  occurred  at  Hudson,  in  Sum- 
mit County.  He  was  effective,  both  before 
the  court  upon  questions  of  law  and  in  argu- 
ing oases  to  the  jury. 

GEORGE  BLISS  was  a  native  of  Vermont. 
He  was  educated  at  Granville  College  and 
came  to  Akron  in  1832  and  studied  law  with 
Hon.  D.  K.  Carter.  He  practiced  law  in  Sum- 
mit County,  and  was  appointed  in  1851  presi- 
dent judge  of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas  in 
this  county,  succeeding  Benjamin  F.  Wade. 
He  held  this  po.sition  which  he  filled  with 
distinguished  ability,  \mtil  the  taking  effect 
of  the  new  Con.=;titution  in  1852.  He  was 
elected  a  member  of  Congress,  from  this 
district  in  1854,  and  subsequently  he  re- 
moved to  Wonster,  in  Wavne  Countv,  where 



he  practiced  law  in  partnership  with  the  Hon. 
John  McSwaney.  It  is  safe  to  say  that  Judge 
Bliss  had  few  equds  and  no  superiors  as  a 
lawyer.  He  was  learned  in  the  law  and  hi^ 
logic  was  most  profound.  His  command  of 
language  was  such  that  his  extempore  argu- 
ments to  the  court  or  jury  would  read  like 
a  page  of  Junius.  His  eloquence  was  of  the 
Web.sterian  type,  profound  and  convincing, 
while  in  the  art  of  examining  and  cross-ex- 
amining  he  has  never  been  excelled. 
He  married  late  in  life,  and  at  his  death  a 
wife  and  five  children  survived  him.  He  was 
a  most  companionable  nian,  very  witty  and 
interesting.  He  never  lost  his  temper,  but 
exercised  complete  selfcontrol.  He  took  an 
active  part  in  politics,  and  achieved  a  na- 
tional reputation  as  one  of  the  leading  stat&^- 
men  of  the  country.  He  was  one  of  the  lead- 
ing counsel  in  the  case  of  Ohio  against  -James 
Park.-:,  which  was  the  first  and  perhaps  the 
most  important  murder  trial  ever  tried  in 
Summit  County. 

JAMES  S.  CARPENTER  was  a  very  prom- 
inent lawyer,  born  in  New  Hampshire  in 
1805.  Moved  with  his  i>arent.s  to  Pottsdam, 
New  York,  and  was  educated  at  the  St.  Law- 
rence Academy  at  Pottsdam.  In  June,  1832, 
he  came  to  Ohio  and  removed  to  Medina,  in 
Medina  County,  in  1835,  where  he  edited  a 
newspaper  called  the  Constitutionalist.  He 
was  elected  to  the  Legislature  of  the  State  dn 
the  fall  of  1839.  He  was  a  strong  anti-slav- 
ery man  and  advocated  in  his  papers  as  well 
as  in  his  the  rights  of  the  colored 
people  of  Ohio.  He  moved  to  Akron  in  184(; 
and  practiced  law  at  Akron  for  many  years. 
He  occupied  the  Common  Pleas  Bench  from 
1856  to  1861.  Judge  Carpenter  was  of  Eng- 
lish ancestry,  and  in  his  example  and  by 
precept  he  represented  the  extreme  type  of 
Puritan  morality  and  uprightnes-;.  He  was 
very  highly  educated  as  a  judge,  lawyer  and 
citizen.  His  wife  and  three  children  sur- 
vived him. 

born  in  Lorn,  New-  York.  May  2,  1834,  and 

he  came  to  Akron  in  1854.  He  taught  in  the 
high  school  of  Akron  for  a  year  or  two,  after 
coming  to  Ohio,  and  during  the  time  studied 
law  in  the  office  of  his  uncle,  Hon.  Sidney 
Edgerton,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in 
1876.  On  the  breaking  out  of  the  Civil  War 
in  1861,  he  enlisted  in  the  army  and  was 
elected  a  lieutenant  in  Company  G,  Sixty- 
fourth  Ohio  Volunteer  Infantry.  He  re- 
mained in  service  until  1863.  He  commenced 
the  practice  of  law  in  Akron  with  his  uncle, 
Sidney  Edgerton,  and  his  rise  in  the  pro- 
fession was  rapid.  He  was  a  very  fluent 
speaker,  and  was  especially  prominent  in  po- 
litical discussions.  Ho  accompanied  his  un- 
cle, Sidney  Edgerton,  to  the  territory  of  Idaho 
and  to  Bennock  City;  this  was  in  1884.  So- 
ciety in  this  portion  of  the  west  at  that  time 
was  in  a  very  chaotic  condition.  There  was 
but  little  security  for  life  or  property,  through 
the  regular  legal  channels.  Murders,  rob- 
beries and  crimes  of  all  kinds  were  of  such 
frequent  occurrence  that  the  peoi^le  of  this 
portion  of  the  territory,  for  their  protection, 
organized  themselves  into  a  body,  called 
■'Vigilantes."  Colonel  Saunders  was  very 
prominent  in  this  organization,  and  fifty  or 
more  outlaws  and  desperadoes  were  hung  un- 
der the  orders  of  this  court.  It  was  a  very 
speedy  and  effective  measure  of  justice,  but 
it  made  honest  men  and  it  was  not  long  before 
law  and  order  prevailed.  Colonel  Saunders  was 
appointed  United  States  attorney  by  President 
Grant,  and  he  became  also  a  inember  of  the 
Territorial  Legislature,  and  in  1890  was 
elected  L'nited  States  Senator  from  the  newly 
organized  State  of  Montana.  At  the  expira- 
tion of  his  term  he  returned  to  the  practice 
of  the  law  in  the  city  of  Helena,  Montana, 
where  he  lived  until  his  death. 

came  from  Connecticut,  was  born  in  1825, 
and  with  his  parents  removed  to  Steubenville, 
Ohio.  He  graduated  at  Jefferson  College, 
Pennsylvania,  and  .studied  law  with